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  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Iran is taking advantage of the crises created by ISIS and the Arab Spring to advance its land route project from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. The American withdrawal from Syria will remove one of the obstacles that stand in Iran’s path, yet Israel has demonstrated its determination to prevent the establishment of this route.
  • Topic: Security, Military Strategy, Economic Cooperation, Strategic Stability
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria, Mediterranean
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Clear understandings between the political and military echelons are essential in employment of military force and readiness for the next war.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Hegemony, Military Affairs, Leadership, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Micky Aharonson
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Russia seeks to be more involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by presenting it as critical to the stability of the whole Middle East. But the legitimacy that it accords to Hamas rules out deeper Russian involvement from Israel’s point of view.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Elisheva Simon
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Lebanon has neither the desire nor the ability to address Hezbollah’s threat to its sovereignty. The likelihood of Lebanon suffering severe damage in a war against Israel does not change this situation.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Sovereignty, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Hezbollah
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Lebanon
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: One way Iran’s efforts are taking place are below the official Syrian state structures – in the arming and sponsoring of Iran-controlled paramilitary formations on Syria soil.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The Iranian media claimed that millions filled the streets on the 40th anniversary of the Iranian revolution. The opposition, however says that fewer people participated. Iran’s nuclear program will not protect the regime against the people’s antipathy.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Military Strategy, Economic Policy, State Media
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Joshua Krasna
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Arab countries are re-normalizing their relations with the Assad regime, seeking to balance the strong Iranian and Turkish influences in Syria and to achieve some degree of influence in a new Syrian political-strategic structure. This further cements a Russian-oriented strategic architecture in the region. In the long term, this could lead to tensions between conservative Arab states and Israel, if Israel targets the Syrian military and government in the campaign against Iran, or if Israel continues to promote diplomatic recognition of its Golan annexation.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Governance, Normalization, Annexation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Asia, Syria
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Assaults on Israeli sovereignty must be met by an Israeli counter-assault.
  • Topic: Security, Sovereignty, Governance, Civil-Military Relations
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Minister Yisrael Katz should restore and reinvigorate the Israeli foreign service. Israel’s many recent diplomatic breakthroughs require systemic and sustained follow-up by a strong and committed cadre of professionals.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy, Governance, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 02-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The attempted resignation of Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif didn’t come as a complete surprise. It reflects the utter supremacy of the Revolutionary Guard in the Iranian political sphere.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Governance, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Any government elected in Israel will undoubtedly agree to discuss the plan with the Americans.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Treaties and Agreements, Territorial Disputes, Peace
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, North America, United States of America
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: It is inconceivable that the Trump plan will parrot the stale Clinton/Obama parameters of yesteryear or force any “peace paradigm” on Israel.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Treaties and Agreements, Territorial Disputes, Leadership, Peace
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Micky Aharonson, Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The Houthi rebellion in Yemen, with its horrendous consequences for the country’s civilian population, is being instigated primarily by Iranian assistance and direction for the rebels, together with Russian growing involvement in the conflict. An end to the fighting therefore depends to a large extent on the willingness of external countries to continue their fomenting of the conflict.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Regional Cooperation, Military Strategy, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Iran, Middle East, Yemen
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel must administer Area C effectively and with much more authority, whether it wishes to either hold the territory as an effective card for future bargaining or it intends to annex the lands to Israel.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Territorial Disputes, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The fight to depose Assad is over. The battle over his regime’s boundaries has no end in sight.
  • Topic: Civil War, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Islamic State, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The EU’s insistence on preserving the nuclear agreement with Iran and its persistent efforts to establish a mechanism for evading American trade sanctions are encouraging Iran to escalate its subversion throughout Europe.
  • Topic: Security, Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, European Union, Appeasement
  • Political Geography: Europe, Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Emmanuel Navon
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel should leverage its economic power and take advantage of the EU’s inner divisions, but it would not benefit from a divided Europe ruled by economic nationalists and anti-globalists aligned with Russia. To defend its national interests, Israel must develop ties with “rebellious” European governments, but only as a divide-and-rule tactic meant to break the Brussels consensus, not as a bond with forces that threaten to undermine free trade and the Atlantic alliance.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, European Union, Free Trade, Economic Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The IDF’s response will be harsher than usual, not because Israelis in the center are more valued than those in the periphery but because of the emerging need to show Hamas that it has grossly misjudged.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Territorial Disputes, Hamas, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Trump’s landmark Golan decision asserts the law of diminishing returns: Arabs who refuse to make peace with Israel lose rights and assets as time goes forward. Mahmoud Abbas: Take notice.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Territorial Disputes, Conflict, Peace
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The guaranteed failure of the “deal of the century” is an opportunity for Israel to open the Americans’ eyes to the harsh and complicated reality in our region and lead them to support the strategy of managing the conflict and wait for better times.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Territorial Disputes, Leadership, Peace, Strategic Stability
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Joshua Krasna
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Much ink has been and is being spilt regarding whether or not current developments in Algeria and Sudan – the second and third most populous Arab states after Egypt – constitute the Second Wave of the “Arab Spring”. But what is clear is that the second and succeeding waves of Arab Uprisings will not look the same as that of 2011.
