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  • Author: Amelie Gauthier
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More than half of Central African Republic’s population is in need of urgent humanitarian aid – amidst chronic underfunding, persisting violence across the country and unsuccessful peace agreements. This briefing calls for a huge and concerted effort by the government, donors and all stakeholders to consolidate progress, to support peace and reconciliation and to ensure that CAR does not revert back into a deeper crisis. It presents a fair share analysis and urges donors to step up their commitments and meet their funding responsibility to stabilize the fragile situation in the country.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Humanitarian Aid, Political stability, Violence, Peace, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Central African Republic
  • Author: Iulia Andreea Toma
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo is currently gripped by national political deadlock and plagued by localized armed conflicts, both old and new. In the central region of Kasai, the conflict between government forces and the Kamwina Nsapo militia escalated dramatically in the first quarter of 2017 and has caused a serious humanitarian crisis extending over five provinces. The crisis has led to major food insecurity, and exacerbated the existing vulnerabilities of the local population. Women in DRC play a limited role in public life and their access to services and opportunities is constrained. The crisis in Kasai is entrenching existing inequalities in gender norms. In this context, Oxfam conducted a gender analysis in October-November 2017 in order to identify the impacts that the conflict is having on women, girls, boys and men in the province and their coping mechanisms. This report presents the findings of the analysis and recommendations intended to inform Oxfam’s own humanitarian programmes and those of its partners and other organizations, as well as the wider humanitarian response.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Norms
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Elysia Buchanan
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In December 2017, South Sudan marked four years of devastating conflict. Only a few months later, it has reached another critical point: more South Sudanese are hungry than ever before. While the February 2018 Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) does not declare famine, any classification of IPC 3 upwards means people need aid to survive. This means that 6.3 million people are struggling to get enough to eat, and are dependent on humanitarian aid that is increasingly difficult to access. This report examines the impact of the ongoing conflict on hunger through the prism of livelihoods; women’s empowerment; displacement; water, sanitation and hygiene; and the spread of disease. It provides recommendations for the international community and warring parties on what they can do to stop the violence, increase access to humanitarian aid and allow the people of South Sudan to recover.
  • Topic: Hunger, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict, Sanitation
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: William Dick, Andrea Stoppa
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Burkina Faso has made important progress in finding appropriate solutions for agricultural risk management. In recent years significant experience has been gathered, and the growing interest in agricultural insurance is encouraging the various actors to develop new initiatives. This report argues that key stakeholders should now agree on strategic decisions and pursue a coordinated and comprehensive approach.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Environment, Science and Technology, Rural
  • Political Geography: Africa, West Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Fiscal policy can be a powerful tool for governments to help achieve a ‘human economy’, if these policies are designed to address gender inequalities and the gender biases in current macroeconomic thinking. This report uses the case of one element of fiscal policy – public spending – to demonstrate how such policy design could help achieve gender equality and improve human development outcomes in developing countries. The report identifies unpaid care and domestic work as a key area where fiscal policy has a significant impact on gender equality. Using data from Oxfam’s 2017 Household Care Survey in Uganda and Zimbabwe, the report explores the impact on adults’ and children’s/adolescents’ time use of access to improved water sources, electricity, healthcare and childcare. It also considers secondary impacts on measures of well-being and women’s empowerment, including women’s health and decision making.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Science and Technology, Infrastructure, Fiscal Policy, Domestic Policy
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Anita Kattakuzhy, Chloe Parrish
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: International humanitarian agencies and donors have made a series of global commitments to local actors as part of the localization agenda, including to increase their access to greater direct funding by 2020. This briefing paper reviews 2015 national financial data for Bangladesh and Uganda to better understand how to target international investments in localization. It presents key findings from Oxfam-commissioned research on which factors affect local actors’ ability to access international humanitarian funding. It concludes that in order for global commitments to translate into practice, investments should look at changing the terms of the funding relationship, as well as be based on a context-specific, national analysis of the financial environment.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Environment, Humanitarian Aid, Refugee Crisis, Displacement
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Bangladesh, Africa, Asia
