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  • Author: Isabella Esquivel Ventura
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The New School Graduate Program in International Affairs
  • Abstract: This document is a synthesis of a Master's thesis titled “Public Policy analysis to enable women to access a life free from violence in Mexico City: an intervention proposing to work with young men for the prevention of masculine violence”, developed over the course of 2013-14, as part of the Master's program in Public Policy and Gender offered by the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences based in Mexico, and which was defended in front of an academic panel in August 2014. The investigation is a policy analysis, using the conceptual and argumentative framework of gender theory, and involves the analysis of a social problem of inequality between men and women, with the end to propose recommendations for a solution using public policy. Thusmasculine gender violence against women is the public problem of gender inequality which is the object of this policy analysis, a problem which is present in Mexican society both historically and structurally. Current prevention policies in Mexico City have been analyzed and this document includes public policy recommendations regarding said policies. The investigation is structured as an introduction and four chapters. The first detailed the public problem and the design of this research, and in the following chapters the conceptual and theoretical frameworks, methodology, analysis and recommendations were outlined. What follows here is a summary of this work.
  • Topic: Women, Inequality, Gender Based Violence , Masculinity
  • Political Geography: North America, Mexico, Mexico City
  • Author: Vanessa Ochs, Denise Walsh, Swati Chawla, Dannah Dennis, Paromita Sen, Catalina Vallejo
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute of International Education
  • Abstract: In 2016, USAID’s Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance launched its Learning Agenda—a set of research questions designed to address the issues that confront staff in USAID field offices working on the intersection of development and democracy, human rights, and governance. This literature review—produced by a team of UVA professors and graduate students representing the academic disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, religious studies, and sociology—synthesizes scholarship from diverse research traditions on the following Learning Agenda question: What are the most effective ways to encourage women’s civic (e.g., volunteer, advocacy, etc.) and political (e.g., voting, running for office) participation? What are the risks to women of these strategies in contexts where resistance to changing gender norms is strong? Building on an ODI report, “Women’s Voice and Leadership in Decision-Making: Assessing the Evidence” (2015) that identified seven strategies to support women’s civic and political representation, the UVA team focused on the second half of the research question, using a flexible systematic review process that included defining and operationalizing strong resistance. Overall, the team found that 1) research on resistance that aims to limit or end challenges to the status quo is under-theorized and in need of concept-building before researchers can make the analytical distinctions necessary to assess resistance fully and 2) where the literature does exist, it has an almost exclusive focus on female politicians. With these limitations in mind, key findings include: Resistance—which may include physical and sexual violence; social and familial censure; ostracization by the religious community; and various overt or subtle forms of restriction, deprivation, and exclusion—varies according to multiple factors, including by not limited to gender norms, the broader cultural context, regime type, local power structures, economic opportunities, and the form of participation sought. All women do not experience the same levels of risk, and are not vulnerable to the same types of resistance. For example, even within a single socio-cultural context, women who are marginalized (economically, racially, linguistically, religiously, or otherwise) are likely to bear greater burdens of risk. Strong resistance in response to the seven strategies identified in the ODI report is not pervasive but does occur, and that it can discourage women’s participation. Low to moderate resistance is ubiquitous, but generally has less deleterious effects. Sites where strong resistance occurs vary within countries and even among local areas within a single country, suggesting that a country-level analysis of gender norms is inadequate and ineffective for assessing and understanding women’s risk of strong resistance. The implications of these findings are that practitioner risk assessments should be: Routine and done prior to engaging in any intervention, and require information extending far beyond local gender norms. Focused on low to moderate forms of resistance in situations of backlash, and attentive to the possibility of strong resistance in situations of entrenched resistance. Designed for the specific site where the intervention occurs, while remaining attentive to national- and individual-level factors that shape resistance.
  • Topic: Politics, Women, Gender Based Violence , Participation
  • Political Geography: North America, Global Focus
  • Author: Lauren Palarino
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center on Human Rights Education, University of Denver
  • Abstract: In the Denver Metro Area out of 3336 people who are homeless surveyed, 30.2% are women and nationally, single women are the fastest growing population of homeless in the United States and face unique challenges regarding healthcare, safety, and childcare. These needs are often unaddressed by shelters and instead can alienate women who are unable to find the help they need. The reasons women are homeless are as diverse, but one in four women report domestic violence as the main factor in their current homeless situation resulting in health disparities and trauma left unaddressed. Lack of education prevents women from finding employment and gaining income and rising costs of living. Understanding women’s specific problems associated with being homeless can help us empathize with them and to try and help.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Gender Based Violence , Homelessness
  • Political Geography: United States, North America, Colorado