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  • Author: Elliott Prasse-Freeman, Tani Sebro
  • Publication Date: 03-2021
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs
  • Abstract: Myanmar’s recent military coup has, for now, ended the country’s brief ten-year experiment with democracy. But the military junta did not anticipate a massive country-wide social movement against the brazen power-grab, in which millions have taken to the streets. As protests continue in urban centers, a trans-ethnic and pro-poor solidarity movement is emerging. Myanmar’s most excluded subjects, many of whom watch the protests from refugee camps, are now weighing both the possibilities and precariousness that the coup entails.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Migration, Minorities, Displacement, Conflict, Coup
  • Political Geography: Asia, Myanmar, Oceania
  • Author: Cindy Huang, Kate Gough
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Bangladesh is providing a significant global public good by hosting nearly one million Rohingya refugees, including 700,000 who fled violence carried out with “genocidal intent” in 2017. Most refugees are living in camps in Cox’s Bazar District, where local resources and livelihoods are under strain. The situation has exacerbated development challenges and environmental degradation, such as inadequate public services and rapid deforestation. Safe, voluntary, and sustainable Rohingya repatriation to Myanmar is ultimately the best solution. However, the conditions for return do not exist, and Myanmar has not demonstrated meaningful progress in establishing them. Even if conditions did exist and voluntary repatriation began tomorrow, estimates show a large number of Rohingya will still be in Cox’s Bazar 10 years from now. The refugee situation is likely to be protracted. Medium-term planning is critical. The international community has an opportunity to recognize Bangladesh’s contributions through a robust responsibility-sharing process. In addition to humanitarian aid, this would include commitments that support development among host communities, as well as broader regional and national development strategies. There is precedent for development financing and beyond-aid solutions for refugees and host communities, such as in the Jordan, Lebanon, and Ethiopia Compacts. These agreements seek to meet the medium-term needs and generate inclusive growth for refugees and hosts, including through policy adjustments that enable self-reliance and reduce aid dependence. This brief explores the potential range of responsibility-sharing commitments in support of Bangladesh. It does not address the separate and equally important issues of securing justice and accountability for Myanmar’s alleged atrocities and establishing the necessary conditions in Myanmar for safe, voluntary, and sustainable repatriation—nor does it make recommendations on the humanitarian response, which remains essential. This brief focuses exclusively on the medium-term, development-oriented approach. It covers several categories of contribution and commitment types, including trade and investment, labor mobility, SEZ and infrastructure investment, private sector investment, resettlement, and development and climate finance. Each category includes illustrative examples, some of which are specific to one or a subset of UN Member States and others that are more broadly applicable. Geopolitical factors surrounding the Rohingya situation and potential responsibility-sharing commitments are also discussed. Building on this mapping, we will prepare a full report in 2019. The report will highlight a subset of anchor contributions that could build momentum for a responsibility-sharing process that delivers a “win-win-win” for refugees, host communities, and Bangladesh’s broader development objectives.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Refugees, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia
  • Author: Bushra Ebadi
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: Young people aged 15 to 35 comprise one-third of the world’s population, yet they are largely absent from decision-making fora and, as such, unaccounted for in policy making, programming and laws. The disenfranchisement of displaced youth is a particular problem, because it further marginalizes young people who have already experienced persecution and been forcibly displaced. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of including displaced youth in governance and decision making, to identify key barriers to engagement that displaced youth face, and to highlight effective strategies for engaging youth. Comprehensive financial, legal, social and governance reforms are needed in order to facilitate and support the meaningful engagement of youth in the refugee and IDP systems. Without these reforms and partnerships between youth and other diverse stakeholders, it will be difficult to achieve sustainable solutions for forcibly displaced populations and the communities that host them.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugee Issues, Displacement, Youth Movement , Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Asia, South America, North America, Global Focus
  • Author: Anita Kattakuzhy, Chloe Parrish
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: International humanitarian agencies and donors have made a series of global commitments to local actors as part of the localization agenda, including to increase their access to greater direct funding by 2020. This briefing paper reviews 2015 national financial data for Bangladesh and Uganda to better understand how to target international investments in localization. It presents key findings from Oxfam-commissioned research on which factors affect local actors’ ability to access international humanitarian funding. It concludes that in order for global commitments to translate into practice, investments should look at changing the terms of the funding relationship, as well as be based on a context-specific, national analysis of the financial environment.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Environment, Humanitarian Aid, Refugee Crisis, Displacement
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Bangladesh, Africa, Asia
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: People displaced by conflict (IDPs) in Myanmar’s Kachin State want to return to their land, yet it is being appropriated unfairly. Legal or administrative procedures are undermining IDP rights, ignoring the exceptional circumstances of displacement. Restrictions on movement are making the situation worse. Action is required to resolve the lack of clarity over IDP land rights and to ensure equitable remedy is available where land has been unfairly acquired. This report is produced by The Durable Peace Programme (DPP), an EU-funded consortium of seven international and local organizations supporting peace, reconciliation, rehabilitation and development in Kachin State since 2015.
  • Topic: Displacement, Conflict, Peace, Humanitarian Crisis, Internal Displacement
  • Political Geography: Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Iulia Toma
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This analysis looks at unpaid care work patterns in both Rohingya and host communities in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The aim is to recognize the care work done by women and find ways of reducing or redistributing this work. The analysis examines the level of acceptance for sharing care responsibilities, as well as the differences in care work between host and Rohingya communities. Overall, findings from the RCA show that the vast majority of care work is conducted by women across both groups. On average, women perform 70 hours of care work a week and men do 11 hours, with firewood and water collection being the most difficult tasks. Recommendations from the analysis include provision of water containers for water storage; opportunities for home-based income-generating activities for the Rohingya community; advocacy for improved water networks in the host community; and environmentally friendly firewood replacements, among others. This will ensure reduction and redistribution of care work and lead to improved programmes, with potential for women’s empowerment.
  • Topic: Refugee Crisis, Gender Based Violence , Displacement, Sustainability, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia
  • Author: Mita Chowdhury, Nina Gora, Mushfika Laiju, Nicola Padamada, Iulia Toma
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since August 2017, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees have fled Myanmar for camps in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. The research for this report was conducted to identify the needs, vulnerabilities, risks and concerns of Rohingya refugee and host community women, girls, men and boys in Cox's Bazar, as well as the skills and opportunities on which they can build. The analysis shows various gaps in the humanitarian response for both communities, especially in terms of accountability, communication with affected communities and disaster preparedness, but also in equitable access to services, in particular for women and girls, and especially for the Rohingya community. The report presents a range of recommendations for agencies responding to the crisis, including on water, sanitation and hygiene; menstrual hygiene management; food security and nutrition; livelihoods; gender-based violence; community and household power structures; women's and girls' leadership; unpaid care work; coping strategies; and community cohesion, among others.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Dorothy Sang
  • Publication Date: 09-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Beginning on 25 August 2017, over 700,000 Rohingya refugees fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh seeking safety and lifesaving assistance. While safe from the violence they were subjected to in Myanmar, Rohingya women continue to face huge protection risks and challenges in Bangladesh. This briefing paper looks at how the humanitarian response, one year on, is meeting the specific needs of women and girls and what more can and should be done so that women and girls can access services, voice their concerns and hopes for the future and influence the decisions that affect their lives.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Migration, Water, Minorities, Refugees, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Johannes Urpelainen, Wolfram Schlenker, Alice Tianbo Zhang
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center on Global Energy Policy (CGEP), Columbia University
  • Abstract: Dams are a major source of electricity globally, with hydropower generating 16 percent of the world’s total electricity and 71 percent of all renewable electricity in 2016. Many developing countries possess great untapped hydropower potential. Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, is estimated to have tapped less than 8 percent of its hydropower potential. Proponents of dams praise them as a source of low-carbon electricity, estimated to reduce annual emissions by about 2.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Dams also provide wide-ranging benefits in terms of flood control, irrigation, navigation, and job creation. But harnessing the power of the river comes with concentrated costs, from fragmenting the river system and destroying natural habitat to triggering ecological hazards and displacing millions of people. As the world is undergoing an energy system transformation toward renewable sources to combat climate change and meet emission reduction targets outlined in the Paris Agreement, understanding the costs and benefits of dam construction has important policy implications. In this project, the authors compiled a global geospatial database of dams, the GDAT, to enable rigorous research on the costs and benefits of dam construction. The project was motivated by the absence of a comprehensive, reliable, real-time, easy-to-use database on global dam construction. Such data could allow policymakers to make informed decisions on the use of hydroelectric power in the future, based on systematic evaluations of the costs and benefits of hydroelectric dams along the dimensions of energy access, climate change mitigation, water supply, ecological preservation, and population displacement. Below is a summary of findings: Globally, the authors identify 36,222 dams that are spatially concentrated along major river basins in Asia, North America, South America, and Europe. Compared to two widely used datasets, AQUASTAT and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD), GDAT has not only 144 percent and 419 percent more dam observations, respectively, but also more comprehensive attribute information, such as completion year, geographic location, main purpose, and reservoir and generation capacity. Dams are used for a variety of purposes, with considerable heterogeneity across continents. Worldwide, dams are mainly used for irrigation and hydroelectricity, representing 34 percent and 25 percent of the data, respectively. There are notable differences in the distribution of dam completion year across continents. While most developed countries in North America, Europe, and Oceania have witnessed a decline in dam construction since the 1970s, developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America are experiencing a continued increase in the number of dams currently planned or under construction. GDAT makes three important contributions: First, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no prior effort has been made to consolidate official records with existing datasets such as AQUASTAT, GRanD, and World Resources Institute (WRI). By collecting and compiling primary data from administrative sources and secondary data from existing databases, the authors have offerred the most comprehensive geo-referenced data on worldwide dam construction to date. Second, through extensive cross-checking and manual validation, the authors fill in important data gaps on key attributes and correct erroneous observations in previous datasets. Third, existing datasets are often static and not frequently updated. Efforts are underway to develop a framework for making the data collection and compilation process easily reproducible, so that it can be updated on a reasonable time interval to facilitate intertemporal analysis. Upon publication of academic research papers, the authors are planning to release the entire dataset and documentations to the public, free of charge.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Water, Displacement, Electricity, Renewable Energy, Dams
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Asia, South America, North America
  • Author: Floriane Echegut, Corrie Sissons
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since 25 August 2017, the Cox’s Bazar and Bandarban districts in the south-east of Bangladesh have seen a mass influx of Rohingya refugees fleeing violence in Rakhine State in Myanmar. To inform programming and the wider humanitarian response, Oxfam undertook a rapid food security, markets and protection assessment in November 2017. This was done to complement a large-scale WASH response launched in early September 2017 at the onset of the displacement from Myanmar.
  • Topic: Food Security, Displacement, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict, Protected People
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia