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  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Investment in small-scale agriculture is needed in order to meet the ambitious objective set by the United Nations and signed by the world leaders in 2015: to eradicate hunger, ensure food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 (SDG 2). However, reaching this ambitious goal with the current level of resources committed will not be possible without concerted action on global challenges such as worsening climate change, fluctuating energy prices, diversification of diets in emerging economies and a growing pressure on natural resources such as land and water for purposes other than food. In the world today, 795 million people – one in nine people – still experience limited access to healthy and nutritious food; essential for children to develop properly and for fostering good health. Most of the people affected live in developing countries – 98 percent –and in Africa, one person in four suffers from hunger.1 Paradoxically, those who suffer from hunger are mainly farmers or people who depend on agriculture as their main source of income. To end the injustice of hunger in the world, there is therefore a need for a shared effort from public and private players, geared to allocate more and better investment for the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. In this paper, Oxfam investigates the flows of official development aid (ODA) committed by Italy in the last ten years to promoting food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development in its partner countries. The analysis aims to identify the main features of Italian ODA in this sector in order to evaluate its level of transparency and accountability. It also aims to verify the coherence, in financial terms, between the real allocation of resources and the political importance that Italy has historically assigned to food security issues. In parallel, this paper examines the involvement of Italian agri-food industries in rural development programmes financed through Italian ODA. In light of the wide- ranging debate which aims to promote a greater involvement of the private sector in development, Oxfam investigated the experience gained to date by Italy in one of the priority sectors of its development cooperation policy. The paper’s analysis focuses on three case studies featuring different modalities and objectives for private sector involvement, with the aim to assessing the impacts of their contribution in terms of the reduction of poverty and food insecurity in local communities. Oxfam’s purpose is to contribute to the ongoing national debate in Italy on the eligibility criteria that would promote private sector support for co- financed cooperation initiatives in partner countries; in line with the objectives and goals of the Italian International Development Cooperation policy.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Poverty, United Nations, Food, Hunger, Rural
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy, Global Focus
  • Author: Debbie Hillier
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Reducing the impacts of disasters on poor people is absolutely vital. Climate/disaster risk financing could play a useful role if it is part of an approach that includes risk reduction, if it strengthens social protection, and if it has real participation from civil society. Insurance, as one component of risk financing, could play a supportive role if carefully designed – keeping in mind the limitations, including the risk of worsening income and gender inequality. The InsuResilience Global Partnership should build more evidence of what works for poor people, invest in pro-poor business models, and ensure the insurance schemes developed are part of a broader approach to reduce risks and the inequalities that make people vulnerable to disasters.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tracy Carty, Armelle Le Comte
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate finance efforts by developed countries are at a critical juncture. There are only two years before the deadline by which developed countries have committed to jointly mobilize $100bn per year to support climate action in developing countries. This $100bn commitment has a pivotal role to play in supporting developing countries to reduce their emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This year will also see governments at the 24th Conference of Parties (COP24) in Katowice agree new rules to govern how climate finance is accounted under the Paris Agreement – rules that will shape the quality and transparency of climate finance provision for many years to come. This briefing paper offers an assessment of progress towards the $100bn goal. The second in a series, it looks at the latest donor figures for 2015-16, with a strong focus on public finance. It considers how close we are to the $100bn goal; where the money is coming from; where it is going; what it is being spent on; and how donors are counting the money they report.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, International Cooperation, Paris Agreement
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jessica Fullwood-Thomas, Asim Saqlain
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Pakistan, thousands of people are affected by the impacts of climate change. District Badin (Sindh) is one of the most vulnerable areas, where coastal communities are affected by sea intrusion which has damaged natural resources and productive assets, such as water resources, cultivable land and associated livelihood opportunities. Insufficient investment in district annual development plans, alongside a lack of information, services and knowledge of adaptation at community level have all contributed to heightening vulnerabilities and exacerbating existing poverty patterns. The natural and human-made hazards and the subsequent risks have made it much harder for the coastal communities of Badin district, especially women, to withstand the impacts of disasters and external shocks.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Maritime, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Aditi Sen
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Hidden in the food we buy every day, from chocolate to ice cream, are commodities like palm oil and soy that are driving deforestation across the world. From Indonesia to the Peruvian Amazon, vast areas of carbon-rich forest are being cleared to produce these agricultural commodities, contributing to climate change and social conflict. Several food and beverage companies have made commitments over the last few years to tackle deforestation in their supply chains. This paper analyses how the world’s ten biggest food and beverage companies – which were challenged to improve their environmental and social policies as part of Oxfam’s Behind the Brands campaign – are implementing their commitments to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains. It argues that while this is a significant step forward, these companies must now implement their promises. They must translate policies into practice and strengthen their efforts to protect the rights and livelihoods of the communities and indigenous peoples on the frontlines of defending the world’s forests to achieve real change.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Indigenous, Supply Chains
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Rob Fuller, Jonathan Lain
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam’s Effectiveness Reviews evaluate the impact of the organization’s projects on the lives of those they are intended to help. This research paper uses statistical meta-analysis to summarise the results of all 16 Effectiveness Reviews carried out under the theme of resilience between 2011 and 2015. The paper finds that projects evaluated had a significant positive impact overall, as measured by an index of contextually-appropriate indicators of resilience. However, there are important differences in impact between different regions of the world. The meta-analysis also reveals a difference in the level of resilience by the gender of the head of household, and provides some insights into the resilience measurement approach.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Food Security, Resilience
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Simon Bradshaw, Julie-Anne Richards
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is already forcing people from their land and homes, and putting many more at risk of displacement in the future. Supercharged storms, more intense droughts, rising seas and other impacts of climate change all magnify existing vulnerabilities and the likelihood of displacement – disproportionately affecting low-income countries, women, children and Indigenous peoples. This paper describes the effects on communities and how responding to these growing realities demands far stronger action towards ending global climate pollution, supporting resilient communities, ensuring rights for people on the move and developing long-term strategies to ensure that those who are forced to move in the future are able to do so safely and with dignity.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Migration, Displacement, Paris Agreement
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jonathan Lain
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in January 2016 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the ‘Joint Programme on Disaster Risk Management and Humanitarian Preparedness’. The project under review was implemented between April 2011 and March 2016 in four districts in the Terai region of southern Nepal – Dhanusha, Rautahat, Salarhi, and Saptari. The project was carried out by Oxfam in partnership with several organisations, including the Koshi Victims Society (KVS), the Social Development Research Centre (SDRC), Bagmati Welfare Society Nepal (BWSN), Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS), and Rural Development Centre (RDC). The project had three broad objectives, which were developed during its planning phase: (1) to strengthen and institutionalise Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR), (2) to enhance the capacity of local institutions to prepare for and respond to humanitarian emergencies, (3) to create an enabling environment for people to demand their ‘rights in crisis’.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Infrastructure, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tim Gore, Rebecca Pearl-Martinez
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Paris Agreement marked a major breakthrough in support for climate action from many parts of the business community, including from key actors in the food and beverage sector. But despite significant progress, much work remains both to cut greenhouse gas emissions and to support the millions of people already hit by climate change. As one of the sectors that is at highest risk of being affected by climate change, responsible for a giant emissions footprint and reliant on millions of small-scale farmers and agricultural workers in the regions most vulnerable to climate change, the food and beverage sector should lead the next generation of post-Paris corporate climate commitments. This paper presents new data commissioned from the research consultancy CE Delft on the greenhouse gas emissions footprints and water scarcity footprints of major food commodities. The data demonstrate the vital role the food and beverage industry can and must play in turning the Paris Agreement into a springboard for the stronger climate action needed.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Food, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus