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  • Author: Marija Fileva
  • Publication Date: 03-2021
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Elimination of the trade barriers and stimulation of business activity through trade liberalization led to the expansion in the field of the global economy. There are plentiful hesitations about who gains the highest benefit from free trade, especially when it comes to the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union. Analogously, the previous mention guides to the dilemma about the trade negotiations and their position in the same agreement in which are the labor standards. Additionally, trade liberalization has influenced the creation of a close link connection between trade, labor, and globalization. This paper focuses on the effects of globalization and trade liberalization with their connection apropos the provisions from CETA; especially with an emphasis on Chapter 23: 'Trade and Labour’.
  • Topic: Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, European Union, Economic Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Canada, North America
  • Author: Adrian Chojan
  • Publication Date: 06-2021
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The article aims to analyze Brexit from the perspective of the Visegrad Group countries in the context of the future of the European Union. Addressing this issue is important from the point of view of assessing the role of the EU for the Visegrad countries. The main thesis of the research is that Brexit will not lead to a reform of the EU in the coming years, which is what some of the Visegrad Group countries are trying to do. The article is provocative, because, during the migration crisis, the Visegrad Group was shown as a brake on the European integration process. After Brexit, it was considered that some of EU Member States could follow Great Britain and leave the EU. The article complements the scientific achievements in this field, as it presents the view from the country of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Topic: Migration, Regional Cooperation, European Union, Brexit, Integration
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Fitim Gashi, Bedri Peci
  • Publication Date: 06-2021
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Technological developments are not easily understood even by people who have advanced education and this leaves much to be expected for other groups. Financial services and banking products are also ‘complicated’ for professionals, not to mention the ordinary client. As a result of the features of financial products and services, especially banking, information is required as an initial form of knowledge of these services and products, and this information is intensified through a constant process such as education. Hence, this article argues how financial education is performed in Southeast Europe and even in the EU. This article also elaborates on the financial education in Kosovo concerning the protection of banking clients’ rights, taking into account the financial education practices from which the Kosovo system can benefit.
  • Topic: Economics, European Union, Finance, Banking
  • Political Geography: Europe, Kosovo
  • Author: Gentjan Skara, Bojana Hajdini
  • Publication Date: 09-2021
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: With the entry into force of the Interim Agreement in 2005 between the EU and Albania, Albanian judges had the obligation to partly apply several provisions of the agreement (the EU law) even in the pre-accession stage. This position was reinforced in 2009, with the ratification of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement, which laid down the obligation of the Albanian government to approximate its existing and future legislation in line with EU acquis and ensure proper implementation. Consequently, as of 2009, Albanian courts had to apply the EU law. The application of the EU law by Albanian courts entails the duty of judges with a twofold task: firstly, to construe their arguments in line with EU law or as close as possible, and secondly, to set aside the domestic law which is found to be incompatible with the EU law. This paper outlines some Albanian courts' decisions concerning applying the EU Law before accession to the European Union. The paper argues that Albanian judges have adopted a ‘Euro-friendly’ approach by referring to the EU Law and SAA agreement even in the pre-accession period. Nevertheless, looking closely at court decisions, the EU law is applied as a persuasive source of law to support the court’s decision and not to explain the importance of relying on EU law or CJEU case law.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Law, European Union, Constitution
  • Political Geography: Europe, Albania
  • Author: Mladen Karadjoski, Goran Ilik, Adam Adamczyk
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: This article analyzes the informative component of the Macedonian public administration as an imminent part of the accession process towards the European Union. The interaction of the public administration with the citizens, NGO's, media, and other relevant "stakeholders" in the Macedonian society is an additional impetus for the acceleration and improvement of the integrative process. The main research methods which will be used in this paper are a descriptive method, a content analysis method, and a comparative method.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, European Union, Integration
  • Political Geography: Europe, Macedonia
  • Author: Avdullah Robaj
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Benefits, according to social insurance funds, have the nature of compensation for lost profits. Hence, the social insurance function has to meet the most important subjective requirements, provide for bare needs, and fulfill the minimum standard of living. Contemporary states undertake a series of economic, social, cultural, health, and legal measures to ensure the protection of individuals and families. Various authors define the level of satisfying the needs as the social minimum. Thus, a special law provides the right to material benefit for those in need. Therefore, Kosovo pays special attention to family, mothers, children, martyrs, invalids, veterans, and KLA members. The social insurance scheme in the Republic of Kosovo is not defined by a special law but is defined by a set of laws. Thus, Kosovo has currently legal infrastructure necessary for beneficiaries of the social insurance scheme, though not in the desired form and capacity.
