Global Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Author
Kenneth Prewitt, Susan Raymond, Young Gul Kim, Rodney Nichols, Jorge Allende, Arima Akito, Jesse Ausubel, Edward Ayensu, D. Allan Bromley, Praveen Chaudhari, Umberto Colombo, Yuri Gleba, Mark Horn, Coe Ishimoto, Geraldine Kenney-Wallace, Jan Nilsson, Geoffrey Oldham, R. K. Pachauri, Heinz Riesenhuber, Zehev Tadmor, Greg Tegart, Raimundo Villegas, Guillermo Cardoza, Diana Wolff-Albers, William Padolina
Content Type
Working Paper
Institution
New York Academy of Sciences
Abstract
In the fall of 1995, with assistance from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the New York Academy of Sciences organized a meeting on international collaboration in science, engineering, and medicine. The meeting was held at the Rockefeller Foundation's conference center in Bellagio, Italy from October 30 through November 2, 1995. The Academy gathered together a group of experienced international leaders to examine changes in the context and con– tent of global research cooperation and the efficacy of existing institutional mechanisms to facilitate future scientific activities. The meeting resulted in a summary report presenting the consensual views of the participants, and the New York Academy of Sciences is currently exploring a range of follow–up options with its institutional partners. Copies of the report can be obtained by contacting the Academy at the address listed below. The critical question under review at Bellagio was to assess current disparities among research opportunities, needs, and institutions and to determine the need for a more extensive international review. Discussions were based in part on extensive preparation. Prior to the meeting, all participants prepared personal statements summarizing their views of future directions for scientific collaboration, key lessons from past experience, and fundamental characteristics of successful collaborative mechanisms. These statements together with a summary issues paper produced by the New York Academy of Sciences, the meeting agenda, and biographical information on participants are collected here. The statements appear as originally distributed; none have been revised in light of the meeting's discussion. With 25 different perspectives it is to be expected that a diversity of views are represented here. However, the commentaries fall broadly along four lines of inquiry.
Topic
Government, International Cooperation, International Political Economy, Science and Technology
Political Geography
New York
Commentary on Issues Several papers isolate in some detail either the substance of likely problems and opportunities for global collaboration or their common characteristics. Topics cover a broad sweep from a wide variety of scientific disciplines. There is some emphasis on the inter–disciplinary and complex nature of future topics and research. Commentary on Conditions for Collaboration Several authors comment on the current and future conditions for collaboration which will create stress in future collaborative institutions and strategies. A recurring theme is the effect of the tension between curiosity–driven research and economics–driven research in shading the conditions for collaboration. A second recurring theme is the importance of the increasing globalization of scientific capacity, especially in terms of the developing world, which provides a broader arena for collaborative activities. Commentary on Types of Collaboration A number of papers remark upon the differences between formal and informal modes of collaboration and the match between future global needs and opportunities and these differing approaches. Commentary on Structures Finally, several authors review the short–comings of existing structures and collaborative arrangements. Commentary includes specific suggestions for new structural innovations. At the conclusion of the meeting, participants asked the New York Academy of Sciences to take the lead in following up on findings and recommendations and in developing a broad–based international assessment of the status of, and needed changes to, existing global collaborative mechanisms. For further information, and for copies of the formal report of the meeting, please contact the Academy at the address listed below.