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  • Author: Bachir Ayoub, Dima Mahdi
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Lebanon currently hosts the largest number of refugees per capita in the world. Donors have recognized the scale of the challenge and have offered support both in the form of humanitarian assistance and in multi-year development financing. This briefing paper is based on extensive research conducted in partnership with the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies (LCPS). It urges donors and policy makers to ensure that new financing to Lebanon is rights-based, accountable to local populations, reflects local priorities, benefits the most vulnerable and does not exacerbate pre-existing structural issues.
  • Topic: Foreign Aid, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Lebanon
  • Author: Carly Nyst, Zara Rahman, Paola Verhaert
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Biometrics is the measurement of human characteristics through technology such as iris scanning, facial recognition and fingerprint scanning. In the aid sector, supporters of the technology praise its potential to combat fraud and streamline service delivery in low-resource settings, while others point to the significant risks to privacy resulting from collecting and storing this personal information. This report was commissioned by Oxfam to help it consider the possibility of introducing secure, ethical and cost-effective use of biometric technology in its programmes in the future. The report looks at the external context around use of biometric technology in the humanitarian sector, considers the benefits and potential harm, and goes on to outline cases where the use of biometrics could be helpful.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Refugee Crisis, Humanitarian Intervention, Emerging Technology
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2016/17, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2016 in Tunisia, and intended to evaluate the success of the ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ project in increasing women’s empowerment. The project ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ is a multi-country programme operating in Morocco, Tunisia, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Yemen, with regional coordination from Lebanon. The results coming from this Effectiveness Review are not meant to be indicative of the overall impact of AMAL, but more a focused assessment for the Tunisia component. The AMAL project operating in Tunisia started in 2012, following the revolution of 2011, with the objective to increase women’s awareness of their political and socio-economic rights, and support women to play a more active role in the political and socio-economic life of their community and country.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Robert Fuller, Alexia Pretari
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Resilience, Food Security and Nutrition Project (Projet de Resilience, Securite Alimentaire et Nutritionnelle, PRSAN) was carried out in the North and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso between 2013 and 2017 by Oxfam and Christian Aid, together with two implementing partners, the Alliance Technique d’Assistance au Developpement (ATAD) and the Office de Developpement des Eglises Evangeliques (ODE). The project was aimed at enabling particularly vulnerable households to increase their resilience and improve their food security and nutritional situation. Project activities included supporting households in crop production, market gardening, processing and household businesses, providing awareness-raising on good nutritional practices, carrying out community-level disaster assessments and establishing early-warning committees, and distributing livestock and cash transfers. The Effectiveness Review was aimed at evaluating the success of this project in enabling participants to build their resilience to shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This report is part of Oxfam’s Effectiveness Review Series.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Gender Issues, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Author: Leon Quinn
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Skills for Life project was a one-year project focused on supporting predominantly Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women in Cardiff to “build long-term, lasting outcomes [beyond] moving into entry-level work and beyond ‘first jobs’ (whilst recognising their value as stepping stones)”. Skills for Life is a sister project of Future Skills, and run as part of Oxfam’s UK Programme Women United. It was delivered by Oxfam Cymru in partnership with South Riverside Community Development Centre (SRCDC).
