Nepal: Political structure

Content Type
Country Data and Maps
Economist Intelligence Unit
No abstract is available.
Politics, Summary, Political structure
Political Geography

Official name

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Form of state

Secular democratic republic. Under the 2015 constitution, Nepal formally adopted a bicameral parliament with the most recent general elections in February 2018

Head of state

The president, Bidhya Devi Bhandari, was elected by parliament in October 2015

The executive

The prime minister is the chief executive of the Nepali administration, and appoints the council of ministers.

National legislature

Nepal has a bicameral legislature. The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 275 members-165 elected through the first-past-the-post system from single-seat constituencies, and 110 through proportional representation. The National Assembly (the upper house) has 59 members, of which 56 are elected through an electoral college comprising members of each state assembly and three are nominated by the president

Legal system

The Supreme Court acts as the court of appeal and review, and has powers of original jurisdiction. It presides over 16 appellate courts and 75 district courts

National government

The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), or CPN (UML), currently acts as the caretaker government following the dissolution of the House of Representatives on May 21st 2021

National elections

A snap election is scheduled to be held in two phases in 2021, on November 12th and 19th. A state of emergency could be declared amid the ongoing health crisis, which would extend the tenure of the caretaker government by a maximum of one year, or the Supreme Court could reinstate the House of Representatives, declaring the dissolution of parliament unconstitutional. A national election was previously scheduled to be held in late 2022.

Main political organisations

Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), or CPN (UML); Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), or CPN (MC); Nepali Congress (NC); Janata Samajbadi Party (JSP); Rashtriya Prajatantra Party


(Caretaker) Prime minister: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Key ministers

(Caretaker cabinet)

Agriculture & livestock development: Padma Kumari Aryal

Culture, tourism & civil aviation: Bhanubhakta Dhakal

Health and population: Hridesh Tripathi

Energy, water resources & irrigation: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Finance: Bishnu Prasad Paudel

Foreign affairs: Pradeep Kumar Gyawali

Home affairs: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Industry, commerce & supplies: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Labour, employment & social security: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Urban Development: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli

Physical infrastructure & transport: Basanta Kumar Nembang

Central bank governor

Maha Prasad Adhikaril

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