  • Author: Clare Coffey, Jessica Hamer, Chiara Mariotti
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Inequality between the richest and the rest in Malawi continues to rise, with poverty remaining extreme and endemic. Climate change is compounding the challenges, with recent droughts and floods likely to have worsened poverty, resulting in one in three Malawians relying on humanitarian assistance in 2016. Economic inequality threatens to undermine the hard-fought and important progress on some aspects of human development in Malawi. This report presents a vision, roadmap and policy recommendations for a more inclusive, equitable and prosperous Malawi. It shows that inequality is not inevitable but the result of policy choices made by those with power. Breaking out of slow and unequal growth requires government, development partners and institutions to work for all, especially for those living at the margins, rather than serving powerful vested interests.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Gender Issues, Inequality, Tax Systems
  • Political Geography: Africa, Malawi
  • Author: Sandrine A. Koissy-Kpein, Lucia Rost
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Care work is essential for personal wellbeing, a healthy society and a functioning economy. But across the world, it is overwhelmingly done by women, which restricts their opportunities. Policy makers rarely recognize the public responsibility for facilitating unpaid care and domestic work through investments in infrastructure and care services. In 2017, Oxfam’s Women’s Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) initiative conducted a Household Care Survey (HCS), collecting data in the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to inform the design of public policies and local development programmes. The study tests which infrastructure, equipment and other factors influence care-work patterns. It finds that access to improved water sources is associated with reduced hours of care work, and household equipment facilitates men’s participation in care. It also finds that heavy workloads related to long hours of unpaid care can impact women’s health and well-being. Perceptions of care work, community expectations and fear of sanctions for deviating from social norms play an essential part in maintaining the gendered division of care work. The report presents recommendations for government and private sector decision-makers, development practitioners and researchers in the area of women’s economic empowerment on how they can contribute to facilitate the recognition, reduction and redistribution of unpaid care work.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Local, Norms, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Philippines, Zimbabwe, Asia-Pacific
  • Author: Mariana Matoso
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report shares Oxfam’s experience with a water treatment plant community-led operator in Juba, South Sudan. It contributes to the debate on the role that communities can play in the process of managing water supply systems amid protracted crises. The report gives guidance on how to support professionalization of community services by providing business, governance and institutional support, and calls on donors and implementing agencies to develop WASH programmes which consider medium-term institutional support that ensures sustainability and pro-poor accessibility.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Governance, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2016/17, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2016 in Tunisia, and intended to evaluate the success of the ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ project in increasing women’s empowerment. The project ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ is a multi-country programme operating in Morocco, Tunisia, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Yemen, with regional coordination from Lebanon. The results coming from this Effectiveness Review are not meant to be indicative of the overall impact of AMAL, but more a focused assessment for the Tunisia component. The AMAL project operating in Tunisia started in 2012, following the revolution of 2011, with the objective to increase women’s awareness of their political and socio-economic rights, and support women to play a more active role in the political and socio-economic life of their community and country.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Robert Fuller, Alexia Pretari
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Resilience, Food Security and Nutrition Project (Projet de Resilience, Securite Alimentaire et Nutritionnelle, PRSAN) was carried out in the North and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso between 2013 and 2017 by Oxfam and Christian Aid, together with two implementing partners, the Alliance Technique d’Assistance au Developpement (ATAD) and the Office de Developpement des Eglises Evangeliques (ODE). The project was aimed at enabling particularly vulnerable households to increase their resilience and improve their food security and nutritional situation. Project activities included supporting households in crop production, market gardening, processing and household businesses, providing awareness-raising on good nutritional practices, carrying out community-level disaster assessments and establishing early-warning committees, and distributing livestock and cash transfers. The Effectiveness Review was aimed at evaluating the success of this project in enabling participants to build their resilience to shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This report is part of Oxfam’s Effectiveness Review Series.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Gender Issues, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Author: Robert Fuller, Jonathan Lain
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The ‘Citizen Participation in Adaptation to Climate Change’ (CPACC) project aimed to build the resilience of farming households to climate shocks, through promoting conservation farming techniques and livelihood diversification, and through supporting disaster-planning activities and early-warning systems at the community level. This Effectiveness Review used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the project among households whose members directly participated in the project activities, in one of the three districts where the project was carried out. The results provide evidence that the project had a positive effect on the resilience of participant households, particularly through the community-level disaster preparedness activities. There is also evidence that the project had a positive impact on the adoption of conservation farming techniques, on the area of land cultivated, and on yields. However, the project does not appear to have had the positive effects it sought on engagement in non-agricultural income-generating activities, nor on participation in savings groups. There is no indication that the project had had a positive impact on households’ overall material welfare by the time of the survey.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Environment, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zambia
  • Author: Sarah Barakat
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Women in the Middle East and North Africa region face challenges in their attempts to seek and get justice. Despite some promising legal awareness initiatives, mostly led by civil society, women’s knowledge of their rights and family law is limited. They lack social capital and the financial means to claim their rights, and the systems in place to provide financial support are insufficient and often ineffective. Women’s pursuit of justice is further limited by entrenched patriarchal values at community and court levels. Though some laws in the countries covered by this research have been positively amended recently, women still face discrimination in the judicial system based on their sex, their religion, and their financial status.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Justice
  • Political Geography: Africa, Middle East, Yemen, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan
  • Author: Emma Samman
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Social norms refer to the shared expectations held by a given community. They are often held in place by social approval or rewards for conformity, and by disapproval or sanctions for transgressions. Understanding how and why social norms hold sway can provide a powerful means for understanding the gendered division of work that prevails in many communities and inform strategies aimed at promoting change. This report summarizes the main findings from the qualitative research conducted in August 2017 to support on the identification of the main social norms related to unpaid care and domestic work in rural communities in four districts in Zimbabwe. The research served to identify who the leaders are that communities look up to in order to validate social norms change. It helped to identify nascent opportunities for changes in the gendered division of labour, and what the implications are of the findings for planning and practice in addressing inequalities on unpaid care and domestic work.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Norms, Empowerment , Care
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Poverty is widespread among the small-scale farmers and workers who produce and process our food, in an industry worth billions of dollars. Oxfam’s new campaign highlights the systemic inequality and human suffering in food supply chains – and shows how action by supermarkets, governments, small-scale farmers and workers could lead to a decent and dignified standard of living for millions of people. This case study looks at the positive example of the Tuzamurane Cooperative in Rwanda, which has enabled women farmers to access the lucrative international export market for dried pineapple. The combination of a community-focused business model and a positive relationship with an ethical distributor has enabled these farmers to move out of poverty, with benefits for the wider community.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Poverty, Rural, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Poverty is widespread among the small-scale farmers and workers who produce and process our food, in an industry worth billions of dollars. Oxfam’s new campaign highlights the systemic inequality and human suffering in food supply chains – and shows how action by supermarkets, governments, small-scale farmers and workers could lead to a decent and dignified standard of living for millions of people. This case study describes the challenges facing small-scale milk producers across West Africa. Despite growth in demand for dairy products, they face significant inequalities in accessing their markets, including lack of government investment and competition from cheap imports of powdered milk from Europe. However, there are opportunities for change in the dairy sector, which could see small-scale producers gain a greater share of revenue from milk production. This paper offers recommendations for government and market interventions to support the development of local markets and help smallholders earn a decent living.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Food, Inequality, Local, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, West Africa
  • Author: Emma Fanning