  • Topic: Poverty, Labor Issues, Sustainability, Skilled Labor, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, England, Wales
  • Author: Laura Eldon, Anna Kondakhchyan
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Digital technologies are radically transforming the ways in which aid agencies can interact with the communities with whom they work. Oxfam believes that information communication technologies (ICTs) offer a huge opportunity to amplify and improve effectiveness across the organization’s work. From monitoring water points to delivering electronic vouchers through mobile phones and digitalizing protection surveys, Oxfam has been harnessing the use of ICTs to enhance the quality, accessibility and efficiency of its programming. Yet, the path from experimentation to widespread adoption and organizational support for new tools and technologies can be a challenging one, often opening up a range of concerns and opportunities. This article looks at the example of beneficiary information management and the introduction of World Vision’s Last Mile Mobile Solutions (LMMS) digital registration and distribution management platform. It explores the application of Oxfam’s ‘innovation pyramid’ to take the introduction of new tools from ‘systems of innovation’ to ‘systems of differentiation’ and subsequently to 'systems of record’. Digital technologies are radically transforming the ways in which aid agencies can interact with the communities with whom they work. Oxfam believes that information communication technologies (ICTs) offer a huge opportunity to amplify and improve effectiveness across the organization’s work. From monitoring water points to delivering electronic vouchers through mobile phones and digitalizing protection surveys, Oxfam has been harnessing the use of ICTs to enhance the quality, accessibility and efficiency of its programming. Yet, the path from experimentation to widespread adoption and organizational support for new tools and technologies can be a challenging one, often opening up a range of concerns and opportunities. This article looks at the example of beneficiary information management and the introduction of World Vision’s Last Mile Mobile Solutions (LMMS) digital registration and distribution management platform. It explores the application of Oxfam’s ‘innovation pyramid’ to take the introduction of new tools from ‘systems of innovation’ to ‘systems of differentiation’ and subsequently to 'systems of record’.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Communications, Digital Economy, Innovation
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Shubert Ciencia, Alex Maitland
  • Publication Date: 09-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: South-East Asia has seen remarkable economic growth over recent decades but also faces serious challenges, especially growing levels of inequality. Solutions are emerging, and the region’s leaders have agreed that inclusive growth is the way forward. Inclusive economies need inclusive businesses. Although at an early stage, we’re witnessing the potential for business to deliver the solutions. This discussion paper reviews the issues faced in the region, how business can be part of the solution through a spectrum of approaches, ways in which social enterprise models can be supported to thrive, and makes recommendations for the region’s businesses.
  • Topic: Economics, Regional Cooperation, Innovation, Inclusion
  • Political Geography: Asia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Richard Chilvers, Noor Abu Kwaik, Annabel Morrissey
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Gaza has long been a place of desperate need, with huge challenges in all areas of civic life. Devastating escalations in violence not only destroy lives and infrastructure, but also hope and aspiration. In the midst of this, the most marginalized people are often ignored or forgotten. As part of the Within and Without the State programme, community researchers worked with women with disabilities to enable them to devise a plan for periods of crisis. This included strengthening emergency preparedness, coordinating assistance, ensuring shelters are disability-friendly and supporting long-term advocacy for women with disabilities.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Disability
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Steph Avis, Uzma Batool, Eliza Hilton, Irnum Malik
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice. The project, supported by ECHO Enhanced Response Capacity and Oxfam, was implemented by Oxfam in Pakistan between September 2015 and March 2017.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Governance, Feminism, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Faiza Hesham Hael
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This accountability review is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15. The report documents the findings from a review carried out in December 2014 which examines the degree to which Oxfam meets its own standards for accountability. The project ’Humanitarian Assistance and Resilience Building in Western Yemen’ is a two-year project supporting vulnerable communities in Al-Hodeidah and Hajjah governorates. Oxfam and its partners aim to build resilience and provide humanitarian assistance to men, women and children, contributing to reducing the impact of chronic poverty, natural hazards and conflict. This assignment examined accountability to partners and communities in terms of transparency, feedback/listening and participation – three key dimensions of Accountability for Oxfam. In addition it asked questions around partnership practices, staff attitudes, and satisfaction (how useful the project is to people and how wisely the money on this project has been spent) where appropriate.
