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  • Author: Sadia Rafique, Khalid Manzoor Butt
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Social movements are considered by sociologists as agents of social change. They are not isolated entities but an outcome of prevailing circumstances and at, the same time, result from continuity with the historical roots. Moreover, the mobility of contemporary movements can only be shown in comparison with previous kind of collective actions. Two revolutionary movements within one century (Constitutional Revolution 1905-06 and Islamic Revolution1979), and eight years’ IranIraq war (1981-89) and globalization have significantly contributed to the evolution of distinctive nature of contemporary Iranian society. This makes it an interesting subject for research in general, and particularly the case of social movements and their transformation. The paper aims to give an overview of Iranian social movements from the constitutional movement to the recent Green movement of 2009. The intention is to find out, first, whether there was any continuity in social movements during this period; secondly, to investigate the differences of the recent Green movement from the previous social movements of modern-day Iran. An overview of social structure, the state-society relationship, causes of mobilization and the outcomes of each movement will be studied. Moreover, the complex relation between state and social movements that emerged overall will also be examined. The Touraine/Melucci model has been applied in Iranian milieu
  • Topic: Islam, Religion, Social Movement, State, Revolution, Society, Mobilization
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Ghulam Mustafa, Aamir Junaid, Rana Basam Khan, Imran Wakil
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The disastrous event of 9/11 changed the Political and Security dynamics of the world. The event of 9/11 provided a chance for India to enter into Afghanistan. Afghanistan attracts the world powers due to its strategic importance. Afghanistan is a gateway to the energy rich Central Asian Republics. India’s involvement in Afghanistan is quite realistic. India had never established cordial relations with the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The event of 9/11 gave India a chance to establish cordial relations with the Afghan political government. India participated in the Bonn Conference and announced its support for the people of Afghanistan in the reconstruction of the country. India enjoyed its best relations with the governments of Hamid Karzai and Ashraf Ghani in Kabul. India enhanced its ties with Iran to secure its interest in Afghanistan and to counter Pakistan. India and Iran have some common interests in Afghanistan. New Delhi has invested a big amount in various sectors in Afghanistan to enhance its influence in Afghan society. India has worked hard to facilitate Afghan Nationals to boost its soft power. India now influences the internal politics of Afghanistan. The world considers India a major market in South Asia. India’s presence in Afghanistan has always been a source of worry for Pakistan. Pakistan considers India’s presence in Afghanistan a threat to its National Security. Pakistan thinks India should work for the betterment of Afghan people but she should avoid using Afghan soil against Pakistan. Pakistan has already suffered a lot due to the disturbance in Afghanistan. Peaceful Afghanistan is in the favor of South Asia and for the Global Powers. This paper focuses on the Indian presence in Afghanistan and India’s role to bring peace in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Taliban, Negotiation, Peace
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, India
  • Author: Shahid Ahmed Afridi, Marium Fatima
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: US military intervention in Afghanistan was decisive and forceful, however, the Taliban’s insurgency inevitably transformed U.S. military doctrine and strategy from conventional military intervention into Counterinsurgency’s kinetic and non-kinetic operations. U.S. strategic and operational methodology despite exhausting all possibilities; troops’ surge, air dominance/surveillance, non-kinetic peace building operations, failed to dislodge the threat of Taliban violence. An effort is made to identify the underlying factors contributory to the failure of the U.S. strategy, tactics and other challenges faced despite having unparalleled military superiority. This paper further probes the U.S. military strategic repositioning, social structure with the warlords and critically examines how the conflict drifted from intervention into Counterinsurgency irregular warfare.
  • Topic: Counterinsurgency, Humanitarian Intervention, Military Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, South Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Sumeera Imran, Lubna Abid Ali
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Sino-Indian stand-off in Galwan has revived world attention to the dispute in Kashmir. Indian revocation of Article 370 and Article 35-A propped up diverse responses from the international community. China condemned Indian abrogation and the US offered to mediate on Kashmir. Trump’s offer of mediation opened up a pandora box of strong opposition in Indian Lok Sabha. Resolute criticism unleashed on Modi for compromising on Indian national security objectives and territorial integrity. Reflecting the urgency and complications involved in conflict resolution, the propensity of nuclear confrontation in South Asia remains high in Kashmir. US Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden has declared Human Rights in Kashmir as integral part of his electoral agenda. The US State Department has declared no change in its historic Kashmir policy, while China has resented Indian unilateral change in the region’s status. Great powers’ involvement in regional conflicts has been fluid, fluctuating with the change in their national security interests. Broad contours of national security objectives have shaped Sino-US Kashmir policy in the past. Employing qualitative research methodology and theoretical perspective of complex interdependence, the article reviews Sino-US traditional policy roles in conflict resolution on Kashmir. How has the US and Chinese Kashmir policy evolved over the years? What impact does the US and Chinese Kashmir policy has on regional stability? The article argues that great powers’ involvement has inflicted more injury than cure, exacerbating regional tensions. Great powers’ alignment along opposite poles has increased India-Pakistan bilateral hostilities on Kashmir. Sino-US insistence on Indo-Pakistan bilateral approach for conflict resolution rather than the UN framework has created the impasse on Kashmir.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Foreign Policy, Bilateral Relations, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: China, Kashmir, United States of America
  • Author: Ameer Ayaz, Abdul Wadood
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In 2015, millions of refugees, mostly Syrians, knocked the door of Europe for protection against war and violence in their home countries. The number of refugees that entered Europe in 2015 made only 0.2 percent of total Europe’s population, considerably low number than other refugee hosting countries. In fact, for a continent as wealthy as Europe, the influx of refugees could be easily managed but European Union was unable to bring a common policy to cope with it. European Union already divided by the Eurozone crisis experienced further divisions due to refugee influx. The polarization in European politics and society reached the highest point since the Second World War. The failure of Social Democracy and center politics in solving the crisis created space for either right-wing or left-wing populist parties that won many seats in both European and national parliaments, while in some countries even managed to make governments.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Arab Spring, Syrian War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Riffat Mahmood, Rehana Saeed Hashmi
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Owing to the changing dynamics of state relations, scholarly attention has increased toward the domestic policy influence on foreign policy. In this regard, political parties are considered the main drivers in foreign policy formulation in parliamentary democracies. To comprehend the influence of the party on the agenda or formulation of governmental foreign policy, there is a need to examine the link between party manifesto and foreign policy priorities. The case of Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) would be under consideration during the period from 2008-2013. This is an attempt to explore the foreign policy priorities given in the manifesto of Pakistan People’s Party (2008) with its practical implementations. It is observed that dichotomy prevails between the manifesto and practical implementations of PPP’s performance. The government of PPP has remained unsuccessful to implement its foreign policy priorities in true letter and spirit as promised in the party manifesto.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, History , Political Parties
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Asia
  • Author: Mubeen Adnan, Fakhara Shahid
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South China Sea (SCS) is a part of Pacific Ocean and is the most strategic and important waterway in the world containing large deposits of hydrocarbons and fossil oil. Due to its unquestioned importance it has become bone of contention among many East Asian nations and China regarding its sovereignty and control of the territory. Two Islands Parcel and Spratly in the SCS are the flashpoints of the dispute because countries like, Philippine, China, Vietnam, Brunei and Malaysia are claiming their rights over some parts or sovereignty over all the above mentioned Islands. Primary concern of the dispute lies in U shaped nine- dashed demarcation line by China in the SCS. A decision of international court of Arbitration in “Philippines v. china arbitration case” showed that China U-shaped nine dash line demarcation is uneven with UNCLOS 1982. This verdict has been rejected by China on the grounds that it has no binding forces because China controls 90% area of the SCS through nine dashed line by having historical claim of the sea and this line was drawn in 1946 by the help of USA prior to the 1982 UNCLOS. China wants to solve the dispute bilaterally without any third party interference while due to the importance of the region many other actors are getting involved in to the dispute. A permanent and lasting solution of the dispute is a dire need of the time to solve the complex issue.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, International Law, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: China, Asia-Pacific, South China Sea
  • Author: Muhammad Usman Saeed, Mian Hanan Ahmad, Noshina Saleem
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the context of modern information and communication systems, present study was designed to examine the information and communication imbalances among the developed and under developed countries in tweets of international news agencies during 2010-16. Theoretically, the study takes roots from world system theory and structural imperialism theory. Methodologically, the triangulation of method is used. Firstly, the content analysis was performed on purposively selected tweets of four international news agencies; AFP, AP, Reuters and Xinhua about the 15 sample countries for the period of 7 year from 2010-2016. Further, the social network analysis technique was used to examine the network structures of international news determinants and world countries. This study revealed that core and semi-periphery countries are shared more and framed positively, while periphery countries are shared less and portrayal negatively not only by the international news agencies but also by their followers. Further, it was also found that Reuters’ tweets agenda about core, periphery and semi-periphery countries is different from other news agencies specifically from Xinhua. Moreover, study also found that in the tweets of international news agencies the core and semi-periphery countries are covered and shared in context of foreign relations, trade, economy, entertainment, and human interest, while periphery countries are covered and shared with reference to conflicts, disasters, and human rights violations.
  • Topic: Development, Human Rights, Communications, Media, Social Media, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Muhammad Najam Ud din Farani
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Afghan refugees in Pakistan are a classical example of refugee-war nexus. They have been historically conditioned by wars and internal conflicts inside Afghanistan. The conflict within Afghanistan which has historically conditioned Afghan refugees has spanned for more than four decades. This study is an attempt to contextualize history, demographics, institutes, national policy and different factors that have conditioned the identity of Pakistani Afghan refugee community. This study also attempt to explore different perspectives on the identity of Afghan refugee community inside Pakistan.
  • Topic: Refugees, Conflict, 9/11, Identity, Soviet Union
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia
  • Author: Dayyab Gillani
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the ongoing democratization process in Iraq and Afghanistan. It examines the political institutions established in both countries by using the comparative method of analysis. The paper shows that both Iraq and Afghanistan are primarily plural societies and are divided along sectarian and ethnic lines. Drawing from the academic literature, the paper proposes that consociational democracy is the best democratic alternative for plural/divided societies. The paper mainly argues that even though Iraq and Afghanistan share somewhat similar demographic characteristics, their newly installed democratic institutions reveal a sharp contrast. It investigates the reasons for this dissimilar choice of political institutions and proposes that the democratic institutions in both the countries must be formulated in line with the principles of consociational democracy.
  • Topic: Democratization, Democracy, Constitution, Pluralism
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Muhammad Nasrullah Mirza, Yasir Malik
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Over the years, the Taliban have overwhelmingly grown in influence and their stature is being well recognized; exerting more pressure on Washington’s future orientation in Afghanistan. Amidst the backdrop of transitions taking place in Afghanistan’s political landscape, the foreseeable future has, ostensibly, rekindled the prospects of peace. Although peace process is gradually moving further, yet both sides are reluctant to compromise on each others’ terms. Since the assumption of power, President Trump’s approach to Afghanistan has been oscillating in consulting varying options to bring the Taliban to their terms rather to indulge, in true spirits, in a widely acknowledged political framework for peace. These chosen policy actions posit more challenges and less opportunities for peace in war-ridden Afghanistan. The emergent scenario requires a comprehensive, well-crafted and compromising structure to be devised, featured with inclusiveness of all stakes and issues involved in this prolonged conflict. Evaluating and analyzing President Trump’s strategic policy toward Afghanistan, this paper aims to explore the manifesting failures and grey areas of Trump’s Afghan strategy and also attempts to provide strategic foresight while considering the framework of endgame in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Taliban, Trump, Negotiation, Exit Strategy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Abdul Majid, Shoukat Ali, Fazal Abbas, Shazia Kousar
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Kashmir is the most serious dispute between Pakistan and India that originated with the British decision to give independence to British India that later divided into two states i.e. Pakistan and India. Being a Muslim majority princely state, the people wanted to join Pakistan. However the non-Muslim ruler of Kashmir opted India. The people of Kashmir revolted against this decision which set the stage for the first Kashmir war between Pakistan and India. Since then India has maintained its control over Kashmir by use of force and a heavy presence of Indian security forces. India and Pakistan fought another war on Kashmir in 1965. Despite India’s coercive policies, Kashmiris continued to resist Indian domination. The current uprising in Kashmir is the latest manifestation of Kashmiri revolt against India. Pakistan and India need to hold talks for a peaceful resolution of Kashmir which is also acceptable to the Kashmiris. They do not want to live under Indian rule and want to decide about the future of Kashmir through plebiscite, as promised in the UN resolutions of 1948-49.
  • Topic: United Nations, History, Territorial Disputes, Conflict, Protests
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, United Kingdom, South Asia, India, Kashmir
  • Author: Rizwan Naseer, Musarat Amin
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The danger of nuclear terrorism has heightened significantly in the recent years largely because of the transnational terrorist networks and their unrelenting efforts to acquire nuclear technology. The menace of nuclear terrorism is alarming and should be calculated as credible source of emerging trends in terrorism. No incident of nuclear terrorism happened yet but terrorist groups are struggling to steal fissile materials, nuclear technology or insiders‟ support to either procure a crude weapon or steal one. International community is concerned with such foreseeable scenario. This research attempts to make a realistic calculation of the hazards of nuclear terrorism. First part of the paper underlines hype of nuclear terrorism and the risks it poses. It also signifies magnitude of reality involving nuclear terrorism. Second part of the paper underscores the response to international media that is frenzy about risk of nuclear terrorism in Pakistan. It also highlights the safety and security measures that Pakistan has adopted under the guidelines of IAEA and Nuclear Security Summits. This paper concludes with the argument that over the years Pakistan has remained relatively open about sharing information regarding how it is making advancements in its command and control system to ward off any risks of nuclear terrorism and has been successful in achieving better levels of security.
  • Topic: Security, Nuclear Weapons, Terrorism, Military Affairs, Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Afshan Kiran Imtiaz, Farah Malik, Raana Malik
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study examined the relationship between the violent practice of honour killing and the role of the socio-cultural institution, such as, the law-makers, i.e., politicians about the reinforcement of this customary practice. The qualitative method has been used to get the in-depth information about the subjective experiences and perceptions of various politicians. By employing purposive sampling comprising of five representatives from the law-makers, i.e., politicians who were working with the cases of the honour killings of women, data were taken from the largest province of Punjab. The Interpretative phenomenological approach (IPA) was used to analyze the semi-structured interviews of various participants. This study discussed the collusion of politicians with other functionaries, lack of effective law enforcement by the police force and the failure of the criminal justice system in combating the honour violence committed against women in Punjab. The resolution of the problem involves the change of mindset of all the associated stakeholders. Various measures have been advocated to address the honour crime through the execution of the relevant policy strategies and pertinent legislation.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Law Enforcement, Women, Gender Based Violence , Legislation
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Kaleem Javed, Umbreen Javaid
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The present study is aimed to explore the role of judicial system of Pakistan in social maladjustment among the children under child custody litigation. In addition, the study is also intended to find out the gaps in child custody litigation for addressing the problems in child custody litigation. The presents study used qualitative research design and conducted 25 in-depth interviews lawyers, judges, parents and relatives of the children under child custody litigation. For the purpose of data collection, researchers selected eight guardian courts situated in Lahore. Interview guide was used to collect data from the respondents who were selected using purposive sampling techniques. Respondents were assured that their provided information will not be shared with anyone without their prior permission. For analyzing data, thematic analysis technique was used. The present study found that judicial system in general and child litigation particularly have an active role in enhancing social maladjustment among the children. There are many factors which are responsible for this increase which include both internal and external factors of court. However, court is responsible to make decision therefore; the majority of the respondents were of the views that court delay in decision making, unpleasant court environment and inefficiency of staff and judges is the main cause of social maladjustment in children. It is concluded that the role of judicial system and its impacts are very severe upon psychological health of the children, therefore, court should tackle the cases very seriously and on urgent bases for keeping children in good environment according to their needs.
  • Topic: Children, Courts, Psychology, Youth
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Shabana Fayyaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Events following the 9/11 attack have fundamentally changed the political landscape, especially for the Muslim World. A new wave of violent extremism emerged, altering the structure of global world order. Pakistan has suffered impeding consequences following the „global war on terror‟. Currently, Pakistan has been ranked at number five in the Global Terrorism Index of 2017. The magnitude of Pakistan‟s loss is not limited to its economic or political instability, but it has crept into the very fabric of the Pakistani society. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of violent extremism on Pakistani youth.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Psychology, Youth, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Marium Kamal
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This era is witnessing rising India as a major power in the regional and global affairs. Since 9/11 India is strategically involved in Afghanistan in order to attain her broader agenda and realists‟ ends. India is pursuing her security, political, economic and social objectives in Afghanistan to strengthen her regional hegemonic influence under her smart power. This paper is exploring Indian hegemonic design and the level of Indian concentration and influence in Afghanistan via social means; it also gives comprehensive details about Indian objectives and activities, and what implications are drawn for Pakistan.
  • Topic: Security, International Trade and Finance, Power Politics, Hegemony, Strategic Encirclement
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Samina Nasim
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Classical architectural decorative technique such as mosaic work has been practiced in all over the world. Buildings are carefully designed to reflect the character and tradition of the region. In present research an attempt has been made to explain the significance of tile mosaic work with traditional motives and stylized conceptual representation in contemporary mosques of Punjab, Pakistan. The mosques present traditional and modern phase of decoration in Pakistan with aesthetic values. The study explains geometrical designs and stylized symbolic interpretation through the tile work of contemporary mosques of Pakistan. Conceptual, symbolic and abstract representation of mosaic work of Faisal Mosque Islamabad, arabesque and islimi designs of Ali Hajvery Data Darbar Mosque Lahore, geometrical designs and their significance in Jami„ Mosque Defence Lahore, Bahria Town Mosque and Masjid al-Habib Lahore Cantt, are the major areas covered in the paper.
  • Topic: History, Arts, Culture, Material Culture, Architecture
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Rizwan Mustafa, Zoya Jamil Chaudhry
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper examines the post-colonial nation‟s history (India) from perspectives of marginalized minorities in Arundhati Roy‟s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness. The aim of this research is to explore the marginalization of “the Others” and traces the otherized segments of contemporary Indian society that are marginalized on the basis of being a hijra, a Dalit, a woman, a Muslim and an Untouchable. This paper analyzes „binarism‟ and the conflict between the center and periphery: between Hindus and Muslims, between male, female and intersex, between Touchables and Untouchables, as well as between the graveyard and the surrounding wider city. Anjum, an intersex, Revathy, a Maoist comrade, Dayachand, an Untouchable, Tilotamma, a wandering Syrian origin half-Dalit woman, Musa Yeswi, a forced Kashmiri freedom fighter– narrate the untold and unheard tales about failure of a secular democratic country. This paper tours the fault lines of India and highlights the struggle of socially excluded people of society, against the established standards of the culture hence challenging contemporary stereotypical representation of “the Others” and eventually resistance. Roy explicitly advocates religious, racial and territorial degenerative system and reflects the challenges of telling national narrative from a multiple minoritarian perspective. The novel has multi-layered and multi-dimensional plot-structure and investigate the causes behind Roy‟s attempt to give voice to the voiceless (Indians). This research is carried out applying Edward Said‟s theoretical framework of “The Self” and “The Other”, “Us” and “Them”, and “Binary Opposition”.
  • Topic: Post Colonialism, Minorities, Women, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Kashmir, Punjab
  • Author: Maryam Azam
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The rise of sectarian groups in Pakistan has sprouted many internal challenges for the state as well as for the society. The issue of sectarianism is directly linked with the security and harmony of Pakistani society as it has culminated into a grave internal security challenge causing violence and loss of human life. The institutionalization of these groups and their role in the political landscape of Pakistan reflects their complicated nature, objectives and the overall discourse on which these groups are built. Despite the fact that government in various time periods have banned these sectarian militant groups but they were able to operate in shadows or under the banner of different names and roles. This piece of research aims to explicate their multidimensional roles and their capacity to operate and affect the security paradox as well as society as a whole
  • Topic: Security, Islam, Religion, Sectarianism, Sectarian violence, Violent Extremism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Farwa Qazalbash, Muhammad Islam, Irshad Ullah
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study aims to analyze how the notion of „honor‟ is usually constructed in Pakistani society. Using the script of an Oscar-winning documentary by Sharemeen Obaid Chinoy, A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness, the researchers have investigated how various socio-political norms, linguistic tools, and strategies have been used to construct the issue of honor killing in a typical Pakistani patriarchal society. A set of tools offered by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) practitioners (e.g. Fairclough, 1992, Van Dijk, 2006, Gee, 2011 and Reisigl and Wodak, 2000) helped the researchers to find that the concept of „honor‟, as social actors of the documentary view it, does not seem to be rooted in moral or religious codes rather it is a metaphor for political and social approval. Interestingly, only women are objectified as the carriers of this concept. They are conceived as the agents of disrespect or the violators of „honor‟ if an untoward incident happens. These attitudes clearly comment on the political power struggle between genders, which need in-depth investigations in Pakistani society. The analytical framework of this study may be used to analyze media discourse and discriminatory socio-political norms/attitudes in South Asian societies.
  • Topic: Women, Media, Gender Based Violence , Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Shamaila Hamid
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This article focuses on the gap that exists among the genders as a result of political socialization in the Christian religious minority within Punjab, Pakistan. A study in this regard was carried out in four major districts of Punjab namely Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Rawalpindi. A sample of 400 was surveyed during Dec 2017-Jan 2018. The data were collected using multi stage sampling. The results of the study indicated that gender plays an important role in voting behavior. There is a huge difference in political awareness of men and women. Men are more politically aware and their level of knowledge surpasses that of women from their community. Where men are more independent in their decision making regarding whom to vote or not to vote, women are largely dependent on males of family in forming their political decisions.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Politics, Religion, Minorities, Elections, Christianity
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Saqib Ur Rehman, Muhammad Aamir Hashmi, Abdul Jabbar
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Information has become a valued commodity in this age of globalization. Information centers all over the world are now better equipped to manage information due to advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). In this context, Institutional Repositories (IRs) provide a unique platform for information management through new ways of Information Storage and Retrieval (ISR) and digitization. The awareness regarding Open Access Publishing (OAP) and attitudes of IR users are very important contributing factors in success of any institutional repository. The paper is an attempt to highlight the necessary role of IR in building the academic capabilities of research scholars in South Asian region. This paper focuses on perception evaluation of research scholars regarding IR in terms of awareness, and availability of IR. A questionnaire based survey method has been employed to collect data from research scholars. It has been found that most of the participants are aware of the existence of the IR. They showed that they are capable to use IR. The study will be helpful in providing practical implications for other institutions to initiate IR.
  • Topic: Education, Science and Technology, Research
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Global Focus
  • Author: Muhammad Hussain Chishti, Iftikhar Ahmad Baig, Abdul Majid Khan Rana
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South Asia means one-fourth population of the world, comprises 7 countries, and the most backward region of the world, educationally, economically and in human development index. On the other hand, it is historically was a rich region with most ancient and educated civilization of the world before colonial rule. The aim of the study was to examine professional attitude of teachers and their psychological satisfaction level towards work culture after adopting teaching profession at university level in the region of South Asia. The researchers explored three major components of attitude called ABC model, A for Affective, B for Behavior and C for Cognitive to explore teaching attitude. The researchers investigate psychological satisfaction level in teachers specify with three factors called intrinsic, extrinsic and altruistic. The study was nonexperimental in its nature with descriptive study design. All teachers of public universities of the South Asian region were the population of the study. Out of three hundred sample teachers, 233 teachers participated in the research from 8 universities. After reviewing the literature two questionnaires were constructed by the researchers for discovering attitude towards teaching ten statements and satisfaction level of teachers towards teaching after adopting teaching profession eight statements at point Likert scale. Pilot testing of the instruments was also conducted. Overall reliability of instruments on Cronbach's Alpha is (α = .91), while attitude (α = .77) and satisfaction was (α = .80) accordingly. Each questionnaire was on five point Likert scale. On the basis of the information it was decided to apply a parametric test One Sample T Test and to check relationship a Pearson Correlation Test were applied. Results of the study show that teachers have positive attitude towards teaching and teachers were low satisfied after adopting teaching profession. According to findings many suitable suggestions were provided by researchers. Key Words; Profession, Attitude, Work Culture, Psychometric Satisfaction, South Asia
  • Topic: Development, Education, Research, Work Culture
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Muhammad Abdullah, Rubeena Zakar
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The objective of the present study is to explore the levels of health literacy among the rural and urban population of Pakistan and its connection with their subjective wellbeing because promoting health and wellbeing for all have been declared as a sustainable development goal by United Nations. The present study used qualitative methods conducting in-depth interviews with male and female population from two districts of the Punjab to achieve study goals. Findings indicated that a low levels of health literacy prevails in rural areas while the case is little different in Urban areas. Health literacy increases the wellbeing of the people while there are some factors like religious and cultural beliefs of the local community about health which affect the wellbeing of the people even in presence of the good health information. Comprehensive and tailored programs for community mobilization and advancing health literacy are recommended to promote health and wellbeing.
  • Topic: Development, Health, United Nations, World Health Organization, Health Care Policy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Umar Farooq, Asma Shakir Khawaja
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The article is intended to find out the geopolitical implications, regional constraints and benefits of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Researcher reviewed both published research articles and books to find out geopolitical implication, regional constraints and benefits of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. For this purpose, researcher also reviewed newspapers articles and published reports by government and non-governmental stakeholders working on CPEC. Review of the articles and reports indicated that CPEC had enormous benefits not only for China and Pakistan but also for the whole region. But different internal and external stakeholders are not in favor of successful completion of this project. Extremism, sense of deprivation, lack of political consensus, political instability are some of the internal constraints. On the other hand, Afghanistan, India, Iran, UAE and USA are posing constraints to halt the successful completion of CPEC.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Violent Extremism, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Iran, South Asia, India, Asia, Punjab, United Arab Emirates, United States of America
  • Author: Dayyab Gillani
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The following paper attempts to analyze the ongoing insurgency in Afghanistan by critically evaluating the insurgent ideology, its past, current and future relevance. The paper draws on lessons from the recent Afghanistan history and discusses the irrelevance for the future of Afghanistan. It traces the success of Taliban insurgency by highlighting the role of „mullahs‟ and „madrasas‟ in the Afghan society. It argues that the US policy in Afghanistan thus far has failed to isolate the public from the insurgents, which poses serious present and future challenges. By drawing parallels between the sudden Soviet withdrawal in the early 1990s and a potential US withdrawal in the near future. It also points out that an untimely US withdrawal from Afghanistan may entail an end of US engagement but it will not be an end of war for Afghanistan itself. The essay stresses the importance of a consistent long-term US policy aimed at addressing the very root causes of insurgency in the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, War, Military Strategy, Insurgency, Taliban, Islamism
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Rukhsana Yasmeen, Muhammad Iqbal Chawla
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This article attempts to explores, investigate and analyzes the postcolonial Urdu writings on the Pakistani women‟s participation in the socio-economic, religious and political arena. Urdu literature is spread all over the subcontinent and there are no borders in literature that can split it into two. This article would like to discuss literature mainly produced by Pakistani writers. However, while arguing that most literature has been written from a patriarchal viewpoint throughout the history, two main themes dominated the postcolonial literature firstly, role of women in the patriarchal society and other, the trauma of migration and its impact on the Muslim women in Pakistan. Islamic influence enforced purdah on Muslim women and purdahless women were regarded as infidel and shameless in literature. Nineteenth century Muslim writers advocated modern education for women not with the idea of emancipation but with a view to creating the modern wife, sister and mother. In this context, we can see that Allama Rashid-ulKhairi's modernist writings which were apparently sympathetic to women, were in fact meant to strengthen existing gender arrangements. The Progressive Writers‟ Movement brought about some change in the representation of women and the family, for example, Sajjad Haider Yaldram, Azeem Baig Chughtai and Ismat Chughtai depicted the negative side of the patriarchal society in which women were being exploited. The horror and trauma of partition enabled writers like Saadat Hasan Manto to highlight contradictions within the apparently monolithic institution of the family. Aziz Ahmad and Qurat-ul-Ain Haider also poignantly painted the picture of disintegrated lives and the anguish of exile. This article also demonstrates that male domination is consolidated through binary constructions of good women and bad women in society. This has been a continuation of nineteenth century notions of Muslim womanhood most clearly portrayed in Deputy Nazeer Ahmad's novel Mirat-ul-Uroos. The article will encompass the representation of women in Urdu literature during post-independence Pakistan. The influence of patriarchal mindset of the society on literature will also be discussed
  • Topic: Post Colonialism, Arts, Women, Representation, Literature
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Kanwal Hayat, Rehana Saeed Hashmi
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: China claims South China Sea as its sovereign domain where it possesses the right to intervene militarily and economically. However, USA considers South China Sea as a common global passage where rule of law and freedom of navigation should prevail.These diverging viewpoints coexist in a wobbly peace environment where both US and China want their own version of international law to be applied and have occasionally resorted to minor armed conflicts over this issue. Every state claiming authority over South China Sea is willing to use coercion in order to get what they want, however, the extent of how far they are willing to go is not clear. This is resulting in a show of gunboat diplomacy involving maritime force of influential states that strives to manipulate the policy makers of the relevant nations (Costlow, 2012). The paper will focus on the situation in the South China Sea. South China Sea is not only claimed by China but various other Asian nations. Does this territorial strife possess the power to turn the region into a war zone? Being one of the most active trade routes in the world having complicated geography and the diverging regional and international interests makes it very sensitive area. China being the emerging economic giant gives competition to the USA in many spheres. Although America has no territorial claim in the South China Sea, it has strategic and economic interests. Where China wants a complete hegemonic control of the area, USA wants to find a way where free unchecked trade could be the future for all.Accompanied with numerous other South Asian nations claiming various portions of the region, a constant tension exists in the region.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Sovereignty, Territorial Disputes, Hegemony, Conflict
  • Political Geography: China, Asia, North America, United States of America, Oceans
  • Author: A. Z. Hilali
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a set of projects under China‟s Belt and Road initiative, marks a new era of economic ties in a bilateral relationship between the two traditional friends. The multi-dimensional project will not only reform Pakistan economy but it will serve for people‟s prosperity and will help to revive the country economy of both countries. The visions of project partners are clear and the goals of the short term, mid-term and long-term plans of CPEC have been identified. So, the CPEC is not just a transit route for China and Pakistan‟s exports but it will transform Pakistan‟s economy and overcome its problems such as unemployment, energy, underdevelopment, and overall external economic dependency by building capacity in all necessary sectors. Therefore, CPEC could promote economic development and growth which will open new avenues and investment to the country which is based on shared partnership of cooperation, mutual benefits and sustainability. Thus, the CPEC is a grand porgramme and will deliver the economic gains to both China-Pakistan and it can be executed more efficiently and in a balanced way to serve the interests of both the countries. The project of CPEC is also important to China‟s energy and strategic security with reference to South China Sea and other regional and global players. Thus, CPEC could bring economic avenues to Pakistan and can improve regional economic and trade activities for greater development and prosperity. It has perceived that the project will not only foster socio-economic development but it will also reduce the level of political humidity and will be source of peace and harmony between the traditional adversaries. It has also assumed that regional economic integration through CPEC could be a harbinger to resolve the political differences by economic cooperation and regional economic connection could make 21st century the Asian century setting aside the perennial political issues to start a new beginning. Thus, in a longer perspective the CPEC can foster an economic community in the entire region of Asia and beyond if its vision is materialized in its true sense. The time will prove that the CPEC reap its fruits and will be advantages for not only Pakistan and China but for the entire region.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Power Politics, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Usman Bashir, Iram Khalid
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study is focused on the impact of religion on the electoral pattern of the people of Punjab. Religion as a determinant of voting behavior is best expressed in the votes secured by the religious parties. Thus, religious parties vote in Pakistan and Punjab is studied to build an argument. Religion has a strong impact on human life. It influences each act and attitude of the individual especially in developing countries. In Pakistan; religion has a solid affect in shaping the political attitudes and beliefs of the individuals. It is one of the key elements of politics.2018 general elections saw a sudden rise in the vote bank of religious political parties. It witnessed a 2.17 % increase in the religious vote country wide and 1.32% increase in Punjab. Tahreek Labbaik Pakistan appeared on the scene as a radical Sunni Islamic party, it mobilized the barelvi vote bank to great effect. And it emerged as the third largest party of Punjab, in terms of votes polled. 2018 general elections also witnessed the rise of Milli Muslim League which was a political wing of Jamaat-ud-Dawa, who were previously rejecting the parliamentary form of government and were critical of voting in elections. The increase in the influence of the various spiritual gaddi nasheen in the electoral politics of Punjab was also a prominent factor during the 11th general election.
  • Topic: Islam, Politics, Religion, Elections
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Nazir Hussain, Amna Javed
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South Asia is an important but complex region. Its manifold complexity is largely ascribed through historical, economic, political and strategic manifestations. The region has witnessed instability in all the given premises and interactions. The entirety happens to be the fact that the structure of alignments is motivated by security complexes which involve cohesion of foreign powers and regional states. The US, Russia, Iran and China now make out to be contemporary stakeholders in South Asian security equation. Their involvement has been seen as a major reorientation in the regional dynamics in terms of political, economic and security characteristics. The manifold possibilities of re-alignments are what the future of the region will look like. The chance of full-fledged strategic alliance in the face of US-India on the basis of similar political, economic and security interests is on the horizon. As a corollary to this alliance pattern, there is China-Russia-Pakistan alliance which is similar in force but opposite in direction. These two systems are one set of opposition forces to each other, which are also natural in form. Another structure which occurs out of the regional dynamics happens to be of India-Iran-Afghanistan which is a trifecta aiming at Pakistan. On the other hand, Russia-China-Pakistan which could turn into a politically motivated and economically driven alliance and can also cover certain aspects of security. Therefore, due to various changes in order there will stem out various patterns of relationships, which could set the order of the region as one marked by various fluctuating alignment patterns.
  • Topic: Security, Economics, Power Politics, Geopolitics, Realignment
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, China, South Asia, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Qamar Fatima, Iram Naseer
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Multiculturalism is thoroughly connected with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition,” which assigns a promise to increasing disparaged appearances and shifting leading arrangements of illustration as well as interaction which disregards definite units. It encompasses claims of fiscal benefits, political power, distinctiveness and culture. In this backdrop, the article targets to analyze traditional interaction as a panacea of all social and border disputes in this new century through the Chinese BRI connecting the current situation along historical linkages of Old Silk Road (OSR). Likewise, the basic purpose of this study is to investigate how seventy states in BRI project can be unified through cultural collaboration other than political, economic and strategic partnership, following Chinese pushing forward scheme in New Silk Road (NSR). In fact, BRI would provide all stakeholders of this project a golden opportunity to value their disregarded culture whose ethos lost actual worth because of Western rule since decades in this landmass. Moreover, the study is grounded with the theoretical approaches of cross-cultural power and leading theorizers of multiculturalism supported by Confucius, Iqbal, Nietzsche, Ibn Khaldun, Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka. Besides, the data have been taken from the official reports, reports on cultural meetings among diplomats from BRI official sites and archival holy manuscripts to reevaluate the value of marginalized local cultures of Arabian, Indian and Chinese civilizations. Overall, the study distinguishes that how diversity is the real beauty of Asia and manifold culture of Asia is embedded with each other because of erstwhile historical links and it‟s tough to separate diverse identities of Asia on ethnic and communal grounds.
  • Topic: Globalization, Culture, Multiculturalism, Soft Power, Identities, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Shoukat Ali, Abdul Majid
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Nepal is one of the members of SAARC. Like most of other members, Nepal has also a long socio-political history. It has a particular culture that distinguishes it from the other members. The current study is mainly a descriptive study that is based on secondary data in which the researchers collected data from different articles, books and research reports. This article is an attempt to explore the social and political history of Nepal. Nepal has passed through different phases of political rules like the rule of Shah Dynasty and Rana’s rule. During 1950s, Nepal for the first time in the history opened for international community. Nepal practiced Panchayat System as well. The Maoist Movement is also an important phase in the political history of Nepal. Furthermore, the local government system is also discussed in detail by the researchers. Like the different political eras, it also faced many changes. Currently, Nepal is experiencing two tiers Local Government System that is District Development Committee (DDC) and Village Development Committee (VDC).
  • Topic: Demographics, Politics, History, Governance, Culture
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Asia, Nepal, Punjab
  • Author: Fouzia Hadi Ali, Aban Abid Qazi
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The role of social media as an enabling platform for co-creation in political marketing is a nascent terrain for the researchers nowadays. This study attempts to apply the proposed Political Co-Creation Framework through a convergent mixed method research design in the South Asian context that simultaneously gathers data through different modes. Based on the General Elections 2018 in Pakistan, the study provides a basis to examine how co-creation in political marketing through the platform of social media has revolutionized the way potential voters engage in the voting decision-making process. The findings of the study reveal that when citizens in a country confront with turmoil in the political system that tends to create social dissatisfaction and civil society integration that provides a basis for the actors (i.e., leaders and voters) to co-create through knowledge sharing and ultimately create a proactive system by promoting awareness and engagement among the citizens. Moreover, the findings also reveal that the co-creation process tends to create resilience from negative propaganda among the potential voters that strengthen their voting decision for their favored political party. It is noteworthy that up till now the political parties are indulged in the co-creation process unconsciously. So the most important implication of this study is to make the political parties aware of the potential to consciously use social media as an engaging platform to co-create that can prove to be a useful tool in political marketing.