  • Topic: European Union, Regional Integration, Social Services
  • Political Geography: Europe, Kosovo
  • Author: Ice Ilijevski, Kire Babanoski, Zlate Dimovski
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The main subject of interest of this paper is the current situation and the trend of international terrorism in the European Union explained thorough security analysis of the committed terrorist attacks and their influence on the European security and stability. Also, it will be shown the measures and the activities of the anti and contrary terroristic fight against the risks and the threats from terrorism as a result of the recent terroristic attacks. Even though on the international level there isn’t a common definition of terrorism as a criminal act, the European Union and the Council of Europe through their most important documents set the concept for terrorism which has helped in the process of creating national security systems for the fight against the terrorism. This paper will go through the circumstances of terrorist attacks (failed, foiled, and completed) in the European Union Member States, as well as the conditions of the criminal acts through analysis of the statistical data about the court proceedings and the verdicts.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, European Union, Counter-terrorism, Political stability
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Judithanne Scourfield McLauchlan
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: For this study, I reviewed the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights against the Republic of Moldova and the corresponding reports of the Committee of Ministers from 1997 through 2014. In addition, I interviewed more than 25 lawyers, judges, and human rights advocates. After analyzing the effectiveness of the Court in terms of compliance with the judgments in specific cases (individual measures), I will assess the broader impact of these decisions (general measures) on legal reforms and public policy in the Republic of Moldova. I will evaluate the effectiveness of the decisions of the ECtHR in the context of the implementation of Moldova’s Justice Sector Reform Strategy (2011-2015), the Council of Europe’s Action Plan to Support Democratic Reforms in the Republic of Moldova (2013-2016), and Moldova’s National Human Rights Action Plan (2011-2014). My findings will offer insights into the constraints faced by the ECtHR in implementing its decisions and the impact of the ECtHR on national legal systems.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Reform, European Union, Judiciary
  • Political Geography: Europe, Moldova
  • Author: Klodiana Beshku, Orjana Mullisi
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: This paper tries to further elaborate one of the most important external powers of the European Union: Its “reforming power” which goes in parallel with its ability as “normative actor” in the Western Balkans. Through Albania as a case study, it tries to argue that the process of Albania’s integration to the EU has transformed the country in several directions: by introducing a deep juridical reform and by the full alignment of its foreign policy with CFSP and the “regional cooperation”. In fact, under the auspices of the EU integration, the country is making all the efforts to deliver on one of the most transformative reforms undertaken in the region, that of the justice system. This gives to EU the features of a “reforming power”. The term shows the EU as a driving force which makes countries undertake deep reforms they would not have differently realized, if not under the conditionality for the EU integration.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Reform, European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe, Albania
  • Author: Dogachan Dagi
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The refugee crisis of 2015-2016 revealed the strength of the idea of “national sovereignty” within the Member States of the European Union indicating that not only supra-nationalism is still nascent thinking in the Union but also inter-govermentalism readily transforms into a “self-help” mechanism to opt-out from “common European” destiny in times of crisis. As such it seems that the recent refugee crisis has awakened nationalistic populism in Europe with a disintegrative impact on the Union. Despite the controversial EU-Turkey joint action plan of March 2016 that effectively served to reduce the number of refugees crossing into the EU area the intergovernmental and supranational division on how to reconcile national concerns with that of the EU rules and regulations as well as humanitarian responsibility still persist.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Treaties and Agreements, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Populism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Irena Cuculoska
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Article 41 of the Charter for Fundamental Rights of the EU guarantees the right to good administration as a fundamental right of the EU citizens. It seems from the wording that Article 41 applies only to the institutions, bodies, and agencies of the Union, without mentioning the Member States. This gives it a narrower scope than that given in Article 51.1 concerning the scope of the Charter as a whole. This paper discusses the question of applicability of the right to good administration regarding the implications of Article 41 in this respect. The doubt that stems from this is whether the content of 51.1 prevails or, on the contrary, it must be ignored and taken as reference to the particular provision in Article 41.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Treaties and Agreements, Governance, European Union, Political Rights
  • Political Geography: Europe