  • Topic: Social Movement, Democracy, Arab Spring, Protests
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan, Middle East, Algeria, Egypt
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The Iranian “corridor” is a central project for the mullahs in Iraq and Syria, involving a highway which would connect Tehran with Damascus.
  • Topic: Infrastructure, Hegemony, Strategic Stability, Roads
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: As ugly as the 2019 campaign may have been, it is simply wrong to portray Israel as a deeply divided nation on these matters.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Diplomacy, Nationalism, Elections, Leadership, Political Parties
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: It is in Israel’s interest to solidify the Egyptian role in Gaza, in the context of “conflict management” as a governing policy concept. Egyptian participation in the efforts to stabilize the situation in Gaza serves as an important component in the vital Egypt-Israel relationship. It also helps erode Hamas’ pretensions of Jihad.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Diplomacy, Terrorism, Territorial Disputes, Leadership, Peace, Hamas, Strategic Stability, Mediation
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza, Egypt
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The government should act with magnanimity towards the civilian population in Gaza while preparing the IDF for intensive warfare against Hamas.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Hamas, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 04-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Regional rivals clash via proxies in Tripoli fight.
  • Topic: War, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, Libya
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Iran is not likely to target American troops, since Teheran’s strategy is to wait-out the Trump administration.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Counter-terrorism, Conflict, State Sponsored Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Events in Sudan and Libya suggest that the core dynamic in the Arab world has not changed: authoritarian military regimes and political Islam remain the key players, popular sovereignty remains a distant aspiration
  • Topic: Social Movement, Authoritarianism, Democracy, Arab Spring, Protests
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan, Libya
  • Author: Micky Aharonson
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Venezuela has become flash point between Russia and the US. The way in which America responds to Russian conduct in its backyard will influence Russia’s international conduct in the future.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, International Cooperation, Hegemony, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, South America, Venezuela, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: As dysfunctional as the Palestinian national movement has become, it has excelled in perpetuating the pork barrel born in Oslo.
  • Topic: Economics, Territorial Disputes, Governance, Leadership, Palestinian Authority
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: He has cornered himself into a situation where he has zero credibility and zero leverage on Israel, the US, the international community, and even the Sunni Arab world.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Palestinian Authority, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Joshua Krasna
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Egypt may be beginning to emerge from its self-imposed strategic seclusion.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Strategic Stability, Strategic Interests , Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Africa, Egypt
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The notion that Hamas could be incentivised by the injection of funds from Qatar has proven erroneous or deeply problematic.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Conflict, Hamas, State Sponsored Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Qatar
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: In the remote deserts of western Iraq, Iran’s servants are busily at work preparing a new front against Israel.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Conflict, Missile Defense
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The new JISS national security plan says avoid risky diplomatic escapades and prepare for war.
  • Topic: Security, Diplomacy, National Security, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel, Russia and to some extent the US stand in the way of Iran’s permanent entrenchment in Syria. Israel needs to continue its strikes against Iranian and Hezbollah infrastructures across Syria.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Counter-terrorism, Conflict, Hezbollah
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Syria
  • Author: Eran Lerman, Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 06-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel needs to be prepared for potentially dramatic consequences, including rapid deterioration towards confrontation on all Israel’s borders. Resilience and readiness to act can serve to deter provocations by Iran’s proxies. Ultimately, only a credible military threat from Israel will indicate to friend and foe alike that in a showdown, Iran will be forced to back down.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Conflict, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 06-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The emerging informal alliance in the eastern Mediterranean is becoming increasingly significant. Egypt’s role, Erdogan’s ambitions, energy resources, joint military exercises and coordinated emergency responses contribute to the alliance.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Energy Policy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Alliance, Palestinian Authority
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Mediterranean
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 06-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel’s government must nurture a spirit of unity and national purpose by building a policy consensus as broad as possible. This is necessary both in preparation for likely combat operations against Iran and its proxies, and in order to respond wisely to the American peace plan and to intelligently manage conflict with the Palestinians.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Military Strategy, Governance, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, Palestine, North America, United States of America
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 06-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Even an interim Israeli government can build in Jerusalem, counter the intrusions of foreign agents, and invest in all sectors of Israel’s national capital.