  • Topic: Politics, Elections, Internet, Social Media
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Sanwal Hussain Kharl, Khizar Abbass Bhatti, Khalid Manzoor Butt, Xiaoqing Xie
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The study aims to express counter-terrorism situation in Pakistan where terrorism has prevailed in last two decades. There have been more than 100,000 fatalities, the government bears 126 billion US dollars financially, 92 billion US dollars in terms of indirect losses and overall an estimated 10 million people nationally are affected by terrorism. NACTA was formed under National Action Plan to counter terrorism, it was the first step toward concrete anti-terrorism policy. This secondary data based qualitative research highlights efficacy of counter- terrorism policies. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of NACTA framework and its performance. The counter- terrorism strategies minimized security threats demonstrating considerable decrease in numbers of suicide attacks and violent activities.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Counter-terrorism, Political Science, Legislation
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Ammara Tabassum, Umbreen Javaid
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: St. Thomas, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ, came to India by ship following the sea routes. While some historians also believe that St. Thomas came to India by crossing Asia Minor West Taxila, north Thatta, and afterwards, he settled in India. There is a consensus among historians that St. Thomas first reached Taxila which was then ruled by a Buddhist king, Gonophores. All of the historians relate the meeting of St. Thomas met with Gonophores. According to the current historical publications, it was in the 3rd century when Christians reached India and settled in the North West and they were called Thomai or Christians of St. Thomas while they are named as Thomai in the present day. In 72 A.D Hindu Brahmins martyred St. Thomas in Mylapore and now the Shrine of St. Thomas is situated in Chennai, India. Thousands of people come to Chennai and visit his shrine. The shrine of St. Thomas is the evidence of Christian presence in India in the 1st century. A king, Kanishka, attacked Taxila; he plundered, devastated and robbed the people, causing ruin. This forced the early Christian settlers to disperse and migrate towards Northern Punjab and Central India. Though Mughal Empire governed the Subcontinent for 200 years yet in this long period they were unable to affect the Hinduism and Christianity. Islam is considered as minority during the period of Mughal Empire. During the period of Mughal Empire some Muslim Emperor forced the Punjabi Christians to enter the fold of Islam and many Christians accepted Islam and those who did not, were targeted and scattered
  • Topic: Religion, History, Christianity, Catholic Church
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Nomana Zaryab, Rana Eijaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Punjab Public Library stands as a hallmark of combination of two buildings- one a bāradari built in the Mughal period with all the architectural details and qualities of that period, second a later constructed building during the British Rāj, and subsequently added extensions after partition to meet the demand of grander space. The intention of this research paper is to have a closer vision at the use of European style of architecture in addition to existing historical Islamic period’s building. The research will explore the key elements that permit the Mughal and Colonial style of architecture to work side by side for the same purpose, respecting and promoting each other’s architectural eminence. Old and new style of architecture at one place provides a timeline of certain society and these emblematic details represent the change and growth of our culture.
  • Topic: Politics, History, Colonialism, Material Culture, Architecture
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, United Kingdom, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Syed Shahbaz Hussain, Ghulam Mustafa, Robina Khan, Muhammad Azhar
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Peace building is the rehearsal of developing policies that strengthen the peace and re-establish order through social, political and economic reforms. Peace building has shifted its state-centric approach to regional focused agendas for more than a decade.South Asia is a diverse region with a unique geo-strategic significance, socio-political subtleties, and economic diversities. It faces distinct traditional and non-traditional challenges in the process of peace building. South Asia – the home to one third global population faces immense challenges due to weak state structure. The long and persistent influence of external powers in decision making process in South Asia has impacted the political evolution of the states included in the said region. The lack of fundamental necessities has increased the level of frustration and the sense of deprivation, which provides a fertile ground for the prospect of conflicts. The region is often labelled as one of the most dangerous regions on earth due to growing intolerance, extremism, terrorism, insurgencies and rise of various nuclear powers in South Asia. Kenneth Waltz claimed that the anarchic international system is a power that shapes the states behaviour, as the structure of the anarchic system compels states to adopt certain policies. In this exploratory research, an effort has been made to explore and analyze that how anarchic international structure influences and affects the peace building process in South Asia.
  • Topic: Peace Studies, Insurgency, Peacekeeping, Conflict, State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, South Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Punjab, Bhutan, Maldives, Indian Ocean
  • Author: H.S. Sharif, Jafar Riaz Kataria
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper would discuss freedom of expression and restrictions on the freedom with particular reference to the provisions of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the „Justiciability Doctrine‟ as enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). The question whether the freedom of expression claims are justiciable or not, in third world countries like Pakistan and how it helps in the advancement of rule of law and good governance would be explored. The focus would be on the cultural relativism narrative developed ever since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The claims of „Universalism‟ associated with human rights especially freedom of expression would be criticized with respect to the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine as reflected in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and adopted in other jurisdictions. Freedom of expression and the rights of minorities in Pakistan would be discussed with a special mention of proselytization and forced conversions. Lastly, the role of legislation and judiciary in Pakistan for the protection and advancement of the freedom of expression guarantee would be discussed.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Governance, Culture, Freedom of Expression, Rule of Law
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Talat Islam, Muhammad Khalid Khan, Momina Asad
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship among organizational learning culture (OLC), perceived organizational support (POS), knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) and workplace spirituality (WS). The study was conducted on banking sector of Pakistan and data was collected through questionnaire-based survey. A sample of 300 respondents was selected using item response theory from which 248 respondents replied, however only 226 responses were used in the final analysis because of outliers. The study used statistical package for social sciences to analyze data. The study found that both organizational learning culture and perceived organizational support positively associated to workplace spirituality. Further, the hierarchical regression has confirmed the mediating role of knowledge sharing behaviors between the same associations. The study has used cross-sectional survey technique and there is a probability that respondents have given biased responses. Identification of the antecedents of workplace spirituality will help the HR managers to increase the commitment of employees towards their organization.
  • Topic: Business , Political Science, Work Culture
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Kamal Ud Din, Mir Waheed Akhlaq
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: English language has been playing many roles in the overall social development of the subcontinent at the same time being a controversial issue in terms of a threat to the local languages. Democracy as worldwide accepted way of political structure, its basic values and principles come through English language education into South Asia. Since education system, in any country, provides the input to the political system, thus, if the democratic political system is a common desire, the first aspect to work on must be the educational institutions. However, struggle towards democracy has been an emerging phenomenon in the overall scenario of South Asia, and English language as official language and language of education has been playing its role in it, which is not well explored. On the basis of latest research studies, a comparison has been drawn between the three important countries in order to explore what and how English language plays its role in spreading and practicing the democratic principles and values in the educational institutions.
  • Topic: Democratization, Education, Multiculturalism, Language
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Farzana Naheed Khan, M. Tariq Majeed
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The growing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and egovernment has attracted the attention of policy makers who are committed to increase the GDP per capita of a country. Therefore, this study investigates the growth effects of ICT and egovernment for a sample of eight South Asian economies over the period 1980-2016. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study, which examines the relationship between economic growth and ICT with a special emphasis on the role of ICT implementation in public sector. In particular, we use diverse indicators of ICT to assess the robustness of empirical findings. Moreover, the study employs instrumental estimation techniques 2SLS and GMM to deal with the possible problem of endogeneity. The empirical findings of our study indicate that growth effects of ICT as well as e-government are positive and significant in all models. Finally, our study concludes that the South Asia region can greatly benefit from the implementation of ICT infrastructure in general and in public sector in particular.
  • Topic: Government, Science and Technology, Internet, Political Science
  • Political Geography: South Asia, Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Atif Ashraf, Ghulam Shabbir
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study has been conducted to determine editorial independence of broadcast journalists in current political environment of Pakistan. Journalists from top news channels were approached to explore the political pressures that bar journalists to conduct their professional duties freely. Survey was conducted to asnalyse the level of media freedom based on perception of the professionals. It is found that political factors have a considerable influence on media practice. Freedom of media is being affected by the current democratic set-up of the country.
  • Topic: Politics, Media, News Analysis, Freedom of Expression, Journalism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Tahira Jabeen
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Since the introduction of the Policy for Regulation of INGOs in Pakistan, 2015 and the draft Regulation of Foreign Contribution Act 2013-15 (RFCA),the state-civil society relationship in Pakistan has been once again in jeopardy. This paper examines the issue of regulating civil society organizations in Pakistan, considering the unique composition of Pakistani civil society, its role, and the existing legal framework while drawing on examples from the region. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that due to the importance of associational life in the development and democratization of Pakistan, civic organizations should be regulated in the light of the constitutional provisions, which consider rights to association as basic human rights.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Human Rights, Non-Governmental Organization, Regulation, State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Mudassir Mukhtar, Khuram Shahzad
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper explores the prestige and importance of public relations function in Pakistan by investigating reporting relationship of the public relations department to the highest management, “PR department contribution to strategic planning and decision-making”, “PR department contribution in research” and “organizational support to PR department/PR Department Prestige”. The results are based on email survey responses randomly collected from the highest ranked practitioners of 101 inhouse PR departments of public and private sector organizations adopting a stratified sampling technique. The results indicate that private sector organizations place more importance on public relations function in Pakistan as compared to public sector organizations. Public relations departments in private sector organizations in Pakistan are more involved in strategic planning and decision making significantly contribute in and benefit more from research-based activities and enjoy a better prestige in the eyes of their top management as compare to public relations departments in public sector organizations.
  • Topic: Media, Political Science, Public Relations
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Ahmad Ejaz
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South Asia has always been regarded as a significant area for the security interests of the United States. In view of the U.S. threat perceptions in Asia, the American policy makers were constantly motivated to construct a stable security system in the region. The U.S. security programme in South Asia actually is predominantly exerted on United States-Pakistan –India triangular relationship. Given its strategic perspective in the area, the U.S. policy is found transferred. During the Cold War days, the U.S. interests were attached with Pakistan. Thus Pakistan was regarded as the „America‟s most allied ally in Asia.‟ With the end of Cold War, the U.S. policy underwent a tremendous change that subsequently picked India as a potential counterweight to China and called it a „natural partner.‟ Eventually, the U.S.-Pakistan relations had been in a depressing setting. However, in the post 9/11 period, the two countries came closer and collaborated in war against terrorism. But this single-issue alliance could not engulf the differences between the partners. This paper attempts to trace the US security policy and its maneuvering in South Asia during and after the Cold War periods.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Cold War, International Cooperation, International Security, History, Military Strategy, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, South Asia, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Hafeez Ullah Khan
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper is an attempt to examine how is soft power and public diplomacy imperative conditions for Pakistan‟s international stature by examining the effective utilization of public diplomacy of the states like USA, Russia, China and India, public diplomacy of which have got a very significant position at the international stage. Based on an understanding of their Public diplomacy, the author seeks to explore what lessons and strategies should Pakistan take into consideration for the promotion of Pakistan‟s good image at the international front, and how Pakistan can be successful in achieving the positive results. The author has highlighted some serious recommendations as well.
  • Topic: International Relations, Diplomacy, Power Politics, Geopolitics, Soft Power, State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Russia, China, South Asia, India, Asia, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Saima Butt, Rehana Saeed Hashmi
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Economic development tends to bring stability in conflict ridden areas and mostly acts as a prescription for political stability and sustainability. In this context, Balochistan is one such study which implicates that deprivation and economic backwardness have been key players in intensifying conflict within and between the federal and provincial governments. Relative economic deprivation in Balochistan has become one of the root causes of conflict in the area. This study would focuses on developmental projects introduced by President General Pervez Musharraf in 2005 to pacify the intensity of insurgency in Balochistan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Development, Natural Resources, Economic Growth, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab, Balochistan
  • Author: Muhammad Tehsin, Asif Ali, Ghulam Qumber
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The protracted conflict between the US and the former USSR demonstrated that deterrence stability is improved by détente. South Asia‟s environment is characterized by mutual hostility; conventional military balance tilting in favor of India; and lack of a transparent and nonaggressive nuclear doctrine. The aforementioned factors are the missing components of détente. Both the provocative Indian expansion in its nuclear weapons programme, and Pakistani retaliatory notion of the short-range weapons option, is problematic not only in the South Asian context, but also contradictory to the decades-long experience acquired during the Cold War. Pakistan and India must move towards nuclear CBMs, doctrinal clarity, and risk-reduction measures in the light of new technological advancements, and changing US role in the region.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Territorial Disputes, Nuclear Power, Political stability, Grand Strategy, Crisis Management
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Fozia Naseem, Asma Shakir Khawaja, Ishtiaq Ahmad Choudhry
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Honour killing in Pakistan is a very critical issue which is being echoed throughout the world. Parallel to it are the governmental claims that this issue has been addressed, by enhancing the representation in the legislature assemblies and by the strict and hard laws in this regard. However, this problem is the deeply rooted in socio-economic and cultural values and traditions of the country. The supporters of such values are sitting in the lawmaking bodies and openly support such negative practices. They have kept the doors open in the legal and judicial system for the escape of the offenders. Overwhelming majority of the victims are women of the remote rural areas, while the offenders are, mainly, the husbands, fathers or brothers. The reasons of this cruel practice, as found in this study are related to the alleged extra marital relations of the women (which never proved) or exercise of the choice of marriage by the victims, and very rarely the disputes of the property. Majority of the crimes remained unregistered, hence no question of the trial or the punishment. Major hindrances in the improvement of lack of women education, poverty, poor implementation system of law, poor grip/writ of the government in the remote rural areas of the country.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Marriage, Honor Killing
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Fozia Naseem, Asma Shakir Khawaja, Ishtiaq Ahmad Choudhry
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Honour killing in Pakistan is a very critical issue which is being echoed throughout the world. Parallel to it are the governmental claims that this issue has been addressed, by enhancing the representation in the legislature assemblies and by the strict and hard laws in this regard. However, this problem is the deeply rooted in socio-economic and cultural values and traditions of the country. The supporters of such values are sitting in the lawmaking bodies and openly support such negative practices. They have kept the doors open in the legal and judicial system for the escape of the offenders. Overwhelming majority of the victims are women of the remote rural areas, while the offenders are, mainly, the husbands, fathers or brothers. The reasons of this cruel practice, as found in this study are related to the alleged extra marital relations of the women (which never proved) or exercise of the choice of marriage by the victims, and very rarely the disputes of the property. Majority of the crimes remained unregistered, hence no question of the trial or the punishment. Major hindrances in the improvement of lack of women education, poverty, poor implementation system of law, poor grip/writ of the government in the remote rural areas of the country.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Marriage, Honor Killing
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Faisal, Rana Eijaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the contemporary phase of international politics, national security strategy (NSC) is considered as a primary factor in the process of state-crafting. It addresses the key concerns; such as domestic, regional and global threats. It also focuses on the policy framework for the security of the state. In this age of uncertain geo-political environment, every nation-state has adopted a particular strategy in a certain strategic environment to minimize their strategic threats. Thus, the NSC is very important for enhancing the national security of the state. It also very helpful in maintaining the regional and global strategic balance. Contemporary formation of nation-state has defined some certain parameters for the formation of national security. These parameters are very important for achieving several particular objectives such as global strategic stability, regional hegemony and the survival of the political regime in the domestic political domain. The development of NSC has become more complex in the modern politico-strategic than the past ages. This research article finds the parameters of national security strategy which have been adopted by Iran and North Korea to maintain the strategic balance in the regional and global arena. The article concludes that Iran and North Korea must find an independent decision-making syndrome to accelerate the process of national security in the existing strategic domain.
  • Topic: National Security, Geopolitics, Strategic Stability
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Asia, North Korea
  • Author: Syed Shahbaz Hussain, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Imran, Adnan Nawaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Kashmir issue is a primary source of resentment between India and Pakistan. It is considered the oldest issue on the schedule of the Security Council yet to be resolved. This divisive issue remained unsolved and has become the nuclear flashpoint. The peace of the South Asian region is severely contingent upon the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute. It is not only the pivot of bitterness in the bilateral relation of India and Pakistan, it also a continuous threat to the regional peace in South Asia. This study critically assesses and evaluated the issue in the perspective of historical facts and current context regarding Kashmir. Chronological data presented and describe that the Kashmir issue has deteriorated the fragile security of South Asian region and remained a continuous threat of nuclear escalation in the region. Kashmir issue has severe implications for populace of Kashmir as well as for the region
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Security, Human Rights, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Kashmir
  • Author: Rukhsana Iftikhar, Maqbool Ahmad Awan
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Women have always been treated as second grade citizen in Pakistan. Pakistan is considered the 3rd unsafe country for women to live. Pakistani women are facing problems in their private and public life. Violence is the most thriving issue for the women in Pakistan. The main reason of the wide spread violence is poverty and ignorance. Social structure is not supporting woman although gender ratio of population is more than half. This paper is an attempt to explore the causes and types of violence in Pakistan. It also deals with the effects of violence in society. State has introduced a number of legislations but the common woman in Pakistan is conscious about her rights. The state of Pakistan is not progressed without the help of other gender. State and women both have to take the task to eradicate the issue of violence.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Gender Based Violence , Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Asif
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The world observed the transformation process of Continent Africa from Colonialism to independence with hopes and fears. In Cold War Era, the African states have been engaged by the superpowers, on strategic and economic fronts, with certain limitations. On the other hand, in Post-Cold War phase, the Continent Africa had been addressed with laudable objectives. Now, the wave of religious extremism, in Continent Africa, has been perceived as a serious security threat, compelled to the international community to pay serious attention to deal the African states. There is no doubt that the entire region has multidimensional challenges and opportunities and its picture has to be drawn at larger canvass. The objective of the present research paper is to analyze those factors, which given space to Boko Haram, a religious extremist organization, in Nigeria. No exaggeration in saying Boko Haram extremely disturbed the internal and external dynamic of the state. Now, it has become a burden on the political and economic life of Nigeria. The qualitative research methodology has been used to argue the issue of religious militancy in Nigeria, in the context of Boko Haram. Secondary source of data has been used by keeping in mind the theoretical nature of the research paper. The study determines that the military operations are not sole solution to counter the religious extremism of Boko Haram until the economic, social and political issues of the Nigerian society are not addressed. There is a dire need to establish strong commitment level of the common Nigerian over the political system otherwise the issue of Boko Haram will remain intact.
  • Topic: Religion, Violent Extremism, Conflict, Boko Haram
  • Political Geography: Africa, Nigeria, Horn of Africa
  • Author: M. Ihsan Qadir, Saif Ur Rehman, S. M. A. Gardezi
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The distressing ethno-demographic conflict in Myanmar is a sordid reality of recent human history. The two ethnic groups; Buddhists and Rohingyas (mainly Muslims) living in North Westerly state (Rakhine State) are at daggers drawn with each other since last many decades. History of this intra-state conflict dates back to British colonization of Burma in 1824. The widespread state sponsored persecution of Rohingya community after Myanmar‟s independence in 1948 has created waves of ethnic and political instability one after the other. Few contributory causes of the conflict include; systematic denial of citizenship rights, restrictions on freedom of movement, absence of healthcare facilities and deprivation of education for Rohingya community. The most serious of all is denial of citizen rights which has rendered the community stateless. The prolonged sufferings at the hands of majority population (Buddhists) have forced this stateless community to contemplate carving out a separate autonomous state by seceding from Myanmar. This resulted in creating gulf of distrust between both the parties triggering a major intrastate conflict in South Asia. The conflict lifecycle has witnessed many rounds of violence resulting in huge destruction of life and property. This article examines regional repercussions of recent cycle of violence and suggests few conflict resolution strategies.
  • Topic: Demographics, Ethnic Conflict, Secession, Rohingya
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Arooj Khan
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In Pakistan, women are considered as a stigmatized community and beholden to different social and cultural norms. Though they are almost half of the population but it seems that they are restricted from having liberty, education, economic exposure and rights. As far as notion of working women is concerned, it is a general perception that in Pakistan, poverty stimulates poor women to work and support family otherwise Society does not accept the notion of working women. They are under male domination and very few women take part in economic activities. However, the women who work mostly work in informal sector which further exacerbate their problems. In urban areas like Lahore, domestic service sector is the major sector of employment for women. Due to toothless laws and lack of regulation of this work, these female workers confront numerous problems. This descriptive research will explore some crucial problems of domestic workers in Lahore; identify the underlying reasons that compel the women to join this sector.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Labor Issues, Women, Exploitation, Abuse
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Iram Khalid, Muhammad Rashid
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The groups of people based on religion, language or ethnicity living in a state but in lesser numbers are called minorities. The minority groups have been living in Pakistan amicably since independence and have been playing their active role in the development of society especially in education and health sectors. Despite being living in conducive environment as good and responsible citizens, the minority groups have been facing inequality, discrimination and victimization by both the state and society. These minorities have been marginalized in almost every segment of life including employment, education, and top of all-the religious freedom. The minorities, especially the Christians have some serious issues about their security and often mention that they have been targeted especially under Blasphemy Law in which they have been prosecuted in the name of religion. Most of these blasphemy cases have been found out to be the result of personal enmity and religious vendettas. The government needs to address these issues of minorities on emergency footings for an inclusive and moderate Pakistani society.
  • Topic: Religion, Law, Minorities, Freedom of Religion
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Haroon Rafique
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The landmark United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) introduced „unique‟ provision of the right to child participation in its Article 12. This Convention, ratified by most states including Pakistan, gives right of participation to children in making decisions on matters related to them and makes it binding for the states to implement it in letter and spirit. The state is responsible for creating enabling environment which includes creation of necessary institutions, enacting or where necessary amending laws, formulating policies and strategies, allocating sufficient budgets, making congenial environment for NGOs and public consultations. This paper argues that state in Pakistan has not been able to sufficiently develop the enabling environment to fulfill the obligations that resulted in the aftermath of ratification UNCRC.
  • Topic: Government, Human Rights, United Nations, Children
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Global Focus
  • Author: Umbreen Javaid, Hassan Iqbal
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Availability of per capita water is decreasing in Pakistan very fast. No serious effort has been done after the commissioning of Mangla and Tarbela dams long ago. The efficacy of these dams is also falling fast due to sedimentation. The construction of Kalabagh dam has been made politically controversial and Sindh, KPK and Baluchistan provinces are not even ready to consider the proposal. Successive Governments are dragging their feet on Diamer Bhasha dam due to its cost, long time required for completion and other logistic challenges. India, as upper riparian, is continuing with its designs to impede water flow towards Pakistan by building hydroelectric projects, and at some places even diverting water against the Indus Water Treaty 1960. Pakistan has already entered water stressed zone and experts are since long warning about this fact. It is said that the scarcity of water could prove to be a bigger threat than even the terrorism which Pakistan faced for almost 20 years. If it is politically Kalabagh dam is not feasible Pakistan should find alternatives, as there is no short cut solution to this problem. It has already been delayed for long and further delay shall cause clausal damages to economy, agriculture, industry, environment, ecology and above all national integration, as shortage of water is turning into inter provincial dispute.
  • Topic: Natural Resources, Water
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Fazal Abbas Awan
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South Asian region is now facing a new star because Space is an advantageous frontier for military uses. Space technology has two aspects on the name of security such as Militarization and Weaponization. These terms cannot properly differentiate the difference between security and threat for space. All current and previous super powers are working on space for more than five decades in the name of technology and security. Now these super powers are going to make grouping on space for getting hegemony not only on earth but also in space. As a result, the challenges in space have triggered and magnified the security dilemma for the South Asian rivals, interconnecting China, India, and Pakistan in the context of an international security complex. Indian foreign policy for other regional countries and applying strategy of Kautilya to defeat their enemy by using name of South Asian Satellite is new wave of race.
  • Topic: Security, Science and Technology, Space, Satellite
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, India
  • Author: Sarwat Rauf
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper aims to examine the role of youth in the promotion of good governance in Pakistan. It highlights the importance of youth for Pakistan‟s development. Almost 60% of the country‟s population is young and they have the potential to bring prosperity and good governance. The development of Pakistan is in the hands of the country's energetic and talented youth. However, fewer opportunities, the dearth of proper supervision and lack of capacity to absorb true/untrue information are misguiding them. Very few of our youngsters know the technique to utilize time and positive energies excellently. This paper focuses that psychologically vulnerable youth can be an easy prey of criminals. Today, the problem of our large number of youngsters is, they are with no work and their energies are turning into destruction and crimes. In this backdrop, this study endeavors to find the answer that how we can provide the right avenues to our youngsters to excel. The societal pressures and depression are causes of drug addiction in the teenagers. Thus, systemic involvement of youth is needed to build strong Pakistan; for this youth must be cognizant of national and international changes. In this regard, parenting plays important role. Moreover, for character building, educational institutions and media are effective tools. The formation of career counseling centers to guide our youth is indispensable. Without the training of today‟s youth, we cannot expect renowned scientists, engineers and future political leaders. Overall, it is focused that training/ counseling and employment opportunities must be prioritized so that intolerance and violence in the society can be curbed.
  • Topic: Development, Governance, Youth, Society
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Ayra Indrias Patras
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The UN Nairobi Forward Looking Strategy defined peace as not only the absence of war, violence and hostilities; it means the enjoyment of economic welfare, social justice, human rights and fundamental freedom within the society (United Nations, 1986). South Asia is plagued with conflicts and contradictions in its political, social and economic spheres and falls short of employing democratic ways by engaging different stakeholders of the society to cultivate peace. History is evident to the fact that women have been placed at the margins and excluded from the peace building initiatives; however, women still find spaces either within or outside religious and state institutions and pursue peace actively. Women Peace Activists and Peace Organizations employ creative ways to get their voices heard and contribute towards positive measures in the peace building processes both in inter or intra States discords and disputes. Employing 5 in-depth interviews of Women Peace Activists and analyzing the academic literature, the paper deliberates and discusses the human security discourse from a gendered perspective and bring into light the contribution of women peace builders in South Asia and their strategies used for upholding democratic values in order to make peace a lived experience and reality.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Peace, Human Security
  • Political Geography: South Asia
  • Author: Asifa Jahangir
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Pakistan‟s reactive foreign policy attitudes and actions negate (or seem contradictory to) the core principle of realist paradigm, which says that intentions may vary independently without having any influential peer-pressure. Holistically, the critical analysis of Pakistan‟s foreign policy history exhibits that this country always chooses to pursue a reactive policy rather than proactive one. The best and recent example is Pakistan‟s dealing with Afghanistan problem since 9/11. This study uses archival evidence of long-simmering tensions about the continuing Afghanistan War and its unexpected consequences of Pakistan‟s policy decision to examine hypotheses derived from Barry Buzan‟s Regional Security Complex Theory. This paper aims to make the following inquiries: (1) how did Pakistan react in the response to U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and its War on Terror? (2) What have been the factors implicating Pakistan in Afghanistan War? (3) Why has Pakistan been failed in designing a proactive policy to prevent the challenges surfaced from enduring Afghan conflict and pose the serious threats to its security? (4) What are the unintended consequences of Pakistan‟s reactionary policy towards Afghanistan and in which direction have these outcomes guided Pakistan towards? While foreseeing the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan and its spillover effect on region, this paper will provide Pakistan‟s proactive strategies in the form of National Action Plan and CPEC so as to overcome such possible effects in future over the internal security situation and economic condition of the country.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Conflict, War on Terror
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, United States of America
  • Author: Aleeza Ehsan
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The paper examines the theoretical framework of the concept of middle class and the notion behind the Karl Marx‟s concept of class struggle and how the Marxist traditions are still prevalent in the form of class politics and identity politics of Pakistan. By using secondary sources this paper attempts to assess the role of middle class in the politics of Pakistan by critically reviewing the class structure and the growth of new middle-class in post 2007 era and how this class has attained the political role after lawyers movement and after the PTI‟s (Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf )pop-politics . This paper also attempts to study the trend of protest politics in the developing world and conundrum that democracy faces in this developing part of the globe and how middle class has assumed driving role in it. The social, cultural and religious evolution of this class in Pakistan and in the globalized world, is also explored in the wake of cross-culturalism . The role of middle class in shaping last decade of democracy is also studied by analysing the results of the elections of 2013 and 2018. This paper also suggests incorporating consumerism and marketing based reforms to attract this class towards democratic process.
  • Topic: Politics, Culture, Class, Middle Class, Identity, Consumerism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Satnam Singh Deol, Amandeep Kaur Sandhu
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The constant presence of undemocratic regimes, insurgencies and political instability in Afghanistan has continuously resulted into the miserable status of civil and political human rights. Furthermore, the heterogeneous nature of Afghan society and economic under development have deprived the people of social, cultural and economic rights. In 2004, democratic government had been established in Afghanistan under the presidentship of Hamid Karzai. Very obviously, the people at domestic level as well as the international community expected from the democratically elected regime to take concrete initiatives for the promotion and protection of human rights. The study observes that the pioneer democratically elected government of Afghanistan had taken all constitutional measures and legal provisions for the promotion and protection of human rights in Afghanistan which can be expected from a democratic nation. But several political, socio-ethnic and socio-economic circumstances such as frequent violence due to insurgency and counter-insurgency operations, dearth of popular legitimacy to the regime, challenges to political instability along with the orthodox and heterogeneous society, facing acute economic underdevelopment have hampered the actual process of the promotion and protection of human rights in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, Taliban, Military Intervention, Conflict, Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Rizwan Naseer, Musarat Amin
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Nuclear weapons revolutionized security affairs after Hiroshima and Nagasaki annihilation. States went nuclear eventually after the United States, Russia, UK, France and China but India and Pakistan joined that exclusive club too in 1974 and 1998 respectively. Nuclear weapons a source of security motivated Israel, Iran and North Korea too. Another development that started undermining nuclear security itself was cyber warfare. Pakistan being developing country in the list of Global Innovation Index finds it hard to catch up with other leading nations in science and technology. Leading countries including US, Russia, China, UK, Germany, France etc are not safe from cyber-threats they face then how Pakistan can be considered safe against cybersabotaging to its strategic weapons. Pakistan‟s nuclear security though has gained better levels but cyber security is the field that requires comprehensive strategy to establish cyber nuclear doctrine. China being reliable strategic partner can be a resourceful partner unlike other great powers. This strategy would add much security to Pakistan‟s already existing nuclear security and would open new avenues of cooperation with international organizations to gain next milestone of Nuclear Suppliers‟ Group membership.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Science and Technology, Nuclear Power, Cybersecurity, Internet, Grand Strategy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Fouzia Hadi Ali, Aban Abid Qazi
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the prospects of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) from a stakeholder’s perspective. The identification and communication of stakeholders can play a vital role in identifying the perceptions of all who are directly or indirectly involved in a project. Moreover, this study focuses on the general nature of stakeholders and their awareness about the mega project. An exploratory study was conducted through a structured survey instrument to tap the awareness and opinions of the stakeholders connected to the likely benefits of CPEC. The results revealed interesting findings relating to their opinions about CPEC. The study further suggests some important implications and future directions to introduce an inclusive approach to mitigate the misconceptions about CPEC.
  • Topic: Development, International Cooperation, Infrastructure, Economy, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Amjad Abbas Khan, Sardar Sajid Mehmood, Mehboob Alam
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Kashmir is generally visualized by the global powers with Indian and Pakistani perspective rather than a humanitarian issue. No doubt it is a bone of contention between two countries but cannot be declared as a simple bilateral conflict because of multi-dimensional nature. Kashmiri people have been struggling for their birth right, the right of self-determination since 1948, in the light of UN Security Council‟s resolutions. This paper highlights responsibilities and the role played by global powers in the resolution of longstanding issue of Asian Sub-continent according to the UN Security Council resolutions for peace and prosperity of the region.
  • Topic: Human Rights, United Nations, Bilateral Relations, Territorial Disputes, Self Determination, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Kashmir, Punjab
  • Author: Adnan Abid, Bilal Hassan, Kamran Abid, Uzma Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Muhammad Azhar Naeem
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Cricket, a famous game played and watched at its peak in Asia. The game is governed by International Cricket Council (ICC). It is a team sport of eleven players in each side with different roles, of which one is bowler. The bowlers have followed different styles of bowling sinces game has started, of which some declared illegal initially. In our study, we have focused on the cases of illegality reported form South Asian region in post 1990 period a new era of biomechanics based bowling laws started. We have also investigated the updated ICC process for bowlers review and remedy along with biomechanics based labs established worldwide. Finally, we have proposed a new information technology based bowling action evaluation solution, lower in cost and affordable at domestic level. Such study will help bowlers, their coaches and viewers to understand the biomechanics based bowling laws, standings of South Asian bowling after these laws and alternative solutions to rescue it.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Sports, Political Science
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Aman Ullah Malik
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Election creates an environment of hate which may lead to potential of violence. Although there are enough laws relating to prohibition of hate speech under the Constitution of Pakistan and the ordinary law like Pakistan Penal Code and Anti Terrorism Act, however, there are special laws which control hate speech during Elections. Although International Instruments protected freedom of speech first but did not prohibit hate speech, however, it was permitted to be limited in certain cases. Similarly, the Constitution of Pakistan 1973 also guaranteed the freedom of speech but with list of exceptions to prohibit hate speech. For this purpose, all election laws were consolidated in the form of one piece of legislation: the Election Act 2017. It prohibited hate speech under corrupt practices and made it an offence. To assure a free and fair election, it is mandatory for the Election Commission of Pakistan to frame a Code of Conduct for the political parties and the candidates. The Commission is also bound to issue a separate Code of Conduct for the media. Both Codes provide effective legal regimes to control hate speech. However, the efforts to control it can only be successful if all stakeholders struggle to confront this monster.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Elections, Freedom of Expression, Legislation, Hate Speech
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Jafar Riaz Kataria, Ahmed Usman, Shabbir Hussain, Muhammad Usman, Aaisha Amjad
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of microcredit to enhance family income, eradicate peshgi and improve the wellbeing of brick kiln laborers. A survey was carried out to determine the effectiveness of microcredit among laborers working at brick kilns located in Lahore and Kasur districts. Linear regression analysis was run at 418 cases to track patterns in the data. The results of study indicated that microcredit significantly increased the family income, eradicated peshgi and improved the wellbeing of borrowers. Furthermore, segregated data indicated that female, married, aged, illiterate, beneficiaries having 6 and above children, beneficiaries having 9 and above family members, family income more than 20001, family expenditures more than 20001, beneficiaries who consulted their families and repeaters experienced higher benefits of microcredit scheme. The researchers recommend increasing the microcredit access to the poor people living in urban slums and rural areas, where the facility of formal lending institutions is lower and people are forced to take peshgi (advance) for meeting their basic needs.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Labor Issues, Microcredit
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Asma Shakir Khawaja
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the contemporary history, the Middle East and China are the focus of global attention. Though Middle East has fought an ideological struggle with regard to religious extremism in the region, yet the quest for power energy sources cannot be overlooked. While Chinese policy frame , revolving around its approach of non-interference, economic development and a desire of having multi-polar global system is serious challenge for the US which on one hand, advocates democracy, human rights, but with the policy of intervention. Today, the world powers are competing each other for the supremacy of power resources where oil and gas are not an exception. China is the second largest consumer of world‘s oil after the United States (Bajpaee, 2006). China is making an effort to build an economic, political and military influence in the region without involving the military force. Though future will reveal many truths yet it is anticipated that a new triangular balance of power comprising of China, Saudi Arabia and Russia might emerge on the global scene, owing to their inter-connected dependencies. China is looking forward by pursuing the policy of wait and see for the appropriate moment This study primarily focuses on their bilateral relations and deals with China‘s Middle East policy, its increasing activities in the region and implications for Pakistan. For Pakistan, the nature of future relationship with Middle Eastern multi-dimensional crisis is very important because it is the ―Arc of crisis‖. The neutral role of Pakistan in this situation is much hazardous, carrying both challenges and opportunities along with the security repercussions.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Energy Policy, Oil, Power Politics, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Middle East, Punjab
  • Author: Ghulam Qumber, Waseem Ishaque, Saqib Riaz
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The paper through the lens of Security Dilemma, implores the international institutions in general and USA in concert with China in particular, to take the driving seat to forestall any eventuality of a nuclear catastrophe to take place in South Asian security architecture. The world is reminded that the Indian ploy of resorting to „Bilateralism‟, has neither borne any dividends in the past 70 years in thwarting the Security Dilemma, nor is likely to resolve any thing at their own any time soon, before it is too late.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Nuclear Weapons, Power Politics, Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Rukhsana Iftikhar
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: India was comprised of many villages before the arrival of Muslims. Those Muslim invaders, who conquered India and established their rule, essentially belonged to the urban ruling classes. In early Turkish Empire (1206 – 1266), ruling classes have developed numerous urban centers in town across India. In Muslims period, Iqta system provided opportunities to Turko – Afghan communities to have luxurious life style which provoked skill workers, artesian and architect to migrate garrison. These towns also emerge as cultural centers with the passage of time. Early cities like Daultabad, Fatehpur Sikri and Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi) were royal capital cities. Some of the major cities like Kabul, Agra, Allahabad, Lahore, Attock and Multan were developed near major road (Grand Trunk Road). Many towns like Dholpur, Jodhpur, Sirohi, Asirgarh and Ajmer were inhabited near nonmetal led roads . Many of the Mughal cities and towns still exist in spite of many natural disasters. Many European travelers narrated the glory and significance of these cities and towns in their account. They compared Indian cities with Europe, like Fatehpur Sikri was larger than London and Delhi was not less urbanized than Paris. These urban centers were not only the administrative units but also considered as cultural centers in Mughal State. Emperors sometimes generated the economic activities in these urban centers. Abul Fazal mentioned many factories in Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri supplied many precious articles in the King’s wardrobe. Capital cities always had the excess of fruit and food for the Royal kitchen. People brought their master pieces in the capital city just to get the acknowledgement of kings and nobles. This paper analyzes the development of major urban centers in Mughals (most illustrated dynasty of the Muslim civilization). It also highlights the cultural transformation of Muslims under the influence of native one.
  • Topic: Economics, History, Urbanization, Medieval History
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Bilal Mahmood, Abdul Majid
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The phrase of "the Global War on Terror" was adopted by the media. It was announced that Washington Administration would utilize all its resources to uproot terrorism and will punish all those who are responsible for the 9/11 tragedy. Both Islamic Jihadists and two Bush administrations have deployed spectacles of terror to promote their political agendas; that both deploy Manichean discourses of good and evil which themselves fit into dominant media codes of popular culture; and that both deploy fundamentalist and absolutist discourses.
  • Topic: Terrorism, History, Taliban, Violent Extremism, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Shehzadi Zamurrad Awan
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: On women issues, the response of democratically elected governments of Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarian (PPPP) and Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N), remained vague and noncommittal. Both parties in their manifestos for general elections, vowed to take steps for women socio-economic and political empowerment. However, after assuming power, these parties could not fullfill their promises. They could neither enact appropriate legislation on women issues nor they repealed or amended gender discriminatory Hudood Ordinance of Zia-ul-Haq. More so, these two leading parties failed to restore the expired women quota in National and Provincial Assemblies, resulting in insufficient representation in the legislative bodies. Nevertheless, in comparison with conservative PML (N), the expectations from a liberal Benazir Bhutto to enforce pro-women policies was more promising. Both parties formed coalition governments, thus remained incapacitated to enact women related laws. Furthermore, they were confronted with orthodoxy within and outside the legislative bodies, posing challenges to their political agendas. Nonetheless, the last two tenures of both parties marked a little difference in their approach towards women issues, resulting in some serious legislation, targeting women problems in socio-economic and political domains. It is imperative to say that the effectiveness of these newly in-placed women related laws and policies has yet to bring change in society as their proper implementation and required institutionalization is in its infancy stage.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Governance, Elections, Women, Legislation
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Ahmed Minhas, Farhat Konain Shujahi, Ghulam Qumber
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Nuclear security has always been a sensitive area for international cooperation and even for sharing the best practices. States have been guarding the information about their nuclear security measures. With the introduction of terrorism phenomenon after 9/11 incident, the international community has been conscious about possibility of an act of nuclear or radiological terrorism. The US President Barack Obama undertook the task of securing the world from this new kind of terrorism and initiated process of Nuclear Security Summits (NSS)from 2010-2016 in which 53 heads of states were invited. It was the highest forum at which nuclear security was discussed; although, cautiously. NSS entrusted IAEA with the lead role in nuclear security at parallel with the nuclear safety. How the IAEA stands up to its added responsibilities in the post NSS process has to be seen in times to come. Pakistan has also come a long way in perfecting its nuclear security measures especially under the challenging scenario of Global War on Terror (GWOT) being contested within and around Pakistan’s geographical borders. Despite the challenging security environments, Pakistan’s nuclear security measures remained steadfast and not a single terrorist act happened. An appraisal of Pakistani nuclear security approach would be useful for nuclear technology aspirant states as a model of nuclear security best practices.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Nuclear Weapons, Military Strategy, Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Asifa Jahangir, Umbreen Javaid
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The war-torn Afghanistan has long suffered from the dynastical contests and fraught economic strategies of foreigners, which instigated constant internal strife and regional instability. The foreign interventions have made this land a sphere of influence and initiated the great game politics sporadically. This paper attempts to examine the historical geostrategic tussles in Afghanistan between international players on the one hand and regional actors on the other hand over control and manipulation of Afghanistan and its surrounding regions through the lens of conceptual framework of unintended consequences approach, which deals with irrational aspect of foreign policy of the states. This study makes interesting contribution to the existing literature of the [old] Great Game of the late 19th century between Czarist Russia and Great Britain or New Great Game by re-conceptualizing this idea into a new concept of the Grand Great Game or the 3G in place of explaining the unintended consequences of the historical events i.e. the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan of 1979, the post-Cold War era when the regional players Pakistan and India got involved in Afghanistan; and the US invasion of Afghanistan of 9/11 incident. The findings of the paper suggest that the unintended consequences of these historical events are bitter than the reality. The foreign interventions have paralyzed the Afghan society and made it more insecure by promoting clandestine terrorist activities and proxies. The interview technique helps to verify the 3G concept and present its unintended consequences. The critical content analysis of the primary and secondary data is of assistance to understand that the current 3G to be not only multidimensional competition, embodying multiple stakeholders but also incorporating complex self-defined rational as well as irrational foreign policy objectives and national interests.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Terrorism, History, Power Politics, Territorial Disputes, Taliban, Geopolitics, Military Intervention
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Europe, South Asia, India, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Salma Umber, Muhammad Junaid Ghauri, Hassan Nawaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Indian film industry is one of the biggest film industries in the world which produces highest number of movies every year. Indian media and film industry overwhelmingly link Islam and Muslims with terrorism. Especially since 9/11 attacks, the Bollywood have portrayed the Muslims in stereotypically negative way. After the 9/11 incident, Muslims have been constructed as distrustful people, terrorists, and antagonists. The study at hand was set out to identify the overall dimension and nature of portrayal of Indian Muslims in the Bollywood. For the purpose the researcher opted convenient sampling as a tool of data collection and quantitative content analysis along with SPSS was used as data analysis technique. Bollywood movies, released during the year 2016 with Muslims as prominent characters in it, were selected as ample to be studied. The results indicated that majority of the movie contents contained negative and stereotypical image of Indian Muslims. Overall findings evidenced that the Muslims were assigned non-patriotic and antagonistic characters more than the patriotic and protagonist characters.
  • Topic: Islam, Mass Media, Media, Film, Representation, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Punjab
  • Author: Khalil Ur-Rahman, Zahida Habib, Jafar Riaz Kataria
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the performance of primary school teachers in terrorism affected areas. The main objective of the study was to measure and summarize the perceptions of teachers themselves about the factors that affect teachers’ performance in terrorism affected areas. The study was descriptive in nature. All the primary school teachers in district Swat constituted the population of the study. Hundred teachers, fifty male and fifty female were randomly selected. In this study five factors were identified. The first factor focuses on the financial position of teachers in terrorism affected areas. The second factor focuses on the environment of schools. The third factor discusses the parents’ cooperation during the terrorism. The fourth factor focuses on the security of schools and teachers and the fifth factor focuses on the psychological effect of terrorism on the performance of teachers. A self-developed closed ended questionnaire on five point rating scale was developed, and collected data regarding the five factors, financial resources of teachers, physical environment of school, security, parents involvement in teaching and learning process, psychological effects of terrorism on teachers. The collected data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using statistical techniques as percentage of the responses .The main findings of the study were that mostly teachers faced the economic challenges in terrorism affected areas. Financial resources of teachers were destroyed. Salaries were delaed. Side businesses were destroyed. Continuous attacks on school affected the learning ability of students that affected the performance of teachers. Mostly parents became IDPs and the remaining did not take interest in the education of children. Teachers were not safe in school neither security was provided to teachers. Due to fear of attacks on school the teachers gave less time to teaching. Anxiety and emotional complained of teachers increased. There was no significant differences in the opinion of male and female teachers. It was recommended that the government should provide security to teachers, parents and schools. So that to reduce the depression and anxiety of teachers. The government should support the teachers financially.
  • Topic: Education, Terrorism, Psychology, Youth, Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Naeema Siddiqui
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The word 'Islamic Republic' is debatable among scholars as what meaning and role the word 'Islam' adds to the republic is still not agreed upon. Therefore, there is a need for resolving this ambiguity by explicitly defining and explaining the meaning and role of Islam in an Islamic Republic. Pakistan, too, is an Islamic Republic, which got the name 'Islamic Republic of Pakistan' for the first time in the constitution of 1956. This study intends to comprehend the mentioned issue by highlighting the similarities and differences between democracy and Islamic system of governance. In this qualitative study, iterative analysis of semi-structured interviews of ten doctorate scholars is carried out. The study comes across primary contradictions between the two systems and gives a way out for a system having characteristics of both Islam and democracy.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Islam, Religion, History, Governance, Democracy, State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Muhammad Imran Rashid, Umbreen Javaid, Muhammad Shamshad
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The research has explored the nature of US-Pakistan relationship particularly after the major event of 9/11 of 2001 in United States. It has highlighted the major points between Pakistan and the United States that have diverted them from each other in case of gaining their common goals in the region ranging from the containment of terrorism to the assurance of security and democracy. Through describing and analysing the facts and figures, mentioned in the published books, research articles, newspapers and other prevailing and relevant data and literature, the research has attempted to mention drone attacks by America in Pakistan‘s Tribal Areas, US-India strategic partnership, US covert military actions in Pakistan, US do more policy, nuclear proliferation, US‘ pressure tactics, US policy towards the Muslim world and America‘s antiIslamic propaganda as the points of divergence due to which Pakistan and United States are experiencing the lowest ebb of relations. The research is helpful for the students of foreign policy of Pakistan, current affairs and the American Studies. In addition to that, the reader will be able to know about the initiatives taken by the Pakistani and the US leadership that have caused deterioration to the cordial relationship of cold war, of late 1980s and mutual concerns to get rid of terrorism and militancy in the 21st century. The last section of this research paper prepared some of the recommendations which can be followed to restore the lost prestige of Pak – US relations based on the mutual understanding for achieving the common goals and to find a better position in the comity of nations.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Terrorism, Bilateral Relations, Counter-terrorism, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Arshad Mahmood, Shaheen Akhtar
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Though Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) is significantly weakened and dislodged from former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) yet, it has relocated to bordering areas in Afghanistan under ideological umbrella of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and gets operational and logistics support through Afghan and Indian intelligence agencies. ISIS, having been greatly marginalized in the Middle East is struggling to gain foothold in Afghanistan with TTP as its proxy to execute the deadly terrorist attacks in Pakistan. The presence of ISIS in Afghanistan not only poses threat to Afghanistan but its collusion with TTP threatens Pakistan’s internal security as well. Pakistan’s sacrifices go in vain if cooperation from Afghanistan and the US forces is not forthcoming in defeating ISIS and TTP operating from Afghanistan. The article argues while domestic reforms and effective implementation of National Action Plan (NAP) by Pakistan is important to quell extremism and terrorism from urban centres, the cooperation from regional countries, harbouring TTP is vital for the elimination of scourge of terrorism from the region.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, National Security, Regional Cooperation, Terrorism, Taliban, Violent Extremism, Al Qaeda, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Muhammad Akram Soomro, Bushra H. Rehman
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Twenty first century has witnessed a new kind of war, “War on Terror”. Pakistan joined this war after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and became a front line state in this war. Resultantly, Pakistan had to end its support for the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The Afghan Taliban did not accept that policy shift and in reaction began attacking almost every place and segment of society right from military to politicians, mosques to parks, and hospitals to schools. The relationship between media and terrorism is indispensable because terrorists need media coverage and publicity, and media needs shocking and sensational news stories. Given this backdrop, this study intends to investigate two research questions. First, “What reasons of terrorist attacks were discussed in the editorials of major Urdu and English newspaper of Pakistan?” and second, “What solutions were suggested in the major Urdu and English newspaper of Pakistan?” Two newspapers, daily Dawn (English Newspaper) and daily Jang (Urdu Newspaper) have been selected for this study. Content analysis has been used as methodology and editorials published during 2001 to 2016 constitute the population for this research study. The results show that shift in foreign policy of Pakistan towards Afghanistan was discussed as a major reason of terrorist attacks and similarly, as solution, review of foreign policy of Pakistan towards Afghanistan was discussed in highest number of editorials.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Taliban, Violent Extremism, Media, News Analysis, Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Mominyar Khalid
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the wake of Donald Trump's assent to presidency, a congenial environment emerged for the rise of far-right groups in the United States of America. These farright groups - dormant earlier - are not only resurfaced but they seem to be occupying central position in the political milieu of the United States of America. Elements of Islamophobia, xenophobia and nativism seem prevalent in Trump's presidency. Such an environment is sharpening the cracks in the land of immigrants. Hence, this research intends to find the causes of the rise of far-right hate groups in America; what are the implications of this rise for American society; to avert further segregation and division of American society, how multiculturalism can be used as a tool to reconcile with the force of far-right hate groups; and to find out the institutional response to the hate crimes committed by affiliates of different hate groups. The research also intends to comprehend how to deal with these hate groups. Hence, in order to study the phenomenon, Qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been employed to semi-structured interviews of a purposive convenient sample suggesting some policy guidelines and solution to the problem.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, Elections, Immigrants, Islamophobia, Xenophobia, Donald Trump, Radical Right, Hate Groups
  • Political Geography: United States of America
  • Author: Balwinder Singh
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: From the last three decades, the Indo-Pacific has been a central theme in the global geopolitical scenario. India, China, and several other rising powers have shifted the balance of power. Thus, Indo-Pacific region marks instability and uncertainty especially caused by consistent crises of the world economy. In the present globalized era, both India and China are paramount drivers of the global economy. They are simultaneously reacting to this shifted balance of power in Indo-Pacific region. The actions of China and India towards each other and especially in Indo-Pacific region have significantly changed in last decades. At present, the Indian government has started to focus on Indo-Pacific region. The Trump Administration has focused India to contain China in Indo-Pacific region. At that moment, the Indo-Pacific region has thus become more important region than ever before. The geo-strategic significance of the Indo-Pacific region has attracted the main global-powers to preserve their strategic interests in this region. So, the Indo-Pacific has got enormous significance in the present context. From the last few years, the region has got international acknowledgment. The US`s Asia-pivot policy and China’s ‘String of Pearl’ policy have been focusing on India. The geopolitical importance of the Indo-Pacific region has dragged the western powers to counterweight growing Chinese power. That’s why; Indo-Pacific has shaped the new subject of divergence between China and India. Yet, there is no need to undermine the enlarging economic relations between the two big nations of Asia. This study also examines that how US and Pakistan are affecting the bilateral India-China relations. The study observes that how India and China satisfying their strategic interests in the Indo-Pacific region. Thus, the study tries to find out the new issues of cooperation and conflict between the two nations. Thus, the study tries to find out the new issues of cooperation and conflict between the two nations.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Bilateral Relations, Conflict
  • Political Geography: China, India, Asia
  • Author: Nasser N. Alotaibi, Abida Eijaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Saudi e-press coverage and treatment of the Operation Decisive Storm is examined through an analysis of media frames for the type of coverage, paths of persuasion, lexical choices, referential frameworks, framing strategies, and policy patterns for the Operation Decisive Storm campaign. Through content analysis of the op-ed pages of Al-Riyadh, Al-Madina, and Al-Youm, for the period from 26/03/2015 to 22/04/2015, the study concludes the following: political aspects formed a large proportion (90.3%) of the editorials covered in the Saudi e-newspapers, followed by the military developments, and the support for the legitimate Yemeni government. The supportive coverage reached (93.5%), indicating that the editorial policies of Saudi e-newspapers are in line with the policy of the leadership of Saudi Arabia. The results also revealed that fear/danger is commonly used as a strategy and Iran is used to create danger/fear not only for Yemen but for the entire Gulf region.