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Thousands of Somali families were displaced to urban centres by the 2017 drought. Research by a group of NGOs indicates that they do not intend to return home anytime soon. It also shows how precarious and limited are the livelihood opportunities for displaced people in Somalia; how far people’s options are affected by gender; and how changing gender dynamics present further protection threats to both men and women. Comparing the findings for Somaliland with those for the rest of the country, the research underscores the importance of local dynamics for people’s opportunities and protection. Gaps were highlighted in the provision of basic services for women particularly. Local, state and federal authorities, donors, and humanitarian and development actors need to improve displaced people’s immediate access to safe, gender-sensitive basic services – and to develop plans for more durable solutions to displacement. As floods in April to June 2018 have forced more people to leave their homes, an immediate step up in the response is essential.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Displacement, NGOs, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Marc J. Cohen, Tigist Mekuria
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report uses 2013–2015 International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace Swedish aid to Tanzania to its end use. It finds that general budget support (GBS) accounted for much of Swedish aid in 2013 and 2015, but could not determine final expenditures using IATI data. In the absence of GBS, the authors could only confirm that in 2014, 28 percent of Swedish aid arrived in Tanzania, via the government and Tanzania-based organizations. A key constraint to traceability is that Sweden does not require aid implementers to report to IATI. The report recommends that Sweden encourage such reporting. This report uses 2013–2015 International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace Swedish aid to Tanzania to its end use. It finds that general budget support (GBS) accounted for much of Swedish aid in 2013 and 2015, but could not determine final expenditures using IATI data. In the absence of GBS, the authors could only confirm that in 2014, 28 percent of Swedish aid arrived in Tanzania, via the government and Tanzania-based organizations. A key constraint to traceability is that Sweden does not require aid implementers to report to IATI. The report recommends that Sweden encourage such reporting.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation, Governance, Transparency
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Tanzania, Sweden
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report examines the distribution of unpaid care and domestic work in households in the Ugandan districts of Kaabong, Kabale and Kampala. It seeks to understand the connection between social norms and the gendered division of work, including how much time women, men, boys and girls spend on paid work and unpaid care work in a day, as well as how this time use varies between urban and rural areas and between the districts in the study. The authors look closely at childcare, who undertakes it and why. They also analyse what kinds of services are available in each district that might ease the care workload for women and girls. The report makes recommendations for the Ugandan government and relative authorities on how they can recognize, reduce and redistribute care work through policy changes, labour-saving devices and technology, better infrastructure and the provision of care services.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Economic Development , Domestic Policy, Social Roles
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa
  • Author: Rob Mills, Ashni Shah
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Kenya’s arid and semi-arid regions, communities face extended periods of drought and climate volatility. In this context, NGOs, donors and private sector actors are exploring how they can help vulnerable populations to prepare and build resilience. The use of solar-powered water pumps is one approach through which partners are building this resilience. This report is a concept-stage exploration of optimal funding mechanisms to accelerate the adoption of solar-powered water pumps in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya. It also looks at accompanying management systems to ensure financial viability, inclusion and accountability.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Water, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Philippe Massebiau, Mohamed Ouchene
  • Publication Date: 09-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Over 40 years ago, Oxfam began working with Sahrawi refugees living in extremely harsh conditions in camps in the Saharan desert of western Algeria, who had fled their homes as a result of ongoing disputes over territory in Western Sahara. Since then, the Sahrawi refugees have been largely dependent on humanitarian aid from a number of agencies, but increasing needs and an uncertain funding future have meant that the agencies are having to adapt their programme approaches. Oxfam has met these new challenges by combining the existing aid with new resilience-building activities, supporting the community to lead self-sufficient and fulfilling lives in the arid desert environment.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Humanitarian Aid, Refugees, Resilience
  • Political Geography: Africa, Algeria
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The continuing conflict in South Sudan, which began in December 2013, is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of millions of South Sudanese women, men, boys and girls, with the result that South Sudan is now one of the most food-insecure countries in the world. Women and men of all ages are suffering from the effects of conflict, including abuses and loss of control over, and access to, vital resources. This report presents the results of a gender analysis field study conducted in South Sudan in May-June 2016. The study was carried out as part of the ECHO-ERC project ‘Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice’. The report highlights the different impacts the conflict is having on women and men; whether and how these needs are being addressed; and where opportunities may exist for UN agencies, donors, South Sudanese authorities and civil society to incorporate a stronger gender element into their programmes and responses. It also aims to explain how programmes can be gender-sensitive in times of protracted conflict.
