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  • Author: Kristina Cendic, Gergely Gosztonyi
  • Publication Date: 11-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: New technologies have opened several risks to safety of journalists. More importantly, in the state of emergency caused by the Covid-19 outbreak, journalists and media actors have shifted their activities online more than ever, which also made them more prone to digital threats and attacks. In some regimes there are even organized intimidation campaigns against political opponents causing chilling effect and self-censorship, and jeopardizing freedom of expression in general. Hungary as a member of the European Union since 2004 and Serbia as a leading candidate to join the EU are two countries where the problems and concerns about media freedom is growing every day. The fear from the unknown during the international pandemic gave opportunity to some governments to hide their real political agendas and cover their desire for the 'good-old-fashioned' censorship. The number of countries where some kind of censorship could be found is growing every day. The authors will show two country-case-studies from Hungary and Serbia, where the leaders and the political situations are very similar and could show a (good or bad) example to other countries that would like to follow the illiberal views on media issues.
  • Topic: Media, Freedom of Expression, Journalism, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Serbia, Hungary
  • Author: Bashkim Rrahmani
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The recognition of Kosovo is an issue in some part of the international community even though its independence has been recognized by 116 states and that the ICJ has given a legal opinion which confirmed that independence was not a violation of international law. This paper analysis the pros and cons and the difficulties created by the non-recognition of Kosovo both for the region and broader, dealing not only with political reasons and difficulties. The paper is written by using combined methodology and methods: systemic analysis, legal analysis, and method of comparative analysis. Conclusions and recommendations are expected to be a contribution towards a further debate about the importance of the recognition of the state of Kosovo.
  • Topic: State, International Community, Independence
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Kosovo
  • Author: Bojana Zoric
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The matter of EU enlargement to the Western Balkans has become overshadowed by pressing issues such as Brexit, the rise of the radical right, and international terrorism. Notwithstanding the pressure to address these issues accordingly, increasing tensions and ethnic outbursts across the Western Balkan region are reason enough for the European Union to devote significant attention to accession talks. This article addresses the Western Balkan countries’ Europeanization process with consideration of Russia as an external actor. By assessing the candidate countries’ progress amid EU negotiations, the article suggests that the countries’ bilateral ties with Russia have an impact on the Europeanization process which is particularly visible in Chapter 31 Foreign, security, and defense policy of the acquis communautaire. The broader geopolitical framework that comprises the multifaceted relationship between the EU and Russia is crucial for understanding the dynamics of the EU-Western Balkans-Russia triangle.
  • Topic: International Relations, European Union, Geopolitics, Europeanization
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Elena Makrevska Disoska
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: By analyzing the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan (WB) countries, the paper concludes that their export, inflow of remittances, and FDI have suffered due to the crisis. Regarding the rapid credit growth in years before the crisis, it spurred an increase in imports, which in the context of relatively uncompetitive economies, led to increased current account deficits despite significant remittances and FDI inflows. The impact of the crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of European integration. But, the European Union (EU) is more uncertain to embrace the economically weaker countries, causing loss of EU credibility. It seems that the EU integration is a double-edged sword for the WB: in good times EU delivers its prosperity, but at a time of crisis, it is creating instability.
  • Topic: Economics, European Union, Regional Integration, Crisis Management
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Vesna Stefanovska
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The theories behind extradition, the rule of “prosecute or extradite” and the idea of using due diligence when prosecuting and punishing a criminal offender need to be explored in detail, relying on both customary international law and treaty-based law. Luring fugitives into international waters or cooperating with another state in the frames of the process of extradition are options that may help in bringing fugitives before justice. The Republic of Macedonia among other states has recognized the need for cooperation in criminal matters through the use of extradition as one of the earliest forms of inter-state cooperation in any domain. This paper explains how extradition is governed in the internal legislation of the Republic of Macedonia and the necessary changes which have been made in order to increase the effectiveness of extradition and to preserve human rights from possible violations.
  • Topic: Crime, Human Rights, Justice, Extradition
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Macedonia
  • Author: Josipa Rizankoska, Jasmina Trajkoska
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The myth that the Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA) can be the ‘cure’ for fragile heterogeneous societies has been debunked shortly before its 10th anniversary. The general research question of this article is how political parties in Macedonia assess the role of the OFA in building functioning multiethnic society, while the specific puzzle is what accounts for the radicalism of the nationalistic rhetoric of the political parties in Macedonia? We argue that the assessment of the success of the OFA implementation would depend on the parties’ position of power and the type of ethnic community (the majority, majority-minority or non-majority minority). We find the bad economic situation and the exclusion from the government to be the most perceived radicalizers of nationalistic party rhetoric in Macedonia. This case study uses qualitative analyses of thirty semi-structured interviews with high representatives of the 26 most important political parties in Macedonia.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Treaties and Agreements, Minorities, Ethnicity, Strategic Competition
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Macedonia
  • Author: Adam Adamczyk
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The main objective of this article is to present the way attitudes towards Albanian people and the perception of them has changed in Greece. The Albanians came to Greece following the collapse of the Communist bloc at the beginning of the 1990s. Within the time it transpired that it was mass immigration of approximately 500,000 people. Greece was not prepared for such an enormous influx of foreigners and failed to initiate an effective migration policy. The initial reactions of the Greek politicians, media, and society were negative. Social feelings, however, began to turn in the first decade of the XX century. Albanians ceased to be stigmatized as a threat and started to be perceived in a positive way through the prism of the demands of the Greek economy. The economic and migration crisis, however, lead to the reappearance of a xenophobic mood among the Greeks.
  • Topic: Migration, Immigration, Public Opinion, Assimilation
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Greece, Albania