  • Topic: Governance, State Building, Domestic Policy
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Jerusalem
  • Author: Efraim Inbar, Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 06-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The need to assign American soldiers to fight with Israel might undermine Israel’s popularity in the US and constrain its freedom of action.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, International Cooperation, Treaties and Agreements, Military Strategy, Alliance
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The US, Europe and Israel can force a modification in Erdoğan’s conduct on a wide range of issues, including his duplicity on Iran, support for Hamas in Gaza, subversion in Jerusalem, intervention in Libya, aggression towards Cypriot gas explorations, threats to Kurds of Rojava, and repression at home.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Hegemony, Authoritarianism, Leadership, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Asia
  • Author: Micky Aharonson
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Outwardly, Russia is loyal to the idea that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the reason for Middle East unrest. This approach raises the bar on Palestinian demands and makes normal life in the region less likely.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: It is complicit in Hizballah’s terrorism and subversion, in Europe and the US.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Conflict, Hezbollah, State Sponsored Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Joshua Krasna
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: It is a crucial accord, but needs attention and maintenance.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Diplomacy, Treaties and Agreements, Alliance
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Jordan
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Trump’s “maximum pressure” campaign must not be curtailed before Iran’s leaders truly have no choice but to capitulate to Western demands.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Treaties and Agreements, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Turkish forces are also present in northern Iraq, where they are engaged in action against the PKK presence in the Kurdish-controlled north.
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Conflict, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Kurdistan
  • Author: Joshua Krasna
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Jordan and other conservative Arab states are struggling with a difficult superpower ally and facing threats of regional escalation.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Alliance, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Jordan
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Neglecting IDF ground maneuver capabilities is a dangerous gamble.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Counter-terrorism, Hamas, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel, Egypt, Greece and Cyprus must encourage the US to assert a higher military and diplomatic profile as a counterweight to Turkish pressures, Russian and Iranian ambitions, and Chinese inroads.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Energy Policy, Military Strategy, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Greece, Asia, North America, Egypt, Cyprus, United States of America
  • Author: David Koren
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The recent State Comptroller’s report on Jerusalem shows continuing Jewish emigration from the city. Israel must act swiftly to reverse this trend.
  • Topic: Demographics, Territorial Disputes, Economic Development , Emigration
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Jerusalem
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: American withdrawal from the Middle East must be accompanied by steps that reduce the general impression of a weak US going home in defeat. President Trump should bomb Iran’s nuclear installations.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Military Strategy, Military Affairs, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Overlooked in the controversy regarding Trump, Omar and Tlaib, and Israel: The imperative of maintaining Israel’s sovereign decision-making.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Nationalism, Sovereignty, Leadership, Anti-Semitism
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: More than a decade of civil strife has opened up the region for the escalating state-to-state conflict.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, War, Military Strategy, Conflict, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The recurrent debate about Israel in Pakistan reflects the former’s improved international standing. The Muslim giant could become the next success in Israel’s growing acceptance around the world
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Conflict, Rivalry
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East, India, Israel, Asia
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: A selective settlement policy focusing on areas within the Israeli consensus, including Ma’aleh Adumim and the Jordan Valley, can be pursued with little foreign interference.
  • Topic: Territorial Disputes, Settlements, Annexation, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Jordan
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Deadlock between Washington and Tehran won’t easily turn into détente even if Trump and Rohani do find a way to meet in New York. However, even a tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran would severely strain Israel’s close ties with the White House.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Rivalry, Appeasement
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The Turkey-Qatar-Muslim Brotherhood alliance first came to prominence in the early, optimistic months of the “Arab Spring.”
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Regional Cooperation, Arab Spring, Alliance, Muslim Brotherhood
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Qatar, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Yossi Mansharof
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel has an interest in seeing Hezbollah’s image in Lebanon continue to erode and for pressure on the organization to increase. The time may have come for Israel to use the information at its disposal in order to remove the mask from the organization terrorizing Lebanon
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Conflict, Hezbollah, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Lebanon
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Both Pakistani and Israeli concerns currently militate against any imminent warming of ties.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East, Israel, Asia
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel’s strategic situation doesn’t brook inertia.
  • Topic: Governance, Leadership, Political stability, Strategic Stability
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Chinese investment in Iran would help Tehran withstand US economic pressures, and exacerbate the Western crisis with Iran
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Investment, Economic Diplomacy, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: China, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Yaakov Amidror
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Escalating tensions with Iran should be a warning that Tehran’s strategy of training and arming proxy terror groups throughout the Middle East is not being countered aggressively enough.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Conflict, Hezbollah, State Sponsored Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The move confirms that the current US administration is not interested in heading an alliance of regional forces against Iranian expansionism or Sunni political Islam, but is, like its predecessor, managing imperial decline.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Regional Cooperation, Alliance
  • Political Geography: United States, Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: While a determined Western-led effort to halt the Turkish invasion could still prevent Russian, Iranian and IS gains, time is growing short.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Military Strategy, Islamic State, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: What Can and Should Be Done to Limit the Scope of the Turkish Assault on Rojava?
  • Topic: War, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Kurdistan
  • Author: Cohen Yanarocak
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: To understand the driving forces behind the present Turkish assault on the Kurds (and their Christian and Yazidi allies) in northeast Syria, it is necessary to delve into fundamental aspects of Turkey’s national identity, as well as the implications of the refugee crisis. It is also important to consider Erdogan’s political imperatives. This analysis is vital towards any effort to limit the scope of the invasion, and to an assessment of how the invasion affects the vital interests of Israel and other powers. Since the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the way in which the Turkish nation-state has been defined meant that Kurdish nationalism came to be seen as an adversary to its very existence. The Turkish identity provided no room for any form of Kurdish identity in the newly found republic, which has triggered numerous Kurdish uprisings against the Turkish state. Given the military superiority and the centralized decision making of the Kemalist state – as opposed to the weak and divided Kurds – the Turks were able, again and again, to crush these rebellions. Yet, the Kurdish revolts have affected the Turkish collective memory negatively. Over time, this triggered the emergence of what could be described as “Kurdophobia” as a central political element of the modern Turkish state tradition.
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Territorial Disputes, Refugees, Borders
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Kurdistan
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The U.S. withdrawal makes Russia the new arbiter of everyone’s interests, including Israel’s.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Trump’s Syria decision accords with previous presidential decisions and is not necessarily a disaster for Israel.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Military Strategy, Leadership, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Lazar Berman
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Once again, Kurds are complaining of “betrayal.”
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict, Foreign Interference
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Kurdistan, United States of America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Islamic State, that most malignant expression of the Sunni Islamist trend, was the natural enemy of this emergent Kurdish autonomy.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Minorities, Islamic State, Conflict, Autonomy
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Kurdistan
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The IDF must return to the fundamentals: ground maneuver to achieve “hachra’a” – decisive outcomes.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, War, Military Strategy, Conflict, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: If it weren’t for the Iranian regime’s distress, it might decide to tread water until US President Trump was out of office. But its resources are limited, and the possibility that the ayatollahs might attack Israel out of desperation is very real.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Will the people succeed in undermining the Iranian plan to spread power across the region?
  • Topic: Social Movement, Fragile States, Protests, Revolution
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Middle East, Lebanon
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel must adapt as quickly as possible to the evolving situation in northern Syria, while continuing to adhere to self-reliance and invest in its military.
  • Topic: Civil War, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Russia, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria
  • Author: Emmanuel Navon
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel is expected by its European interlocutors to condemn Putin over his misdeeds, yet Israel wants to avoid frictions with Russia in order to maintain a free hand to operate against Iranian targets in Syria.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Hegemony, Conflict, Foreign Interference, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: By changing the discourse about settlements, the Trump administration is laying the groundwork for realistic negotiation. Even if you think that Israeli settlement should be rolled-back in the context of a sensible peace arrangement, applying the demonizing epithet “illegal” makes for a destructive narrative that distances, not advances, peace.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Territorial Disputes, Discrimination, Negotiation, Settlements
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Aiman Mansour
  • Publication Date: 11-2019
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Given Iran’s presence in Syria, Israel must employ focused, operative rhetoric and policy versus the strategic threats it faces.
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Hegemony, Foreign Interference, Regional Power
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The IDF is building an impressive capacity to crush Hezbollah, Hamas and Iranian assets in future fighting. But it must not neglect defense of the periphery or go soft on its ethos and fighting spirit.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Military Strategy, Conflict, Hezbollah, Hamas, Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Anna Geifman
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: A controlled military disentanglement, while bound to afford Putin even greater popularity at home and perhaps rebuild his popular image abroad, by no means implies that he is about to relinquish his growing influence in the Middle East.
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Hegemony, Military Affairs, Empire
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Middle East
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu visits India just half a year after the first historic trip of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Israel (July 2017). These visits reflect the significant expansion in relations between the two countries that has taken place since the establishment of full diplomatic relations in 1992.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Middle East, India, Israel, Asia
  • Author: Yaakov Amidror
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The recent protests in Iran are very important because they point to the Iranian leadership’s economic failures, and the consequent anger harbored by a considerable number of Iranian citizens over their country’s investments in far-off countries such as Lebanon and Syria. These investments, they feel, are at their expense
  • Topic: Social Movement, Leadership, Protests, Oppression
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Lebanon, Syria
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: There are competing narratives about Israel: that it is flying-high, or that it is heading towards disaster. Wise and important actors around the world are coming to the conclusion that the first assertion is true. Israel is an anchor of sanity and a source of ingenuity in an unruly world. Israel’s strategy of vigilance, patience, and looking over the horizon for new partnerships is working.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Territorial Disputes, Anti-Semitism, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Harper and Pence have offered moral and spiritual leadership for the world. Their momentous Knesset speeches were epoch-making events.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Canada, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Emmanuel Navon
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Israel’s policy is legal and justified. Citizens’ well-being must come before that of illegal immigrants.
  • Topic: Immigration, Border Control, Refugees, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: What needs “nixing” is not the JCPOA – a piece of paper – but the Iranian nuclear infrastructure.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Nuclear Weapons, Infrastructure, Nuclear Power, Denuclearization, JCPOA
  • Political Geography: Europe, Iran, Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Investment in eastern Jerusalem is the core of sovereign political action that will keep Jerusalem whole and make it prosperous for all.
  • Topic: Sovereignty, Territorial Disputes, Democracy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Jerusalem
  • Author: Yaakov Amidror
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: It must be made clear to Israel’s rivals in both the north and the south that they will pay a very serious price for attacking Israel.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, War, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: By leveraging its remarkable achievements in the fields most relevant to future conflicts, Israel can transition from dependence on the U.S. to partnership.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, North America, United States of America
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: With the weakening of ISIS, the growing strength of Russia in Syria, and the continuing retraction of American involvement in the region – Iran apparently feels emboldened enough to escalate its confrontation with Israel.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Military Strategy, Counter-terrorism, ISIS
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Efraim Inbar
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The longing for Jewish sovereignty over the historic homeland of the Jewish people is understandable. Nevertheless, the recent attempt to pass a law declaring Israeli sovereignty over the settlements in Judea and Samaria is useless.
  • Topic: Sovereignty, Territorial Disputes, Law, Zionism
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: How the arrest of this Kurdish leader is handled will indicate the extent to which the Syrian Kurds’ central role in the fight against the Islamic State has accrued some broader political legitimacy for their leadership. This, in turn, has implications for the troubled relationship between the West and Turkey.
  • Topic: Territorial Disputes, Islamic State, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Kurdistan
  • Author: Uzi Rubin
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: In his recent “State of the Nation” address, Russian President Putin unveiled six new strategic, advanced weapon systems. The important point about these impressive weapons is their ability to penetrate the global missile defense system that according to Putin is being deployed by the United States. But, such a system does not exist and is not even being planned. It is not surprising that the US responded to Putin’s speech with indifference. Putin’s speech reveals, more than anything else, the continuing Russian trauma from the “Star Wars” initiative of President Reagan
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Weapons , Conflict
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, North America, United States of America
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Might more be done to advance an Iranian counter-revolution? Uri Lubrani certainly thought so, and he was not naive.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Regime Change, Governance
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Funds and favor for Saudi Arabia 2.0, and also to smash Iran.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Economic Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Saudi Arabia
  • Author: David M. Weinberg
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: The Global Forum for Combating Anti-Semitism, which met last week in Jerusalem, needs focus.
  • Topic: Religion, Governance, Discrimination, Diversity, Anti-Semitism
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Yaakov Amidror
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: Given the bad nuclear deal signed with Iran, Israel must be diligent about risk management; no matter how relentless intelligence gathering efforts are, not all threats can be countered. Israel will not allow enemy states to go nuclear.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Nuclear Weapons, Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Eran Lerman
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: President Erdogan is taking Turkey in dangerous directions. The conquest of the Kurdish ‘Afrin enclave lends momentum to his ambitions. Erdogan must pay a manifest price for leading Turkey towards dictatorship and Islamism
  • Topic: Governance, Authoritarianism, Leadership, Islamism, Dictatorship
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Micky Aharonson
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: In spite of the impressive international front against Russia following the former spy’s poisoning in Britain, its activity seems to be limited mainly to rhetoric and diplomatic gestures, which will not achieve Russia’s isolation
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Intelligence, Assassination
  • Political Geography: Britain, Russia, Europe
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security (JISS)
  • Abstract: All indications suggest that for Turkey, the recent battles were only a phase in a larger process. So where might Turkey turn next? And what is the goal of the Turkish campaign?
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy, Minorities, Discrimination
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Kurdistan