  • Topic: Civil Society, United Nations, Humanitarian Intervention, Food Assistance, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Adesoji Adeniyi
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Prolonged conflict, proxy wars, and inter-communal strife characterize many regions in Africa. This violence has caused untold atrocities, deaths, sexual violence, and displacement, as well as accelerating poverty and shattering lives and communities across the continent. Uncontrolled arms in Africa fuel this violence and are increasingly putting lives at immense risk. This report provides evidence about the human costs of uncontrolled arms: injuries and fatalities, internally displaced people and refugees, gender-based violence, and erosion of social cohesion and communal trust. Covering Mali, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and Libya, it provides arms control recommendations to African states, the African Union and Regional Economic Communities, donor communities, and the private sector.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Refugees, Arms Trade, Conflict, Violence, Proxy War, African Union
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Mali, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Vanessa Ushie
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Africa Mining Vision (AMV) is a policy framework that was created by the African Union in 2009 to ensure that Africa uses its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development. Eight years after its inception, implementation has been slow and there is a low level of awareness of the framework among key stakeholders in the mineral sector. This paper shows that the AMV has specific weaknesses that should be addressed through its national implementation, in order to enhance the benefits for African citizens. Africa’s leaders and citizens must act now to ensure that the goals of the AMV are realized. It is a transformative policy that can drive sustainable development on the continent.
  • Topic: Development, Natural Resources, Mining, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Steph Avis, Eliza Hilton, Ankets Petros
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Institutionalism, Risk
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam is leading the Freetown WASH Consortium (FWC) programme in Sierra Leone, which aims to contribute to health improvement through specific pro-poor WASH interventions that are aligned to the government’s 24-month post-Ebola recovery planning. Oxfam’s strategy focuses on promoting citizen engagement and the translation of community needs into policies.
  • Topic: Ebola, Public Health, Pandemic, Community
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sierra Leone
  • Author: Amy O'Donnell
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Scaling Humanitarian ICTs Network (SHINE) funded by Sida, set out with the theory of change that the quality and efficiency of humanitarian aid can be improved in a variety of contexts through the adoption of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs). With applications in Ethiopia, DRC, Mali, Indonesia and Iraq, ICTs were introduced to enable digital registrations, mobile data collection, cash/voucher programming and systems for accountability. While ICTs hold promise for saving time, money and improving accuracy, this learning report sets out to unpack these benefits and identify the conditions that need to be in place in order for ICTs to significantly add value to humanitarian response.
  • Topic: Development, Science and Technology, Accountability, Humanitarian Crisis, Data
  • Political Geography: Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, Middle East, Asia, Ethiopia, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Aurore Mathieu
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Internally displaced people in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are struggling to find long-term solutions to improve their resilience to shocks in a region that has been beset by armed conflict for more than 20 years. In 2016 Oxfam partners undertook a survey among host communities and displaced people in Masisi and Lubero, North Kivu, to gain a picture of the formal and informal mechanisms developed by displaced people to integrate into host communities. It revealed that although the majority of displaced people wish to return eventually to their place of origin, the least vulnerable displaced people are those who manage to integrate into their host communities. This paper reports the views of displaced people and host communities. It aims to influence the debate underway on solutions to displacement in the province of North Kivu and provides concrete suggestions for ways to strengthen those mechanisms; in particular by redefining the interventions of humanitarian and development actors and authorities to consider the needs of host communities
  • Topic: Displacement, Local, Humanitarian Crisis, Internal Displacement
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Kathy Wright
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: High levels of inequality across Africa have prevented much of the benefits of recent growth from reaching the continent’s poorest people. To combat inequality in Africa, political and business leaders have to shape a profoundly different type of economy. It must start with the needs of Africa’s women and young people for good quality sustainable jobs, rather than the needs of the richest and of foreign investors. Leaders must use economic policy, taxation policy and social spending to build a human economy for Africa.
  • Topic: Poverty, Inequality, Economy, Tax Systems, Sustainability, Inclusion
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Jane Gaithuma
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Innovation involves applying information, imagination and initiative to get greater or different value from resources, and includes all processes by which new ideas are generated and converted into useful processes or products. These case studies showcase some of the innovative ideas that are being implemented by Oxfam in six countries: Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Burundi. Each project was selected for its potential to bring greater impact in the future. They include turning ‘excrement into income’ in urban slums in Kenya; giving citizens a voice through empowering them to use their mobile phones to report and share information on justice issues in Rwanda; and using a logistical ‘hub’ in Uganda to enhance service delivery and cost-effectiveness across a region.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Mobility, Urban, Innovation
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Kenya, Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Shannon Scribner
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: As famine takes hold in South Sudan and threatens to spread to northeastern Nigeria, Somalia, and Yemen, world leaders must immediately step up to fully fund the United Nations’ appeal for $6.3 billion. Of this amount, $4.9 billion is urgently needed by July for critical assistance, including health, food, nutrition, and water. If lives are to be saved, humanitarian agencies must be able to rapidly scale up and access people in need. World leaders must not walk away from key meetings, such as the Group of Seven Taormina Summit in Italy and the Group of Twenty Hamburg Summit in Germany, without taking action to increase funding, improve access, resolve conflict and insecurity, and ensure that emergency relief is coupled with long-term approaches to building resilience in affected countries.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, United Nations, Famine, Food Security, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Africa, Middle East, Yemen, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan
  • Author: Helen Lindley-Jones
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam’s programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo work in a context in which violent and non-violent conflict affect communities and protection and governance concerns are closely linked. Some protection threats, such as illegal taxes and arbitrary arrests, stem from structural governance issues, and other protection threats, such as forced marriage, are exacerbated through the challenges that local authorities face in fulfilling their role as duty bearers. This learning report explores the overlap between protection and governance, and Oxfam’s staff in the DRC share learning of potential value for the review and design of other governance and protection programmes in fragile and conflict-affected contexts.
  • Topic: Governance, Fragile States, Conflict, Protected People
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Aristides Baloi, John Colvin, Mutizwa Mukute
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: ACCRA, which began implementing its programme in Mozambique, Uganda and Ethiopia in 2009, works with national and local governments and civil society groups in the countries where its programmes are implemented to tackle complex climate change issues and work towards increasing community adaptive capacities, transforming governance systems and achieving climate justice. This evaluation of phase 2 of the programme used a participatory, reflexive and theory-informed methodology to assess the extent to which the programme objectives were met. Also available are case studies on Mozambique and Uganda; see downloads on this page.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Governance
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Mozambique, Ethiopia
  • Author: Gavin Stedman-Bryce
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of an impact evaluation, carried out in January 2016. The purpose of the evaluation was to rigorously assess the effectiveness of the Raising Her Voice project in South Africa (RHV-SA), in terms of its contribution to greater women’s empowerment. Usually, evaluations under this thematic area are evaluated using quasi-experimental impact evaluation techniques. In this case, given the characteristics of the project, a different impact evaluation technique has been applied, called process tracing. Where interventions have small sample sizes for evaluators to draw from (referred to as small ‘n’ evaluations), this can make it difficult to adopt traditional counterfactual approaches to establishing causality for a range of technical and practical reasons. This is a situation typically faced in projects under Oxfam’s Good Governance outcome area (previously known as Citizen Voice and Policy Influencing). Evaluations of interventions under this outcome area are concerned with establishing whether or not they contributed to an observed change; in other words, they are concerned with assessing a causal claim. To make this type of assessment possible, Oxfam developed a pre-qualified protocol, based on process tracing.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Governance, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Africa
  • Author: Hugo Hooijer, Madelon Meijer
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Dutch oofficial development assistance (ODA) for agriculture has been on the rise in the last five years. However, it remains unclear whether Dutch ODA expenditures on agriculture are reaching female smallholder farmers. Empowering smallholders, especially women, is a proven solution for reducing hunger and poverty. This is particularly true of the rural poor, who are the worst affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper calls on the Dutch government to combine a strong ODA budget for agriculture with a solid strategy for resolving hunger by 2030, to scale up climate finance for adaptations in the agricultural sector, and to supply improved data on the impact of agricultural investments for each target group and gender.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich, Simeon Ogamba
