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  • Author: Julia Gelatt, Gina Adams, William Monson
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: As immigration has risen over the past 40 years, many communities across the United States have been changed in some way by their immigrant populations .Immigrants make up growing shares of business owners, workers, and parents across many cities and rural areas, while children of immigrants make up growing shares of school populations. Some communities have been experiencing high levels of immigration for decades and others are facing new influxes of immigrant communities. In many communities, the mix of national origins of immigrants has been shifting.
  • Topic: Demographics, Human Welfare, Immigration
  • Political Geography: United States, North America
  • Author: C. Eugene Steuerle, Rudolph G. Penner
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Fiscal policy is simply out of control. It's not the deficit per se, however—we have had deficits before. Usually, they could be easily contained in subsequent years simply by allowing revenues to grow as the economy expanded while enacting only small or no increases in appropriations for discretionary programs, most of which were newly funded every year. But discretionary programs now constitute less than 40 percent of spending, whereas they were almost 70 percent of spending in 1962. In fiscal year 2006, mandatory spending and interest made up 62 percent of spending.
  • Topic: Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Laudan Y. Aron, Janine M. Zweig, Lisa C. Newmark
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Humans are trafficked across international borders for the purposes of labor exploitation (e.g., domestic servitude, sweatshops) or sexual exploitation (e.g., forced prostitution) and the victims are subjected to coercion, fraud, abuse, or some other form of deception on the part of the traffickers. The Department of State (2004, 2006) estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 people—adults and children—are trafficked across international borders around the world annually. About 90 percent of these victims are females and over half of all those trafficked each year are believed to be trafficked for sexual exploitation. Among those trafficked, about 14,500 to 17,500 are trafficked into the United States each year. Recent data show that victims are often trafficked by perpetrators of the same nationality (Free the Slaves and Human Rights Center 2004).
  • Topic: Crime, Gender Issues, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Adam Carasso
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The single largest tax expenditure in the federal budget is the employer exclusion of contributions for medical insurance premiums and medical care from employee income taxes. In fiscal year 2005, the Office of Management and Budget estimates this exclusion is worth $112 billion. If the payroll tax exclusion component were also counted here, the total would be significantly higher. (For details, please see Len Burman, Cori Uccello, Laura Wheaton, and Deborah Kobes, ''Tax Incentives for Health Insurance,'' Discussion Paper No. 12, Washington, DC: The Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center, May 2003.)
  • Topic: Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Kenneth Finegold, Laura Wherry
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), combined with many states' decisions to expand Medicaid eligibility, increased public coverage of black, white, and Hispanic children between 1997 and 2002. Uninsurance rates fell among children in low-income white, black, and Hispanic families, remained constant among white and black children in higher-income families, and increased among Hispanic children in higher-income families. The health status of children, as reported by their parents, was stable for blacks, whites, and Hispanics, except for a decline in health among higher-income Hispanic children.
  • Topic: Demographics, Health, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Kenneth Finegold, Laura Wherry
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Poverty has decreased among blacks, Hispanics, and whites in recent years. Yet only whites have experienced less hardship in the areas of food and housing. In contrast, blacks have seen an increase in housing hardship, while food hardship has increased among Hispanics.
  • Topic: Demographics, Economics, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Randy Capps, Genevieve M. Kenney, Michael E. Fix
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Public health insurance coverage increased—and rates of uninsurance decreased—between 1999 and 2002 among two groups of low-income, U.S. citizen children: those with parents who are native or naturalized U.S. citizens and those with at least one immigrant parent who is not a U.S. citizen (referred to as mixed-status families). The improvements followed efforts on the part of the states and the federal government to expand coverage of children under Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) and the introduction of policies directed at improving Medicaid and SCHIP access for immigrant and non-English-speaking families. Nonetheless, more than one in five citizen children in low-income mixed-status families remained uninsured in 2002—a rate 74 percent higher than that of children with citizen parents.
  • Topic: Health, Human Welfare, Migration, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Michael E. Fix, Randy Capps, Jane Reardon-Anderson
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The share of U.S. children under age 18 with an immigrant parent or parents increased between 1999 and 2002. Poverty among these children fell slightly during the same period, and the shares with health insurance and access to a usual source of health care rose. However, most other measures of economic well-being did not change significantly between 1999 and 2002, and children of immigrants continued to face greater hardship than children of native parents.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Katherine Lotspeich, Michael Fix, Dan Perez-Lopez, Jason Ost
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The Building the New American Community demonstration project is an experiment in refugee and immigrant integration in which the cities of Lowell, Massachusetts; Nashville, Tennessee; and Portland, Oregon formed coalitions to identify integration challenges in their com m unities and address them collaboratively. These cities were assisted by a national team of policy analysts, advocates, and researchers from the Nation al Conference of State Legislatures, the National Immigration Forum, the Southeast Asia Resource Action Center, The Urban Institute, and the Migration Policy Institute.
  • Topic: Demographics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Karen C. Tumlin, Wendy Zimmermann
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The federal welfare reform act of 1996 (the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, or PRWORA) dramatically revamped the welfare system, turning it into a block grant program run by the states, imposing new, stricter work requirements and setting a five-year lifetime limit on benefit receipt. For immigrants the law did all that and much more. In a major departure from previous policy, the law sharply curtailed noncitizens' eligibility for welfare and other major federal benefits.
  • Topic: Government, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States