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  • Author: Esra Dil, Souleymane Bindjo
  • Publication Date: 10-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: This study aims to reveal the situation of small-scale family businesses that are looking for a market in Western and North African countries and want to realize their growth strategies in this region, and to develop solutions for their growth problems. For this purpose, the market development stages of the selected ABC Company were evaluated within the scope of action research. One of the researchers worked in the company within the scope of UPEP (Üniversiteden Pazar Elçiliğine Projesi -From University to the Market Ambassador Project) in the field to conduct action research, while the other researcher supervised the process academically. Inherent in action research is an approach to find a solution to the problem of the unit that is the subject of the research. The researchers analyzed the market search and development strategies of the company subject to the research and seek solutions for their growth problems. As a result of the research, it is concluded that the example ABC Company, which wants to be effective in these markets, will follow the stage model while opening up to international markets, and will be more effective in terms of penetration into the market. The literature that this result is suitable for small-scale family businesses that are in search of similar support has been supported.
  • Topic: Business , Internationalization, Strategic Management
  • Political Geography: Africa, Turkey, North Africa
  • Author: Burak Çakirca
  • Publication Date: 10-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Balkanlardaki birçok farklı unsuru bünyesinde barındıran Bosna Hersek, bu karmaşık yapı nedeniyle bazı sıkıntılı süreçler geçirmiştir. Yirminci yüzyılın son döneminde en büyük trajediler arasında sayılan Sırplar ile Boşnaklar arasındaki savaş bölgede birçok yıkım ve tahribata sebep olmuştur. Bosna’da Uluslararası hukukun diplomatik yöntemler, uluslararası örgütlerin ve uluslararası yargının müdahalesi vasıtasıyla tüm imkanlarının kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Ancak bu imkanların çatışmaları engellemedeki başarısı tartışmalı olmuştur. Bu çalışma, söz konusu methotların hangi düzeyde etkide bulunduğu sorunsallaştırmaktadır. Uluslararası hukukun eksik uygulanışının meydana getirdiği büyük sorunların gösterilmesi çalışmanın amacını oluşturmaktadır.
  • Topic: International Law, Military Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Author: Selahattin Bektaş
  • Publication Date: 10-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmanın amacı 2018-2019 yılları için mevduat bankalarının finansal performansının Entropi ve Mairca (Multi Attributive İdeal-Real Comparative Analysis) yöntemlerinin ortak kullanımı hesaplanıp sıralanmasıdır. Bu minvalde Türkiye genelinde yüz ve üzeri şubesi olan on üç adet mevduat bankası çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmiştir. Çalışmada, analiz için kullanılan, Toplam Aktifler, Toplam Kredi ve Alacaklar, Toplam Mevduatlar, Toplam Özkaynaklar, Şube Sayısı ve Personel Sayısı kriterleri kullanılarak mevduat bankalarının finansal performansları hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan analiz sonucunda 2018-2019 yılları için en iyi finansal performansa sahip mevduat bankası T.C. Ziraat Bankası, en kötü finansal performansa sahip mevduat bankası ise Şeker Bank olarak tespit edilmiştir. | The purpose of this study is to calculate and use the joint use of CRITIC and Mairca (Multi Attributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis) methods of deposit banks for 2018-2019. In this manner, and over a hundred branches throughout Turkey with thirteen commercial banks were included in the study. In the study, the financial performances of deposit banks were calculated using the Total Assets, Total Loans and Receivables, Total Deposits, Total Equity, Number of Branches and Number of Employees used for analysis. According to the analysis results, Ziraat Bank is the best bank in 2018. The best bank in 2019 is Ak Bank. The worst bank in 2018-2019 is Deniz Bank
  • Topic: Finance, Economy, Banks
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Dursun Balkan
  • Publication Date: 04-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: As the rapid development of communication and information technologies allows real-time transmission of information, the world is increasingly becoming a global society. In this context, the most developed countries are required to develop their own strategies to encourage the industrial sector to stay up to date and compete in a dynamic and volatile global market in order to maintain its competitive capacity. For this reason, since the path of competitiveness through technological differentiation in industrialization provides a wider and innovative field of research, it reveals the result of a new phase of organization and industrial technology that is beginning to change our relationship with industry, society and human interaction in the business world at present standards. The main target of this study is to reveal the effects of Industry 4.0 on the Maritime sector using with the explanation of the historical development and conceptual framework of today's high technology industry 4.0 and its expectations in maritime sector in the light of the relevant literature. The whole worldwide maritime applications and their reflections on all fields are also the scope of this study. A qualitative descriptive analysis method was conducted to determine the current situation of Maritime Sector which is including Industry 4.0 processes. The findings of this study are Marine-related organizations should be reshaped to meet the needs of the future. Measures and regulations related to the increasing environmental protection sensitivity in the world will directly affect almost every area of the sector. Also, the developing technologies, increasing customer demand and intense competition; it will make the recently introduced Industry 4.0 implementation inevitable.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Communications, Maritime
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Esra N. Kilci, Burcu Kiran
  • Publication Date: 04-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: A country’s capacity to pay short-term external debt, which reflects the fiscal strenght of an economy against adverse shocks, is significantly taken into consideration by international investors in their decision making process. It has been seen that Turkey has experienced a gradually increasing private sector short-term external debt especially in the last twenty-year period. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-run relationship between private sector short-term external debt and CDS (credit default swap) premiums in Turkey for the period of 2000:Q4-2017:Q4 by using asymmetric threshold autoregressive (TAR) and momentum threshold autoregressive (M-TAR) procedures of Enders and Siklos (2001). The results indicate that CDS premiums and private sector short-term external debt in Turkey are cointegrated. After finding cointegration, the null hypothesis of symmetric adjustment is tested against the alternative of asymmetric adjustment and the evidence of symmetric adjustment is found, suggesting that the relationship between the private sector short-term external debt and CDS premiums has the same effect in expansion and contraction periods.
  • Topic: Debt, Private Sector, Credit
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Zeynep Gülru Göker, Brooke Güven
  • Publication Date: 04-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: There are contradicting arguments in the literature examining the influence of foreign investment on economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa. Some researchers claim that high level of volatility, rising current account deficit, lack of developed financial markets and low quality of regulatory framework would generate economic losses for developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa when they liberalized their capital flows. However, some studies focus on growth enhancing effect of foreign investment to be a remedy for low capacity of accumulated savings in Sub Saharan Africa. The current study brings new evidence about the role of foreign portfolio investment and foreign direct investment on economic growth for countries in Sub Saharan Africa. Due to the endogenenity issue, we have used panel VAR methodology to estimate three simultaneous equations system. By analyzing 25 Sub Saharan African countries over the 1990-2016 period, we found that foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment are complements and they have positive significant impacts on economic growth.
  • Topic: Development, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Africa, Turkey, Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Author: Feride Aslı Ergül, Mesut Özcan
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye’deki yabancı uyruklu bireylerin “mikroagresyonlar”a (microaggressions) ilişkin tecrübelerini ve sorunlarını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Bu bağlamda Türkiye’ye eğitim, daha iyi bir hayat için göç ya da savaştan kaçış gibi değişik sebeplerle gelen bu bireylerin mikroagresyonların değişik çeşitlerinden hangilerine ne sıklıkla maruz kaldıkları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma beş farklı ilde yapılan görüşmelerle gerçekleştirilmiştir. İlkokuldan üniversiteye kadar eğitimin her kademesinden öğrenci, öğretmen, öğrenci velileri ve doktorlar ile görüşülmüştür. Verileri toplamak için katılımcılara “Türkiye'de sizin kültürünüze ve etnik farklılığınıza yönelik kasıtlı ya da kasıtsız kırıcı, incitici söz ve davranışlara maruz kalıyor musunuz?” sorusu yöneltilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçları mikroagresyonların ülkemizde çok ciddi bir sorun olduğunu göstermektedir. Araştırmaya göre Türk insanı yabancılara karşı eskisi kadar anlayışlı değildir ve yabancı uyruklu kimselere kendilerini ikinci sınıf vatandaş gibi ve dışlanmış hissettirecek davranışlar çok yoğundur. Yabancılara hep olumsuz şeyler yakıştırılmakta, burada istenmedikleri sezdirilmekte hatta ülkemizdeki birçok sıkıntının nedeni olmakla itham edilmektedirler. Ayrıca araştırmanın bulguları yabancı uyruklu kişilerin kültürleri ile ilgili önyargılardan muzdarip oldukları ve özellikle ırkla ilgili açık, doğrudan hakaretlere de yoğunlukla hedef oldukları yönündedir. | This study aims to investigate the experiences and problems of foreign nationals in Turkey, concerning microaggressions. Thus, it was aimed to find out which types of microaggressions -and at what frequency- are experienced by people who come to Turkey for different reasons like education, pursuit of a better life or escaping from war. The study was conducted in five different cities of Turkey. Students from primary school to university, teachers, parents and doctors took part in the study. The participants were asked the single question “Do you ever experience deliberate or undeliberate insults, whether verbal or behavioral, targeting your ethnic identity and diversity in Turkey?” The results of the study show that microaggression is a very serious problem in Turkey. It can be gathered from the findings that Turkish people are not as tolerant to foreign people as they used to be. Behaviors that make people of foreign origin feel like second-class citizens and alienated take place quite often. Foreigners are usually connected with negative occurrences and they are reminded that they are not welcome in this country. These people are also accused of causing many misfortunes in the country. The study also exhibits that foreign nationals suffer greatly from prejudices about their cultures and they become the target of explicit and direct insults particularly regarding their race.
  • Topic: Immigrants, Society, Microaggression
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Nazli Yildirim
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Emission control and reduction initiatives required to achieve low carbon society necessitate collaboration and capacity building vertically and horizontally between the public and non-public authorities at the international, national and local level. In particular, measures taken at local level are important on the issue of climate change. To this end, this paper examines local climate protection initiatives of the metropolitan municipalities in the framework of modes of governance including self-governance, provision, enabling and regulation in Turkey. In metropolitan cities, content analysis was conducted to the Municipalities' Annual Action Reports and Strategic Plans including different urban policy sectors in order to determine the achievement level of local climate protection actions. The study concludes that the local climate change mitigation activities are frequently implemented by provision modes in the sector of urban infrastructure and transportation in the Turkish metropolitan municipalities.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Government, Governance, Urban, Adaptation
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Yildirim Turan, Lan Nguyen Hoang
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Iran – Saudi Arabia’s rivalry is the main reason behind the conflicts and instabilities in the region. However, the political nature of this rivalry is often oversimplified by mainstream media outlets. Similarly, a significant part of literature on identity politics on rivalry between Iran – Saudi Arabia, has mainly provided a comprehensive and descriptive account of their history as well as current conditions with ethnic and sectarian identities as roots and origins of regional instabilities; or focused mainly on the politicization and manipulation of Sunni and Shia Islam by actors in their struggles for power. Synthesizing the theories on identity politics already in existence, namely Primordialism, instrumentalism, and social constructivism, this research constructed an integrated theoretical model. In this model, sectarian identity - one essence intrinsic to Middle Eastern societies and been built alongside regional history – is not only measured by its tremendous influences on political processes; but also compared in the usage of political actors of all levels in political practices.
  • Topic: Sectarianism, Ethnicity, Identity Politics
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Saudi Arabia
  • Author: Recep Tari, Muhammet Rıdvan Ince
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Academic Inquiries
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışma, Türkiye GSM piyasasının Yarışılabilir Piyasalar Modeline uygunluğunun test edilmesi amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Piyasanın, modele uygunluğunun test edilebilmesi amacıyla öncelikle piyasadaki firmaların ayrı ayrı kârları incelenmiş, sonrasında piyanın genel karlılığı analiz edilmiştir. 2008 – 2018 yılları arasını kapsayan analiz sonucunda piyasada aşırı karın mevcut olduğu görülmüştür. Aşırı kâra rağmen, analiz dönemi boyunca Türkiye GSM piyasasına herhangi bir firmanın giriş yapmaması, çalışmanın yönünü piyasaya giriş engellerini ve batık maliyetleri incelemeye yöneltmiştir. Spektrumun kıt bir kaynak olması, piyasada faaliyet gösterecek firma sayısını kısıtlamaktadır. Ayrıca, spektrum tahsisi için gerekli olan lisanslama maliyetleri, batık maliyet özelliği taşımaktadır. Piyasaya özgü bu iki unsur, Yarışılabilir Piyasalar Modelinin temel varsayımlarına uymamaktadır. Sonuç olarak, piyasanın daha etkin çalışabilmesi için sanal mobil şebeke operatörlerinin piyasaya entegre edilmesi önerilmiştir. | This study has been prepared in order to test the suitability of the GSM Market in Turkey to Contestable Market model. In order to test the suitability of the market to the model, firstly, the profits of the firms in the market were examined and then the overall profitability of the market was analyzed. As a result of the analysis covering the period between 2008 and 2018, it was observed that there was excessive profit in the market. Despite the excessive profit, no firms enter to the market directed the study to examine entry barriers and the sunk costs. The fact that the spectrum is a scarce resource restricts the number of firms to operate in the market. In addition, the licensing costs required for the spectrum allocation include the sunk costs. These two market-specific elements do not comply with the basic assumptions of the Contestable Market Model. As a result, it is proposed to integrate the virtual mobile network operators into the market for the market to work more effectively.
  • Topic: Markets, Science and Technology, Communications
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East