  • Topic: Media, Leadership, Conflict, The Press
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Gulf Nations
  • Author: Mahboob Alam Nutkani
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: According to Human Rights Watch there are estimated to be over fourteen million child brides worldwide, many of whom are traded for debt, bondage, and in contexts where polygamy and sexual activities with children go hand in hand, justified by religion or custom.(United Nation, 2013:31) There occurs a victimization of a new rising class of feminists in countries like Pakistan, where Islamist extremism from 1977 to 1988 especially targets and instances even murders or attempts to murder women who challenge their patriarchal power base. The analysis that represents these forms of violence against women and women’s struggles for justice delivery in Pakistan by using their voices and their stories, from their frame of analysis have been failed miserably.
  • Topic: History, Women, Violence, Justice
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Rana Eijaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Afghanistan has been a battlefield for big powers for last four decades. In 1979, Russia invaded in Afghanistan and the U.S. fought a proxy war in the region with the help of Pakistan. Russian withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan under Geneva accord in 1988 caused disintegration of the former Soviet Union in 1991. The Taliban government emerged in Afghanistan in 1994 and a regime of contentious politics started in Afghanistan. It allegedly caused terrorism at local as well as international level. The U.S. alienated itself from the region after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. In September 2001, Osama Bin Laden purportedly attacked the U.S. security hub Pentagon and economic hub World Trade Centre. America retaliated with cruise missile and invaded in Afghanistan in 2001. After the U.S. claim for killing Osama in May 2011 in Abbotabad, Pakistan, decided to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan in 2014. The U.S. wishes to sustain peace in the region after its withdrawal. It intends to ensure all the conflicting parties that they should come on table for a peaceful bargaining. The U.S. is rehabilitating Afghanistan with her allies. Afghanistan was destructed during the war on terror. This paper is based on the theory of contentious politics introduced by three American sociologists, Sidney Tarrow, Charles Tilly, and Doug McAdam. The tipping point theory is also used in the backdrop of 9/11 incident. It is explained with primary as well as secondary sources.
  • Topic: Politics, History, Afghanistan, Peace
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, South Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Lubna Haroon
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Globalization has played a crucial role in growing number of migrants across the world. These migrants have been seen as a significant diplomatic and development agent in both their origin and host countries. Kashmiri migrants across the world have assumed importance in diplomatic discourse and transformation of their long-standing dispute. However, efforts by Jammu & Kashmir governments to engage the diaspora in conflict have not been followed by formulation and implementation of appropriate policies and strategies. There appears to be an unspoken mistrust between the intentions of governments and the members of Kashmiri diaspora, which has resulted in their low utilization. Subsequently, there is a need to create an interpretative framework to advocate and effectively engage the diaspora. Therefore, the diaspora should be consulted in national action plans and diplomatic initiatives to integrate and to stimulate their sustainable role in the protracted conflict of Kashmir.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Diaspora, Territorial Disputes, Conflict
  • Political Geography: South Asia, Kashmir
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Sarah Sajid
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Economic development aims at building a healthy community which in turn strengthens institutions of a state. Economic Development can also be reflected through soft power, which is not only a diplomatic tool but also a booster for a state's economy. Chinese economic development is a synthesis of two ideologies: attributed to Mao Zedong and the other to Deng Xiaoping. Mao and Deng have contributed to Chinese economic development by initiating compatible economic policies in their respective eras. Their economic policies are influenced by Karl Marx and Adam Smith respectively. Mao, a staunch supporter of centralization of economy, opted for the theory of Marxism; ic level. On the other hand, Deng Xiaoping is associated with liberalizing of Chinese economy. The ideas of free trade and facilitation of foreign investors is the mainstay of Deng’s economic policy. In the process of liberalizing the Chinese economy, Deng initiated a paradigm shift from curtailed to liberal approach; he followed the footsteps of Adam Smith, the pioneer of free market economy. Privatization, establishment of exclusive economic zones, introduction of new flexible economic policies are the reforms introduced by Deng under the theory of free market economy. Hence, the modern China we see today is a product of the economic policies envisioned by these two great Chinese leaders. This descriptive research looks into the contribution and implication of these economic policies on the Chinese economic system.
  • Topic: Development, Globalization, History, Famine, Economy, Mao Zedong
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Iqbal Chawla
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper is an attempt to explore the regional significance and global dimensions of the Chinese President Xi Jin Ping’s vision and initiative regarding Belt and Road which can transform adjacent countries like Afghanistan, Central Asian Republican States (CARS), India, Iran, Nepal and Pakistan into a real economic hub in coming time. Belt and road initiative is a mega project which includes; massive road connectivity, geographical linkages, rail and road transportation system, people to people contacts, development of understanding through cultural, academic, business and professional exchanges for the progress and prosperity of this vast region. In fact, the initiative of China Pakistan Economic Corridor is one of the mega projects which focuses; the creation of new regional connectivity through Gwadar Sea Port, giving direct access to Chinese goods from Kashgar (China) towards Gwadar (Pakistan). Hence, this development of faster infrastructure of rail, roads, towards maritime transportation and communication is an important project which can connect the countries of the area like Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Central Asia as well as Iran. Thus, the Gwadar Port will connect China, Russia, Middle East, Central Asia and South East Asia. The OBOR and CPEC are a burning issue and much debated topic in today’s Pakistan and world at large. In Pakistan mostly people believe that the CPEC will be a major source of economic development, peace and prosperity. On the one hand, US and India nexus, is trying to develop negative image about the project of CPEC by creating the impression of another colonial domination on the Pakistan territory in the form of Chinese presence. India is making all efforts, to sabotage and to damage the credibility of the CPEC project. This paper by delving and investigating the OBOR and CPEC connections will try to encapsulate the regional importance, dimensions of the project of Belt and Road initiative.
  • Topic: Infrastructure, Soft Power, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Economic Development
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Central Asia, India, United States of America
  • Author: Ashfaq Ahmad Malik, Nazir Hussain
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: India-Pakistan conflict is one of the most complicated and protracted conflicts in modern time, clouded by historical, ideological, religious, and political sentimentality. Beyond these, the diplomatic uncertainty between the two countries has proven to be capable of being transnational and international. Following the Indo-US strategic alliance, there is a growing perception that New Delhi is increasingly demonstrating and deepening its hegemonic designs in South Asia and beyond. Under the BJP government, such hegemonic proclivity has exacerbated the mistrust and the gulf of understanding between New Delhi and Islamabad. With the blessing of Washington, the BJP government has changed the dynamic of the mistrust. To this end, the paper addresses the current dynamics twofold. The first part of the paper looks at Modi’s effort geared at isolating Pakistan, the second discusses the mutual effort of Modi and Trump to politically and diplomatically ostracise Pakistan within the comity of nations. The last part of the paper discusses the three ways Pakistan should respond to the individual and combine efforts of Modi and Trump.
  • Topic: Hegemony, Partnerships, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, United States of America
  • Author: Hassan Masood
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: At the time of independence Pakistan faced severe insecurity emanating from a fractured geography, non-existent constitutional framework, weak economy, and military capability in the face of an overwhelmingly powerful and hostile India. The paper explores Pakistan’s efforts for establishing a reliable balance of power with India first by joining the collective security later supplementing it by joining alliances. It argues that the secession of East Pakistan was the turning point establishing the unreliability of the erstwhile basis of balance of power, leading Pakistan to the development of nuclear weapons as a reliable basis for a Pakistan-India balance of power while retaining the earlier two bases.
  • Topic: Security, Nuclear Weapons, Geopolitics, Alliance
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Sohail Ahmad, Mahwish Bakht
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Islamic State was hoping for a smooth establishment and extraordinary gains in the Khorasan region. The presence of US forces in Afghanistan and Operation Zarb-eAzb by the strong military of Pakistan did not allow it to happen. The Taliban could be a strong ally of IS in the region but clashes between the two had diminished the chances of its establishment and success in the Khorasan region. Both organizations have declared ‘Jihad’ against each other to enjoy monopoly status in the region, especially in Afghanistan. Afghan government even supported Taliban to fight against IS. Though IS has claimed many deadly attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan it has not gained the momentum and support it was expecting. The nature of this study is qualitative.
  • Topic: Violent Extremism, Islamic State, Conflict, Khorasan Group
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia
  • Author: Iram Khalid
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Food security has established as a concern of national security in terms of state development and progress.. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Concerns of food security and economic development act together reinforcing one another in the practice of development. A country which is not able to generate the required food and lacks resources and affordability of buying food from the international marketplace meeting the gap of supply and demand is not a state that is sufficient in food sovereignty. Food Security therefore is essential for national security.
  • Topic: Climate Change, National Security, Urbanization, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India
  • Author: Murad Ali, Reema Murad
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Extremism, though not a new phenomenon, has undergone complete metamorphosis in the South Asian context. While in Sri Lanka, the discriminatory policy of ruling Sinhalese towards Tamil minority was reason of latter’s taking up arms to assert their identity, India is inflicting war on the assertive Kashmiris who are struggling for the recognition of their right of self-determination. At the same time, the ultra-right government of the BJP is encouraging religious extremism. With his baggage of Gujarat pogrom, Prime Minister Modi is treading a dangerous path of fanning Hindu nationalism. Afghanistan was subjected to the communist elements under the Babrak Karmal regime which had the backing of the Soviet Union and the traditional Afghan society was not receptive to the foreign ideology. People stood up against the direct Soviet intervention which they took as heretic. They were supported in their armed struggle by the US and Pakistan. As Soviets withdrew ignominiously from Afghanistan, the warlords went into civil war to assert themselves which created a vacuum filled by the Taliban. The US attacked Afghanistan to remove Taliban who were thought to have be harbouring the perpetrators of September 11, 2001 attack. The Kabul government however couldn’t win the confidence of the people and Taliban resurgence has cost the country dearly with ramifications for Pakistan. The element of extremism and violence was introduced in Pakistan was in Afghanistan after the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 and got different and colossal dimensions post September 11, 2001 tragedy. In Pakistan, the Tehrik i Taliban Pakistan were formed after the Lal Masjid operation. There is hardly any parallel in history to match the devastating terrorist rampages costing huge loss of life and property. Unfortunately, the neighbouring India is fishing in the troubled waters to achieve some petty gains. While Afghanistan has its own circumstances and hence its responses to end the imbroglio, Pakistan has a long way to go end the menace of extremism as well as terrorism, of course in conjunction with Afghanistan, without which peace cannot return to the region.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Violent Extremism, Transnational Actors
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Sri Lanka
  • Author: Sarwat Rauf
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Regional cooperation can give power to the small states and in order to get economic development, states usually prefer to enter in political and economic alliances. This paper examines the efforts of Pakistan and China to upgrade their regional cooperation through connectivity. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is an important branch of Chinese mega project, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which intended to link South Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, Europe and Africa by using land and sea routes. The main argument is that CPEC will bring comprehensive changes in the economy of Pakistan and it would be beneficial for neighboring countries particularly CARs. CPEC has steered several other economic projects such as signing of Central Asia-South Asia (CASA-1000) envisages cooperation between two regions. Similarly, groundbreaking ceremony of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India Pipeline (TAPI) reflects revamping of relations between states. The paper is set out in the perspective of available harmonious grounds for Pakistan and CARs. It also examines the various facets of the utility of CPEC for China, Pakistan and CARs
  • Topic: Economics, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Regionalism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Asia