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  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2016/17, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2016 in Tunisia, and intended to evaluate the success of the ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ project in increasing women’s empowerment. The project ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ is a multi-country programme operating in Morocco, Tunisia, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Yemen, with regional coordination from Lebanon. The results coming from this Effectiveness Review are not meant to be indicative of the overall impact of AMAL, but more a focused assessment for the Tunisia component. The AMAL project operating in Tunisia started in 2012, following the revolution of 2011, with the objective to increase women’s awareness of their political and socio-economic rights, and support women to play a more active role in the political and socio-economic life of their community and country.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Robert Fuller, Alexia Pretari
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Resilience, Food Security and Nutrition Project (Projet de Resilience, Securite Alimentaire et Nutritionnelle, PRSAN) was carried out in the North and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso between 2013 and 2017 by Oxfam and Christian Aid, together with two implementing partners, the Alliance Technique d’Assistance au Developpement (ATAD) and the Office de Developpement des Eglises Evangeliques (ODE). The project was aimed at enabling particularly vulnerable households to increase their resilience and improve their food security and nutritional situation. Project activities included supporting households in crop production, market gardening, processing and household businesses, providing awareness-raising on good nutritional practices, carrying out community-level disaster assessments and establishing early-warning committees, and distributing livestock and cash transfers. The Effectiveness Review was aimed at evaluating the success of this project in enabling participants to build their resilience to shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This report is part of Oxfam’s Effectiveness Review Series.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Gender Issues, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Author: Richard Chilvers, Noor Abu Kwaik, Annabel Morrissey
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Gaza has long been a place of desperate need, with huge challenges in all areas of civic life. Devastating escalations in violence not only destroy lives and infrastructure, but also hope and aspiration. In the midst of this, the most marginalized people are often ignored or forgotten. As part of the Within and Without the State programme, community researchers worked with women with disabilities to enable them to devise a plan for periods of crisis. This included strengthening emergency preparedness, coordinating assistance, ensuring shelters are disability-friendly and supporting long-term advocacy for women with disabilities.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Disability
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Steph Avis, Uzma Batool, Eliza Hilton, Irnum Malik
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice. The project, supported by ECHO Enhanced Response Capacity and Oxfam, was implemented by Oxfam in Pakistan between September 2015 and March 2017.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Governance, Feminism, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Rowan Harvey, Anam Parvez, Francesca Rhodes
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Women’s economic empowerment could reduce poverty for everyone. In order to achieve it, we need to first fix the current broken economic model which is undermining gender equality and causing extreme economic inequality. The neoliberal model has made it harder for women to have better quality and better paid jobs, address inequality in unpaid care work, and women’s influence and decision making power is constrained. To achieve women’s economic empowerment, we need a human economy that works for women and men alike, and for everyone, not just the richest 1%.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Discrimination, Femininity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Christine Hughes
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This multi-country research report examines the problem of implementation gaps – government failures to fulfill their legislative obligations to address and prevent violence against women and girls. It presents a comparative analysis of shortfalls between government commitments as laid out in laws, and the realities for survivors of violence as they try to access services and justice. Drawing also on positive examples, lessons are shared about what can be done to improve the implementation of laws, and how civil society organizations can more effectively hold governments to account, so that laws can have a greater impact on ending violence against women and girls.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Governance, Gender Based Violence
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Zobeyda Cepeda, Eliza Hilton
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Governance, Bureaucracy, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Caribbean, Dominican Republic, North America
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Pakistan is highly vulnerable to disasters, but disasters have very different impacts on women, girls, men and boys. Moreover, organizations involved in relief efforts are currently not paying sufficient attention to the needs of women and girls. This analysis by Oxfam identifies the main areas where a gender gap is apparent, and puts forward recommendations for addressing these issues.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Gender Issues, Children, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Gender interacts with multiple factors including but not limited to age, ethnicity, disability, caste, class, religion and environment, to determine an individual’s ability to be aware of, lay claim to, and access their rights and entitlements. In times of crisis ‘ whether slow or sudden onset, climate or conflict driven ‘ there are shifts in how these factors interact that present opportunities and risks for women, girls, men and boys in accessing their rights, in the short, medium and longer term. Humanitarian (and development) actors need to be sensitive to these risks and opportunities. The purpose of this training manual is to support the institutionalization of gender equality and women’s rights in all humanitarian action. It was developed by Oxfam to support the implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice in the Humanitarian System, supported by the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) during 2015 to 2017. The aim of this initial training is to develop a critical mass of committed gender leaders ‘ some might call these ‘change agents’ or ‘change-makers’ ‘ who can together influence changes in policy and practice at different levels across the humanitarian system.
  • Topic: Environment, Gender Issues, Minorities, Crisis Management, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Steph Avis, Eliza Hilton, Ankets Petros
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Institutionalism, Risk
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2015 in Vayots Dzor region – Armenia. It intended to evaluate the success of the ‘Women’s economic empowerment in rural communities of Vayots Dzor region’ project in achieving its objectives: increasing household income (by promoting agriculture/horticulture and agribusiness) and promoting women’s economic empowerment.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Economic Growth, Feminism, Rural
  • Political Geography: Asia, Armenia, West Asia
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Today more than ever, the international community must share responsibility and stand firmly in support of Syria’s civilian population. It is clear however that the aid response, as vital as it is, will only go so far and cannot fully address the needs of Syrian communities to be free from violence and the violations of international human rights (IHRL) and humanitarian law (IHL) that characterize the conflict. In this briefing, Oxfam joins with a variety of agencies and coordination fora to call on all members of the international community, in particular permanent members of the UN Security Council and the EU and EU member states who are discussing post-agreement planning, to insist on the full implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions on Syria that relate to respect for IHL and IHRL, as well as implementation of the Geneva Communique of 2012. The Brussels conference should also set the foundation for inclusive and meaningful participation of Syrian NGOs and civil society, including youth and women’s groups, as key partners in ensuring effective post-agreement planning that captures the needs and desires of the people of Syria and supports local community rebuilding and resilience.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, European Union, NGOs, Local, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East, Syria
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Asia is exposed and vulnerable to a wide range of natural and manmade hazards. In many respects, it is the global epicenter for disasters. Its location makes it prone to destructive hazards that are exacerbated by climate change, leading to an increasing number of cyclones, sea level rises, severe drought, and other extreme climate effects. This vulnerability is compounded by poverty. The majority of the world’s poorest people today live in Asia, thus protection and recovery from these disasters remain difficult. In Asia, Oxfam continues to work with partners and vulnerable communities to promote resilience against existing risks and new risks from natural and human induced disasters that impact disadvantaged poor people in Asia. This map provides an overview of the extensive work in 11 countries in Asia and features different kinds of approaches towards building resilience: small holder agriculture and enterprises; water resilience; urban resilience; natural resource management; working with the private sector to build resilience; and climate finance and gender justice, among others.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Gender Issues, Water
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Clay Westrope
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, randomly selected for review under the good governance thematic area. This report documents the findings of a qualitative impact evaluation, carried out in May 2016. The evaluation used process tracing to assess the effectiveness of the GROW campaign in Tajikistan. In an effort to complement agricultural value chain programming implemented by a variety of organisations in the Khatlon region of Tajikistan, Oxfam GB (OGB) integrated aspects of its global advocacy campaign, GROW. The GROW campaign takes a multi-pronged approach to the multi-faceted issue of global food insecurity by focusing on a diversity of causes, including climate change, land reform issues, industrial farming, and private sector policies. In Tajikistan, the campaign team selected contextually relevant key issues to guide its advocacy activities, including climate change, land reform, and water availability with a focus on women smallholder farmers as the key agricultural producers. OGB did this through trainings, workshops, round tables, and highly visual events integrated with previous and currently existing programming. In Tajikistan, the GROW Campaign was implemented in a distinctive way by leveraging synergies between previous, existing, and future programming both directly and tangentially related to the main themes of the campaign. Rather than serving as a standalone campaign, GROW served as a platform from which to promote, influence, and advocate on issues through related projects being implemented on the ground.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Governance, Feminism, Rural, Farming, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Central Asia, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Author: Hugo Hooijer, Madelon Meijer
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Dutch oofficial development assistance (ODA) for agriculture has been on the rise in the last five years. However, it remains unclear whether Dutch ODA expenditures on agriculture are reaching female smallholder farmers. Empowering smallholders, especially women, is a proven solution for reducing hunger and poverty. This is particularly true of the rural poor, who are the worst affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper calls on the Dutch government to combine a strong ODA budget for agriculture with a solid strategy for resolving hunger by 2030, to scale up climate finance for adaptations in the agricultural sector, and to supply improved data on the impact of agricultural investments for each target group and gender.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme has four main objectives: Employment and value chain development. Enhancing the enabling environment for agricultural markets and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Strengthening citizen participation in government decision making related to the agriculture sector. Strengthening women’s economic leadership. This document focuses on these areas and how the programme has addressed the government’s ban on the use of plastic bags, which created an obstacle for small-scale producers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Gender Issues, Governance, Leadership, Participation, Value Chains
