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  • Author: Christopher D. O'Sullivan
  • Publication Date: 05-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: The conclusion of the Cold War between 1989-1991 opened new horizons for the United Nations and created expectations that the UN would emerge from the margins of world events to the focus of world politics. But many events since then -- in Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Iraq -- have undermined confidence in international institutions. A history of the UN's activities since the end of the East-West conflict conjures up names of recent infamy, such as Sarajevo, Mogadishu, Kigali, and Srebrenica, and revisits images of failure and impotence in the face of violence. These crises undermined much of the optimism that greeted the end of the Cold War at the United Nations. The founding dream in 1945 of a community of nations defending human rights and promoting collective security still seems as far from being realized as it did during the height of the Cold War.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Cold War, Politics, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia
  • Author: Anouar Boukhars
  • Publication Date: 04-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: In what was the most serious "clash" during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union came dangerously close to cataclysmic confrontation when the Soviets in an unprecedented dangerous move had begun a clandestine effort to establish a major offensive military presence in Castro's Cuba in October 1962. This potentially dreadful incident brought policy makers on both sides to seriously question their use of diplomacy and military force. Had it not been for the wisdom of the leaders of the two antagonistic countries, the US and the Soviet Union, no one could have speculated the harm that could have been inflicted on the whole world. This paper will therefore try to examine how the Cuban Missile Crisis came about and how well it was managed by the US and the Soviets political leadership. It will address the importance of the national security decision making in preventing this crisis from degenerating into a tragedy.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Anouar Boukhars
  • Publication Date: 04-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: Soviet-American relationship in the 1970's entered a new phase of controversial complexity. The 1970's were expected to mark a rupture with the antagonism of the cold war period. It was expected to be an era of détente where no efforts would be spared to avoid East-West confrontations. The two superpowers manifested their intentions to expand areas of cooperation and to reduce international tension. Both the US and the Soviets were eager to start a new promising, less volatile relationship. But this exuberance was soon to fade out with the explosive crises that were to occur in the periphery.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Israel, Arabia
  • Author: Anouar Boukhars
  • Publication Date: 05-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: By drawing on current scholarly models of two-level game theory in the arena of international negotiations, I attempted to provide insight not only into the "why" of the current impasse in the Maghreb, but also into the "how" of resolving these issues. Putnam's celebrated two level game metaphor was the intellectual inspiration in this project. Despite its limitation, it was a useful model that provided some useful language for sorting out the current complexities and deadlock of the Maghreb.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Maghreb