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Kenya Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Resilience and Governance Programme is built upon a theory of change which emphasizes empowerment, rights and the ability of citizens – particularly women – to develop and implement their own strategies for better access to services to improve health and quality of life. The programme’s approach holds that the best-placed actors to deliver improved water and sanitation are the country’s government, civil society and private sector, who are held accountable by the citizens they serve in promoting the quality and sustainability of services. The programme addresses water and sanitation challenges in urban and rural settlements of Kenya, strengthening the capacity of county governments, water-user associations and water utility companies to provide safe, sustainable services; developing and piloting innovative solutions; and working with other civil society partners to call for policy changes that address the needs of the most vulnerable people. This document particularly focuses on the question of whether water ATMs are a sustainable solution to water supply.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Innovation, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme has four main objectives: Employment and value chain development. Enhancing the enabling environment for agricultural markets and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Strengthening citizen participation in government decision making related to the agriculture sector. Strengthening women’s economic leadership. This document focuses on these areas and how the programme has addressed the government’s ban on the use of plastic bags, which created an obstacle for small-scale producers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Gender Issues, Governance, Leadership, Participation, Value Chains
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Saskia van Veen, Salma Jrad, Galand Soufia
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Around half of women in Tunisia have experienced some form of violence in their life. Over 90% of the population thinks women should be discreet to avoid violence in public spaces. From the perspective of Oxfam and dozens of women’s rights organisations, social norms that legitimise gender inequality and violence are rooted in the deeply entrenched belief – found, to some extent, in every country – that men and boys are more valuable than women and girls. ENOUGH, a worldwide Oxfam campaign, aims to replace harmful social norms with more positive ones that promote gender equality and non-violence. To better understand how social norms are constructed among young people in Tunisia and how they influence behaviour, Oxfam Tunisia conducted formative research by interviewing 40 young men and women and analysing the results with experts, NGOs and bloggers working on violence against women and girls (VAWG). From the research and subsequent analysis in a workshop, three social norms were identified as drivers of violence: women should not strive for equal decision-making status in their relationship; women should prioritise home and family over public or professional life; and women should behave in public in a way that respects male domination. This research will inform the development of the ENOUGH campaign in Tunisia, sharpening its focus on changing the norms that underlie VAWG.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Norms
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Chris Alden
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Understanding how Africa can engage with global development partners to provide more effective support for implementation of the SDGs and Agenda 2063 is crucial to realizing the continent’s development aspirations. This report provides a detailed assessment of the key development platforms – the SDGs, Agenda 2063 and FOCAC. It examines how Africans can mobilize around a Common African Position on Implementation of the SDGs and Agenda 2063 at the level of national governments, regional economic communities and the African Union – with an aim to improve coordination and cooperation in best practice for development between emerging and traditional partners.
  • Topic: Development, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Sustainable Development Goals, Regionalism
  • Political Geography: Africa, China, Asia
  • Author: Aria Grabowski
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Transparency in international aid is not just about fulfilling a requirement based on people’s right to access information, but also about making aid more effective. Transparency can help improve coordination and planning, enable accountability, and build trust. Accomplishing these goals can be a challenge when there are many partners involved in channeling funds through a complicated web of service delivery without clear public information explaining who did what where. This research looks at the information needed by in-country development stakeholders with an emphasis on accountability actors including civil society organizations, charities, government workers, and the media. To collect this information, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The majority of interviewees wanted information about financial resources and the channels they flowed through, and all respondents wanted information on the services provided and where the work was happening subnationally, suggesting that these two sets of information may be the most important. Unfortunately, information on subnational locations and services provided is infrequently available through open aid data portals, implying a need to update what aid information is shared.
  • Topic: Ebola, Transparency, Public Health, Pandemic
  • Political Geography: Africa, Liberia, Sierra Leone
  • Author: Hillman Agung
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam has been piloting the combined use of mobile data collection and geographic information systems (GIS) tools to better monitor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities as part of its work to support Burundian refugees in Tanzania. This case study describes how, as well as building capacity among staff, the pilot enabled the generation of timely and accurate data to support programme activities.
