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  • Author: Melanie Kesmaecker-Wissing, Lucy Knight, Ruth Mayne, Jola Miziniak
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Effective behaviour change strategies can play a vital role in combating poverty, injustice and environmental degradation. They can help prevent violence against women and girls; enable better health, hygiene and environmental behaviours; motivate and empower people to participate in campaigns or to become change makers; or influence people to make more equitable, ethical or sustainable purchasing and investment decisions. There is growing understanding among civil society organizations, governments and others about how to enable behaviour change, but many interventions still rely too much on information provision and awareness raising. This discussion paper draws on learning from theory and practice to provide practitioners with an understanding of the range of influences that shape different behaviours at individual, group, societal and system levels. It suggests a menu of possible interventions to address them, and highlights the need for resources and skill-building. It will be relevant for practitioners involved in programming, humanitarian, influencing and campaigning work, as well as for government officials and donors.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Inequality, Gender Based Violence , Behavior
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tracy Carty, Armelle Le Comte
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate finance efforts by developed countries are at a critical juncture. There are only two years before the deadline by which developed countries have committed to jointly mobilize $100bn per year to support climate action in developing countries. This $100bn commitment has a pivotal role to play in supporting developing countries to reduce their emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This year will also see governments at the 24th Conference of Parties (COP24) in Katowice agree new rules to govern how climate finance is accounted under the Paris Agreement – rules that will shape the quality and transparency of climate finance provision for many years to come. This briefing paper offers an assessment of progress towards the $100bn goal. The second in a series, it looks at the latest donor figures for 2015-16, with a strong focus on public finance. It considers how close we are to the $100bn goal; where the money is coming from; where it is going; what it is being spent on; and how donors are counting the money they report.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, International Cooperation, Paris Agreement
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Irene Guitj, Franziska Mager, Becca Smith
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Decent work for all is a shared global concern. It is enshrined in Sustainable Development Goal 8, ‘to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030’. Countless initiatives by companies, governments, CSOs and global aid agencies are dedicated to making this happen. These efforts are labelled as ‘decent work’, ‘inclusive businesses’, ‘responsible sourcing’ or ‘economic empowerment’. They share a concern for raising the standards of working conditions – globally, nationally, and across sectors. SenseMaker is a research method that analyses the experiences of large numbers of people to help understand their perspectives on a specific issue or question. This paper shows what is possible when using SenseMaker to capture and understand workers’ perspectives. It aims to inspire anyone working in the private sector, within civil society organizations and government agencies responsible for strengthening decent work, inclusive business and responsible sourcing.
  • Topic: Development, Labor Issues, Sustainable Development Goals, Private Sector, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Vanessa Ushie
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Africa Mining Vision (AMV) is a policy framework that was created by the African Union in 2009 to ensure that Africa uses its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development. Eight years after its inception, implementation has been slow and there is a low level of awareness of the framework among key stakeholders in the mineral sector. This paper shows that the AMV has specific weaknesses that should be addressed through its national implementation, in order to enhance the benefits for African citizens. Africa’s leaders and citizens must act now to ensure that the goals of the AMV are realized. It is a transformative policy that can drive sustainable development on the continent.
  • Topic: Development, Natural Resources, Mining, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Steph Avis, Eliza Hilton, Ankets Petros
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Institutionalism, Risk
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Author: Rona Ramos, Tom Wildman
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In 2013, super typhoon Haiyan wreaked havoc on Eastern Samar and Bantayan Island and triggered a huge humanitarian response. Now the challenge is to support sustainable development. Having a toilet is a ‘damgo’ (a dream), not a necessity for poor families in the Philippines. If you didn’t think having a clean toilet at home was important before the disaster, why would it be important afterwards? By bringing together the right expertise and getting good financial products in place Oxfam has supported poor families to access new markets and products actively, with the intention of supporting long-lasting change.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Sustainability, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Philippines, Asia-Pacific
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Many rural communities in Tala, south-west Bangladesh are vulnerable to environmental hazards including water-logging, arsenic contamination, salinity and cyclones. Pre-crisis market assessment (PCMA) is used to support humanitarian programming based on an understanding of daily needs, how these change during crises, and how local market systems respond to these needs. Using vulnerability and risk assessment (VRA) allowed Oxfam to test the assumptions of humanitarian programme staff and provide a richer, more detailed analysis of the local context. The combination of PCMA with VRA can subsequently be used to facilitate better contingency planning to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Crisis Management, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia
  • Author: Simone Klawitter, Alison Martin
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In the wake of the devastating destruction in Gaza in 2014, the Gaza Reconstruction Mechanism (GRM) was established as a temporary measure to facilitate the entry of construction materials and a range of items classified and treated as ‘dual use’ by Israel. Two and a half years on, vital water sector recovery and development remains hampered and fully controlled by the Government of Israel, demonstrating the extent to which Israeli government policies continue to undermine humanitarian response, cause de-development and exacerbate the separation of the Gaza Strip from the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory and the world. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the GRM in improving access to water, health and sanitation services, assesses the roles and responsibilities of a range of actors and identifies urgent steps in relation to the GRM that should be taken to contribute to the development of a just, effective and sustainable water sector in Gaza.
  • Topic: Development, Territorial Disputes, Water, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Amy O'Donnell
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Scaling Humanitarian ICTs Network (SHINE) funded by Sida, set out with the theory of change that the quality and efficiency of humanitarian aid can be improved in a variety of contexts through the adoption of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs). With applications in Ethiopia, DRC, Mali, Indonesia and Iraq, ICTs were introduced to enable digital registrations, mobile data collection, cash/voucher programming and systems for accountability. While ICTs hold promise for saving time, money and improving accuracy, this learning report sets out to unpack these benefits and identify the conditions that need to be in place in order for ICTs to significantly add value to humanitarian response.
  • Topic: Development, Science and Technology, Accountability, Humanitarian Crisis, Data
  • Political Geography: Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, Middle East, Asia, Ethiopia, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Jessica Fullwood-Thomas, Asim Saqlain
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Pakistan, thousands of people are affected by the impacts of climate change. District Badin (Sindh) is one of the most vulnerable areas, where coastal communities are affected by sea intrusion which has damaged natural resources and productive assets, such as water resources, cultivable land and associated livelihood opportunities. Insufficient investment in district annual development plans, alongside a lack of information, services and knowledge of adaptation at community level have all contributed to heightening vulnerabilities and exacerbating existing poverty patterns. The natural and human-made hazards and the subsequent risks have made it much harder for the coastal communities of Badin district, especially women, to withstand the impacts of disasters and external shocks.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Maritime, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Aristides Baloi, John Colvin, Mutizwa Mukute
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: ACCRA, which began implementing its programme in Mozambique, Uganda and Ethiopia in 2009, works with national and local governments and civil society groups in the countries where its programmes are implemented to tackle complex climate change issues and work towards increasing community adaptive capacities, transforming governance systems and achieving climate justice. This evaluation of phase 2 of the programme used a participatory, reflexive and theory-informed methodology to assess the extent to which the programme objectives were met. Also available are case studies on Mozambique and Uganda; see downloads on this page.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Governance
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Mozambique, Ethiopia
  • Author: Ian Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme has four main objectives: Employment and value chain development. Enhancing the enabling environment for agricultural markets and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Strengthening citizen participation in government decision making related to the agriculture sector. Strengthening women’s economic leadership. This document focuses on these areas and how the programme has addressed the government’s ban on the use of plastic bags, which created an obstacle for small-scale producers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Gender Issues, Governance, Leadership, Participation, Value Chains
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Ian Goodrich, Benoit Trudel
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme’s overall objective is ‘to contribute to the improvement of food security and nutrition in the South Caucasus through smallholder farmers’ representation in the governance processes’. It focuses on working with government structures and civil society actors to develop, implement and monitor food security-related strategies and legislation, ensuring that support mechanisms are in place for small-scale producers. The programme also supports national alliances and institution-building, enabling sustainable civil society engagement in the policy process, a critical component given Oxfam’s planned phase-out in 2017. This document particularly focuses on the programme’s use of the Social Network Analysis methodology to support the sustainability of its alliances.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Alliance, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Europe, Caucasus, Asia, South Caucasus
  • Author: Chris Alden
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Understanding how Africa can engage with global development partners to provide more effective support for implementation of the SDGs and Agenda 2063 is crucial to realizing the continent’s development aspirations. This report provides a detailed assessment of the key development platforms – the SDGs, Agenda 2063 and FOCAC. It examines how Africans can mobilize around a Common African Position on Implementation of the SDGs and Agenda 2063 at the level of national governments, regional economic communities and the African Union – with an aim to improve coordination and cooperation in best practice for development between emerging and traditional partners.
  • Topic: Development, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Sustainable Development Goals, Regionalism
  • Political Geography: Africa, China, Asia
  • Author: Tara R. Gingerich
  • Publication Date: 08-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: his case study draws on fieldwork in two communities in Fiji that participated in the 2002-05 Capacity Building to Enable the Development of Adaptation Measures in Pacific Island Countries (CBDAMPIC) project, one of the first adaptation projects in the Pacific that attempted to work at this community scale to build resilience to the longer-term impacts of climate change. In both communities, the project served as a catalyst for more resilient development, improving both absorptive and adaptive capacity with respect to water shortages. It provided an example of how addressing a locally defined problem can energize a community to take action to improve resilience. A key factor in these communities’ resilience is their existing social capital. The project also points to the significance of building on previous and ongoing processes and initiatives.
  • Topic: Development, Water, Infrastructure, Sustainability, Resilience
  • Political Geography: Fiji, Oceania
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since the turn of the century, the poorest half of the world’s population has received just 1% of the total increase in global wealth. Meanwhile, half the new wealth has gone to the richest 1%. At present, mainstream business is driving, rather than reversing, this disturbing trend. To help reverse this trend, we need rapid growth of equitable business structures with purpose, fairness and sustainability embedded into their model. In efforts to promote such equitable business structures, and the fourth sector, Oxfam is launching the Future of Business Initiative. Through this initiative, Oxfam will help such enterprises access finance and work with global companies on how they can include them in their supply chains. Oxfam will also investigate how having more businesses structured more equitably can contribute towards tackling global inequality, and ways government policies can better foster them, and the broader fourth sector.
  • Topic: Development, Poverty, Labor Issues, Private Sector, Equity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Michael Siegel
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Development cooperation has a major role to play in supporting fragile states to mobilize their own resources in order to fund basic social services. In Mali, French aid aims to build the technical capacity of Malian administrations to collect tax by fighting against fraud and tax evasion. However, collecting more domestic resources alone will not be sufficient to reduce poverty. France must support watch-dog organizations to ensure greater transparency and accountability on the use of these resources for the benefit of the poorest.
  • Topic: Development, Inequality, Fragile States, Tax Systems, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, France, Mali