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Rhoda Avila, Sarah Barakat, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam’s climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) programme in the Philippines focuses on conflict-prone and climate change-sensitive areas, as well as areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan in Mindanao. The programme aims to help poor women, men and their communities become more resilient to the impacts of climate change. This includes enhancing their well-being and emotional resilience to the shocks, stresses and uncertainties of everyday life. The programme hopes to achieve this by helping community members and local and national government to prepare for disasters, and by encouraging government to secure investment and support from the private sector.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Leadership, Participation
  • Political Geography: Philippines, Oceania
  • Author: Sarah Barakat, Melanie Kesmaecker-Wissing
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Using learning from protection programming in Colombia, Oxfam has been implementing its community protection programme in the DRC since 2006. It aims to help individuals prevent, and respond to, violence and abuse, while also holding duty-bearers to account for the protection of civilian populations. The programme uses a community-based approach that involves building Community Protection Structures (CPSs). Supported by Oxfam and partners, these are designed to identify the main threats faced by communities and find the best way of addressing them, while engaging with local authorities. The programme seeks to address power imbalances, between men and women and also between rights holders and duty-bearers. Its core premise is that communication among community members, and between them and local authorities, is key in order to find pragmatic ways to uphold people’s rights while also holding authorities to account. This communication must be informed by a shared understanding of human rights.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Civil Rights, Community, Protected People
  • Political Geography: Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Diana Sarosi
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Tourism is booming and generates millions of jobs for women around the world. Yet the hotel industry exemplifies the vast inequality of today’s world. The women who make hotel beds and clean hotel toilets labour long hours for meagre pay, face sexual harassment and intimidation, are exposed daily to toxic chemicals and live in fear of arbitrary dismissal. Meanwhile, the top-earning hotel CEOs can earn more in an hour than some housekeepers do in a year. Such systematic exploitation is not inevitable. The hotel industry, consumers and governments must all be part of the solution to end the economic exploitation of women. This report examines the working lives of housekeepers in Toronto, Canada, Punta Cana, Dominican Republic and Phuket, Thailand. In dozens of interviews with hotel housekeepers, representatives of workers’ organizations and hotel managers, Oxfam found five overarching trends common to the three locations: in non-unionized hotels, extremely low wages that are not sufficient to live on; serious health risks and high rates of injury; high rates of sexual harassment; difficulty organizing due to employer resistance and bad management practices; and a lack of adequate child care.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Governance, Tourism, Sexual Violence, Exploitation
  • Political Geography: Canada, Asia, Caribbean, Dominican Republic, North America, Thailand
  • Author: Mark Vincent Aranas
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East Asia (GRAISEA) programme works to promote women’s economic empowerment in agricultural value chains. The agricultural sector is heavily reliant on women workers, but these women do not have equal access to resources – only 12 percent of the three million landowners in Asia are women, for example. Together with the Institute for Social Enterprise for Asia and its partners, GRAISEA documented the stories of women who have been empowered by partnerships in the Philippines and Thailand. This case study tells their stories and presents a set of benchmarks for how transformational partnerships can be implemented in agricultural value chains.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Economic Inequality, Fishing, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Asia, South East Asia
  • Author: Jill Rubery
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This discussion paper was commissioned by Oxfam’s UK Programme to understand why certain occupations in the UK labour market, traditionally dominated by women, are low-paid. The paper argues that jobs associated with traditional and outdated notions of ‘women’s role in the home’ extends into the jobs market. This affects attitudes towards remuneration in professions such as cleaning and caring. The paper sets out a framework for understanding the risks of low pay and to explore the issue of the undervaluing of low-paid jobs with respect primarily to women. The author calls these the five ‘V’s: visibility, valuation, vocation, value-added and variance, and sets out a possible series of policy responses.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Labor Issues, Inequality, Income Inequality, Labor Rights
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Franziska Mager, Martin Walsh, Fiona Remnant
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women’s economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report. The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Economic Inequality, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Wolfgang Gressmann
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Conflicts and humanitarian crises affect men, women, girls, and boys differently due to their different societal roles and the deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities which become exacerbated during crises. Men and boys form the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict and associated impacts like forced recruitment or arbitrary detention. Women bear the burdens of running the households under extreme stress and are often exposed to different forms of gender-based violence. During emergencies, women and girls become more vulnerable as basic services collapse and livelihoods diminish. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and the changes that have resulted in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data to further inform immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Soman Moodley
  • Publication Date: 08-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Syrian refugees have the capacity to provide key support for service delivery and the expertise to contribute to the expansion of new productive economic sectors. This paper highlights an innovative approach to solid waste management and income generation, and aims to promote further dialogue on the role that Syrians can play in the Jordanian economy.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis, Community, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Jordan