  • Topic: Infrastructure, Data, Maping, Mobile Network
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tanzania
  • Author: Paul Evans
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In South Sudan, Oxfam has introduced the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to map water and sanitation facilities across conflict-hit Wau. This case study explains how this has enabled Oxfam and partners to better monitor and coordinate activities – and has the potential to maximize opportunities to develop sustainable water sources.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Water, Infrastructure, Sanitation, Geography, Maping, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Solomon Mombeshora, Martin Walsh
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is putting increasing stress on the livelihoods of people living in the world’s drylands. Smallholder irrigation has long been seen as a means of improving food security in areas with unpredictable rainfall, and is now being promoted as part of climate change adaptation strategies. The Ruti Irrigation Scheme in Zimbabwe was begun by Oxfam in 2009 with these objectives in mind. This report examines the findings of two evaluations of the project and shows that the irrigation scheme has had more significant social and economic impacts than those measured by a quantitative study alone. However, the positive impacts for wellbeing have not been as extensive as originally hoped – having been affected by extreme weather events and the decision to reserve scarce water for use by sugar estates further downstream. This suggests that while smallholder irrigation schemes can provide important local benefits, these are threatened not only by the usual difficulties associated with their implementation, but also by the greater challenges posed by climate change and the resource conflicts that are being exacerbated as a result. These are problems which require significant changes in policy and practice at catchment-wide, national, and international levels.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Water, Famine, Infrastructure, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The IMF has significant influence on the tax policies of developing countries through advice and conditionality, technical assistance and by setting global standards and analyzing global trends. Its rhetoric has become more progressive in recent years. This paper assesses the IMF’s tax advice to developing countries based on five country case studies (Ghana, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Senegal) over the period 2010 to 2015 and supported by a desk study of public IMF documents. It finds that there is a gap between the IMF’s commitment to leveraging fiscal policy to fight inequality, and its actual tax advice to developing countries.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Inequality, Tax Systems, IMF, Progressivism
  • Political Geography: Africa, South America, Nicaragua, Mozambique, Senegal, Peru, Ghana
  • Author: Rebecca Pearl-Martinez
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam analysis finds that governments and donors are failing to provide women farmers with relevant and adequate support for farming and adapting to climate change. Oxfam conducted research on government and donor investments in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Tanzania. It found that funding in these countries is significantly lower than commitments that have been made, and there is little evidence of resources and technical assistance reaching women farmers. Resources are being diverted to priorities other than smallholder farmers, and for the most part governments lack the capacity to deliver funding to them. This paper presents the findings along with recommendations for governments.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Gender Issues, Women, Farming
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Africa, Middle East, Philippines, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Ghana
  • Author: Hilary Dragicevic
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Wild plants are a critical part of the regular South Sudanese diet and become even more important during the lean season. This paper explores seasonal consumption patterns and recent significant changes in those patterns in Panyijar County, Unity State during the acute food crisis in 2017. It provides information on local preferences and health perceptions of wild foods, and reconsiders the idea that wild food consumption is primarily a coping strategy.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Dan Mullins, Justus Wambayi
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study assesses the extent of Tullow Oil’s compliance with the principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) in Turkana County, Kenya. It examines the company’s engagement in selected communities and finds that, while community engagement processes have improved in important ways, it has yet to achieve FPIC. The study provides recommendations that contribute to the evidence base for FPIC practice beyond this project, in order to improve FPIC implementation across the oil and gas industry.
  • Topic: Oil, Natural Resources, Gas, Private Sector, Community
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Michael Siegel
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Development cooperation has a major role to play in supporting fragile states to mobilize their own resources in order to fund basic social services. In Mali, French aid aims to build the technical capacity of Malian administrations to collect tax by fighting against fraud and tax evasion. However, collecting more domestic resources alone will not be sufficient to reduce poverty. France must support watch-dog organizations to ensure greater transparency and accountability on the use of these resources for the benefit of the poorest.
  • Topic: Development, Inequality, Fragile States, Tax Systems, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, France, Mali
  • Author: Catherine Ngina Mutava, Bernadette Wanjala
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Extreme inequality is out of control in Kenya. Less than 0.1% of the population (8,300 people) own more wealth than the bottom 99.9% (more than 44 million people). Tackling inequality could help to lift millions out of poverty, secure sustainable economic growth and bring the country together. Inequality is not inevitable and the government can reduce it to sustainable levels. This report argues that If Kenya increased its tax-to-GDP ratio by 3 percentage points in 2014 it could have raised enough additional funds to ensure quality healthcare for all Kenyans. By delivering on Oxfam’s five-point action plan to tax and spend effectively, the government would ensure a more equal and prosperous future for all Kenyans.
  • Topic: Education, Health Care Policy, Inequality, Tax Systems
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Franziska Mager, Martin Walsh, Fiona Remnant
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women’s economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report. The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Economic Inequality, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa