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You searched for: Content Type Working Paper Remove constraint Content Type: Working Paper Publishing Institution Urban Institute Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Urban Institute Topic Gender Issues Remove constraint Topic: Gender Issues
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  • Author: Laudan Y. Aron, Janine M. Zweig, Lisa C. Newmark
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Humans are trafficked across international borders for the purposes of labor exploitation (e.g., domestic servitude, sweatshops) or sexual exploitation (e.g., forced prostitution) and the victims are subjected to coercion, fraud, abuse, or some other form of deception on the part of the traffickers. The Department of State (2004, 2006) estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 people—adults and children—are trafficked across international borders around the world annually. About 90 percent of these victims are females and over half of all those trafficked each year are believed to be trafficked for sexual exploitation. Among those trafficked, about 14,500 to 17,500 are trafficked into the United States each year. Recent data show that victims are often trafficked by perpetrators of the same nationality (Free the Slaves and Human Rights Center 2004).
  • Topic: Crime, Gender Issues, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Estelle James, Alejandra Cox Edwards, Rebeca Wong
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Over the past two decades multipillar pension systems that include both a public defined benefit (DB) and private defined contribution (DC) pillar have been adopted in many countries. Critics of these pension reforms argue that the tight link between payroll contributions and benefits in the DC pillar will produce lower pensions for women. In contrast, supporters of these reforms argue that multipillar systems remove distortions that favored men and permit a more targeted public pillar that will help women. To test these conflicting claims about multipillar reforms, and to analyze more generally the gender impact of alternative pension systems, this paper examines the differential impact on the two genders of the new and old systems in three Latin American countries—Chile, Argentina, and Mexico. On the basis of household survey data, we simulate the employment histories of representative men and women and the pensions that these are likely to generate under the new and old rules.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Argentina, South America, Latin America, Central America, North America, Mexico, Chile