  • Topic: Poverty, Governance, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Rowan Harvey, Anam Parvez, Francesca Rhodes
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Women’s economic empowerment could reduce poverty for everyone. In order to achieve it, we need to first fix the current broken economic model which is undermining gender equality and causing extreme economic inequality. The neoliberal model has made it harder for women to have better quality and better paid jobs, address inequality in unpaid care work, and women’s influence and decision making power is constrained. To achieve women’s economic empowerment, we need a human economy that works for women and men alike, and for everyone, not just the richest 1%.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Discrimination, Femininity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Leigh-Anne Gillespie, Priya Gupta, Debbie Landis, Harry Shannon, Katharine Williamson
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: During conflicts and crises, children often face multiple stressors that can have significant impacts on their physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Because unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) have lost the care and protection of their primary caregivers, they face a heightened risk of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence (Maestral International, 2011). As a result, programming for UASC cases is often prioritized in the context of humanitarian interventions (Maestral International, 2011; Hepburn et al., 2004). But what is the impact of protection interventions on UASC in humanitarian crises in low and middle income countries? How effective are child protection activities specific to UASC at restoring a protective environment? How effective are interventions aimed at preventing and responding to abuse, exploitation, violence and neglect at ensuring the safety of UASC? How effective are mental health and psychosocial support interventions in promoting the mental health and psychosocial well-being of UASC?
  • Topic: Children, Refugee Crisis, Child Poverty, Humanitarian Intervention
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The continuing conflict in South Sudan, which began in December 2013, is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of millions of South Sudanese women, men, boys and girls, with the result that South Sudan is now one of the most food-insecure countries in the world. Women and men of all ages are suffering from the effects of conflict, including abuses and loss of control over, and access to, vital resources. This report presents the results of a gender analysis field study conducted in South Sudan in May-June 2016. The study was carried out as part of the ECHO-ERC project ‘Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice’. The report highlights the different impacts the conflict is having on women and men; whether and how these needs are being addressed; and where opportunities may exist for UN agencies, donors, South Sudanese authorities and civil society to incorporate a stronger gender element into their programmes and responses. It also aims to explain how programmes can be gender-sensitive in times of protracted conflict.
  • Topic: Civil Society, United Nations, Humanitarian Intervention, Food Assistance, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Christine Hughes
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This multi-country research report examines the problem of implementation gaps – government failures to fulfill their legislative obligations to address and prevent violence against women and girls. It presents a comparative analysis of shortfalls between government commitments as laid out in laws, and the realities for survivors of violence as they try to access services and justice. Drawing also on positive examples, lessons are shared about what can be done to improve the implementation of laws, and how civil society organizations can more effectively hold governments to account, so that laws can have a greater impact on ending violence against women and girls.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Governance, Gender Based Violence
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Adesoji Adeniyi
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Prolonged conflict, proxy wars, and inter-communal strife characterize many regions in Africa. This violence has caused untold atrocities, deaths, sexual violence, and displacement, as well as accelerating poverty and shattering lives and communities across the continent. Uncontrolled arms in Africa fuel this violence and are increasingly putting lives at immense risk. This report provides evidence about the human costs of uncontrolled arms: injuries and fatalities, internally displaced people and refugees, gender-based violence, and erosion of social cohesion and communal trust. Covering Mali, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and Libya, it provides arms control recommendations to African states, the African Union and Regional Economic Communities, donor communities, and the private sector.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Refugees, Arms Trade, Conflict, Violence, Proxy War, African Union
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Mali, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Zobeyda Cepeda, Eliza Hilton
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Governance, Bureaucracy, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Caribbean, Dominican Republic, North America
  • Author: Vanessa Ushie
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Africa Mining Vision (AMV) is a policy framework that was created by the African Union in 2009 to ensure that Africa uses its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development. Eight years after its inception, implementation has been slow and there is a low level of awareness of the framework among key stakeholders in the mineral sector. This paper shows that the AMV has specific weaknesses that should be addressed through its national implementation, in order to enhance the benefits for African citizens. Africa’s leaders and citizens must act now to ensure that the goals of the AMV are realized. It is a transformative policy that can drive sustainable development on the continent.
  • Topic: Development, Natural Resources, Mining, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Pakistan is highly vulnerable to disasters, but disasters have very different impacts on women, girls, men and boys. Moreover, organizations involved in relief efforts are currently not paying sufficient attention to the needs of women and girls. This analysis by Oxfam identifies the main areas where a gender gap is apparent, and puts forward recommendations for addressing these issues.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Gender Issues, Children, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Gender interacts with multiple factors including but not limited to age, ethnicity, disability, caste, class, religion and environment, to determine an individual’s ability to be aware of, lay claim to, and access their rights and entitlements. In times of crisis ‘ whether slow or sudden onset, climate or conflict driven ‘ there are shifts in how these factors interact that present opportunities and risks for women, girls, men and boys in accessing their rights, in the short, medium and longer term. Humanitarian (and development) actors need to be sensitive to these risks and opportunities. The purpose of this training manual is to support the institutionalization of gender equality and women’s rights in all humanitarian action. It was developed by Oxfam to support the implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice in the Humanitarian System, supported by the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) during 2015 to 2017. The aim of this initial training is to develop a critical mass of committed gender leaders ‘ some might call these ‘change agents’ or ‘change-makers’ ‘ who can together influence changes in policy and practice at different levels across the humanitarian system.
  • Topic: Environment, Gender Issues, Minorities, Crisis Management, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Steph Avis, Eliza Hilton, Ankets Petros
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Institutionalism, Risk
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Author: Anna Chiumento, Kelly Dickson, Lambert Felix, Bangpan Mukdarut
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This systematic review, commissioned by the Humanitarian Evidence Programme and carried out by a team from the EPPI-Centre, University College London (UCL), draws together primary research on mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programmes for people affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It investigates both the process of implementing MHPSS programmes and their receipt by affected populations, as well as assessing their intended and unintended effects. What are the barriers to, and facilitators of, implementing and receiving MHPSS interventions delivered to populations affected by humanitarian emergencies? What are the effects of MHPSS interventions delivered to populations affected by humanitarian emergencies? What are the key features of effective MHPSS interventions and how can they be successfully developed and implemented? What are the gaps in research evidence for supporting delivery and achieving the intended outcomes of MHPSS interventions? The systematic review, together with corresponding executive summary and evidence brief, forms part of a series of humanitarian evidence syntheses and systematic reviews commissioned by the Humanitarian Evidence Programme. Other reports in the series review the evidence on interventions or approaches to mental health, child protection, market support and household food security, acute malnutrition, pastoralist livelihoods, shelter self-recovery and urban response.
  • Topic: Health, Children, Mental Health, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2015 in Vayots Dzor region – Armenia. It intended to evaluate the success of the ‘Women’s economic empowerment in rural communities of Vayots Dzor region’ project in achieving its objectives: increasing household income (by promoting agriculture/horticulture and agribusiness) and promoting women’s economic empowerment.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Economic Growth, Feminism, Rural
  • Political Geography: Asia, Armenia, West Asia
  • Author: Ashleigh Lovertt, Renata Rendon, Claire Whelan
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: One year ago, European states closed their borders along the Western Balkan route and EU leaders put in place the EU-Turkey Statement, a so-called temporary measure to stop irregular migration to Europe. Now EU leaders are declaring their approach a success. The International Rescue Committee (IRC), the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), and Oxfam are providing humanitarian response on the Greek islands and mainland, and as their experience clearly shows, the context on the ground is far more troubling and complex. Beyond the deeply concerning situation in Greece, the EU is looking to replicate the EU-Turkey Statement model elsewhere, and in so doing, risks setting a dangerous precedent for the rest of the world. The EU has a proud history of commitment to international law and human rights which has driven its policies for 60 years. This joint agency paper argues that now is the time for Europe to show global leadership on migration by adopting policies that uphold these values, rather than triggering a race to the bottom.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Borders, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It is one year since the introduction of Europe’s flawed migration policies to close borders along the Western Balkan route and return migrants and refugees to Turkey, leaving thousands stranded in Greece. This update provides an overview of the current situation in Greece, and sets out what eight national and international responding agencies see as the most urgent issues to address and the major concerns with Europe’s response to this crisis.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Refugee Crisis, Borders, NGOs
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece, Asia, Balkans
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Today more than ever, the international community must share responsibility and stand firmly in support of Syria’s civilian population. It is clear however that the aid response, as vital as it is, will only go so far and cannot fully address the needs of Syrian communities to be free from violence and the violations of international human rights (IHRL) and humanitarian law (IHL) that characterize the conflict. In this briefing, Oxfam joins with a variety of agencies and coordination fora to call on all members of the international community, in particular permanent members of the UN Security Council and the EU and EU member states who are discussing post-agreement planning, to insist on the full implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions on Syria that relate to respect for IHL and IHRL, as well as implementation of the Geneva Communique of 2012. The Brussels conference should also set the foundation for inclusive and meaningful participation of Syrian NGOs and civil society, including youth and women’s groups, as key partners in ensuring effective post-agreement planning that captures the needs and desires of the people of Syria and supports local community rebuilding and resilience.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, European Union, NGOs, Local, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East, Syria
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Tajikistan was one of the first countries that signed up for the Global Partnership for Social Accountability (GPSA). Oxfam’s strategy on social accountability in the country focuses in three aspects: constructive engagement, enhancing trust through the Community Advisory Boards (CABs), and promoting women’s engagement. The programme has generated strong commitment from the government, communities and water services providers.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Governance, Accountability, Community
  • Political Geography: Central Asia, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam is leading the Freetown WASH Consortium (FWC) programme in Sierra Leone, which aims to contribute to health improvement through specific pro-poor WASH interventions that are aligned to the government’s 24-month post-Ebola recovery planning. Oxfam’s strategy focuses on promoting citizen engagement and the translation of community needs into policies.
  • Topic: Ebola, Public Health, Pandemic, Community
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sierra Leone
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam’s work in Lebanon, both on humanitarian WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) and more long-term water development programmes, uses social accountability mechanisms to assess community needs, empower citizens and promote dialogue among affected stakeholders. This strategy has helped to unlock some tensions in an effort to provide basic rights and services to vulnerable people. However the situation in many settings remains fragile, and further efforts are needed to promote dialogue and to anchor consultation processes to the water sector dynamics in Lebanon.
  • Topic: Infrastructure, Accountability, Humanitarian Crisis, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Lebanon
  • Author: Manon Aubry, Thomas Dauphin
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The world of tax havens is a murky place. In Europe, only one sector is required to publicly report its profits and tax on a country-by-country basis – the banking sector, as a result of regulation following the financial crisis. Since 2015 all banks based in the European Union have been obliged to report on their operations in this way. This report showcases research by Oxfam that uses this new transparency data in depth for the first time to illustrate the extent to which the top 20 EU banks are using tax havens, and in which ways. The urgent need now is to extend public country-by-country reporting to all sectors of the economy. If tax transparency is extended to all sectors, it will be easier for governments to clamp down on tax dodging and to repatriate lost tax revenues that could be used to fight inequality through investment in healthcare, education, social protection and job creation.
  • Topic: Inequality, Tax Systems, Banks, Transparency, Banking
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Emily Ball, Ceri Hughes, Donna-Louise Hurrell, Tom Skinner
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A more inclusive labour market would offer more people the chance to take part in rewarding, well-paid work, bringing both economic and social benefits. In the context of declining union membership, limited employment regulation and a growing disconnect between pay and living costs, employment charters are one means for cities to engage employers and start a conversation about how their employment practices can enable local people to live and work well. This paper and the accompanying case studies grew out of a conversation about ways to facilitate more inclusive growth in cities. It focuses on Greater Manchester and reviews the rationale, design and impact of several local employment charter initiatives in the UK to assess the role that they can play in creating and sustaining quality jobs.
  • Topic: Poverty, Labor Issues, Employment, Inequality
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Naama Baumgarten-Sharon
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Bedouin and herder communities are among the poorest and most marginalized populations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. In the West Bank, an estimated 30,000 Bedouin live in 183 communities in Area C, under complete Israeli control. In the Gaza Strip, there are some 75,000 Bedouin living in 18 Bedouin communities, many in border areas where there are access restrictions enforced by the Israeli army. These communities suffer from lack of access to basic services and are some of the most marginalized in Gaza. Better rangeland management would enable the available resources to be optimized and would increase the productivity of the agricultural sector, increasing food security under the existing constrained conditions. The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges facing rangeland management in the OPT and the possibilities for change.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Territorial Disputes, Food Security, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Palestine, Gaza, West Bank, Irsael
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Asia is exposed and vulnerable to a wide range of natural and manmade hazards. In many respects, it is the global epicenter for disasters. Its location makes it prone to destructive hazards that are exacerbated by climate change, leading to an increasing number of cyclones, sea level rises, severe drought, and other extreme climate effects. This vulnerability is compounded by poverty. The majority of the world’s poorest people today live in Asia, thus protection and recovery from these disasters remain difficult. In Asia, Oxfam continues to work with partners and vulnerable communities to promote resilience against existing risks and new risks from natural and human induced disasters that impact disadvantaged poor people in Asia. This map provides an overview of the extensive work in 11 countries in Asia and features different kinds of approaches towards building resilience: small holder agriculture and enterprises; water resilience; urban resilience; natural resource management; working with the private sector to build resilience; and climate finance and gender justice, among others.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Gender Issues, Water
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Aurore Mathieu
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Internally displaced people in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are struggling to find long-term solutions to improve their resilience to shocks in a region that has been beset by armed conflict for more than 20 years. In 2016 Oxfam partners undertook a survey among host communities and displaced people in Masisi and Lubero, North Kivu, to gain a picture of the formal and informal mechanisms developed by displaced people to integrate into host communities. It revealed that although the majority of displaced people wish to return eventually to their place of origin, the least vulnerable displaced people are those who manage to integrate into their host communities. This paper reports the views of displaced people and host communities. It aims to influence the debate underway on solutions to displacement in the province of North Kivu and provides concrete suggestions for ways to strengthen those mechanisms; in particular by redefining the interventions of humanitarian and development actors and authorities to consider the needs of host communities
  • Topic: Displacement, Local, Humanitarian Crisis, Internal Displacement
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: David Eiser, Ryan McQuigg, Francis Stuart
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In 2015 Oxfam Scotland called for the creation of an Inequality Commission, building on Scotland’s politicians from across all parties stating their support to tackle economic inequality. The Scottish government has committed to establishing a Poverty and Inequality Commission in 2017–18, but its design will be critical. This report, produced in collaboration with the Fraser of Allander Institute, explores the scale of inequality in Scotland and the drivers behind it. The report examines some, but not all, of the intersecting and overlapping dimensions of economic inequality and poverty – as well as potential policy responses and the powers of the Scottish Parliament. The report then explores lessons from the work of previous commissions and makes a series of recommendations for the Scottish government as it establishes the new Poverty and Inequality Commission.
  • Topic: Poverty, Governance, Inequality, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Scotland
  • Author: Gavin Stedman-Bryce
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of an impact evaluation, carried out in January 2016. The purpose of the evaluation was to rigorously assess the effectiveness of the Raising Her Voice project in South Africa (RHV-SA), in terms of its contribution to greater women’s empowerment. Usually, evaluations under this thematic area are evaluated using quasi-experimental impact evaluation techniques. In this case, given the characteristics of the project, a different impact evaluation technique has been applied, called process tracing. Where interventions have small sample sizes for evaluators to draw from (referred to as small ‘n’ evaluations), this can make it difficult to adopt traditional counterfactual approaches to establishing causality for a range of technical and practical reasons. This is a situation typically faced in projects under Oxfam’s Good Governance outcome area (previously known as Citizen Voice and Policy Influencing). Evaluations of interventions under this outcome area are concerned with establishing whether or not they contributed to an observed change; in other words, they are concerned with assessing a causal claim. To make this type of assessment possible, Oxfam developed a pre-qualified protocol, based on process tracing.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Governance, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Africa
  • Author: Clay Westrope
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, randomly selected for review under the good governance thematic area. This report documents the findings of a qualitative impact evaluation, carried out in May 2016. The evaluation used process tracing to assess the effectiveness of the GROW campaign in Tajikistan. In an effort to complement agricultural value chain programming implemented by a variety of organisations in the Khatlon region of Tajikistan, Oxfam GB (OGB) integrated aspects of its global advocacy campaign, GROW. The GROW campaign takes a multi-pronged approach to the multi-faceted issue of global food insecurity by focusing on a diversity of causes, including climate change, land reform issues, industrial farming, and private sector policies. In Tajikistan, the campaign team selected contextually relevant key issues to guide its advocacy activities, including climate change, land reform, and water availability with a focus on women smallholder farmers as the key agricultural producers. OGB did this through trainings, workshops, round tables, and highly visual events integrated with previous and currently existing programming. In Tajikistan, the GROW Campaign was implemented in a distinctive way by leveraging synergies between previous, existing, and future programming both directly and tangentially related to the main themes of the campaign. Rather than serving as a standalone campaign, GROW served as a platform from which to promote, influence, and advocate on issues through related projects being implemented on the ground.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Governance, Feminism, Rural, Farming, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Central Asia, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Author: Hugo Hooijer, Madelon Meijer
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Dutch oofficial development assistance (ODA) for agriculture has been on the rise in the last five years. However, it remains unclear whether Dutch ODA expenditures on agriculture are reaching female smallholder farmers. Empowering smallholders, especially women, is a proven solution for reducing hunger and poverty. This is particularly true of the rural poor, who are the worst affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper calls on the Dutch government to combine a strong ODA budget for agriculture with a solid strategy for resolving hunger by 2030, to scale up climate finance for adaptations in the agricultural sector, and to supply improved data on the impact of agricultural investments for each target group and gender.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Syed Hasnain Ali, Ian Goodrich, Hashim Zaidi
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme seeks to ensure that women, men and young people living in poverty in cities in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan have improved access to decent income opportunities and a dignified, healthy habitat. To achieve this goal, the programme is structured around three pillars: bringing together citizens to contribute to local governance; improving the responsiveness and capacity of local government actors; and improving access to WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) services and livelihood opportunities. The approach entails bringing together citizens in Effective Citizen Groups (ECG), with sub-groups for trade, WASH and participatory monitoring. Groups are supported in developing influencing strategies, and in lobbying local officials for improved WASH and livelihoods outcomes (e.g. repair of water and sanitation networks, increased access to livelihood support services) through participation in, and monitoring of, local government planning processes. This document particularly focuses on the programme’s learning about adapting programming to an urban environment.
  • Topic: Inequality, Citizenship, Urban, Community
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Ian Goodrich, Simeon Ogamba
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Kenya Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Resilience and Governance Programme is built upon a theory of change which emphasizes empowerment, rights and the ability of citizens – particularly women – to develop and implement their own strategies for better access to services to improve health and quality of life. The programme’s approach holds that the best-placed actors to deliver improved water and sanitation are the country’s government, civil society and private sector, who are held accountable by the citizens they serve in promoting the quality and sustainability of services. The programme addresses water and sanitation challenges in urban and rural settlements of Kenya, strengthening the capacity of county governments, water-user associations and water utility companies to provide safe, sustainable services; developing and piloting innovative solutions; and working with other civil society partners to call for policy changes that address the needs of the most vulnerable people. This document particularly focuses on the question of whether water ATMs are a sustainable solution to water supply.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Innovation, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme has four main objectives: Employment and value chain development. Enhancing the enabling environment for agricultural markets and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Strengthening citizen participation in government decision making related to the agriculture sector. Strengthening women’s economic leadership. This document focuses on these areas and how the programme has addressed the government’s ban on the use of plastic bags, which created an obstacle for small-scale producers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Gender Issues, Governance, Leadership, Participation, Value Chains
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Ian Goodrich, Benoit Trudel
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme’s overall objective is ‘to contribute to the improvement of food security and nutrition in the South Caucasus through smallholder farmers’ representation in the governance processes’. It focuses on working with government structures and civil society actors to develop, implement and monitor food security-related strategies and legislation, ensuring that support mechanisms are in place for small-scale producers. The programme also supports national alliances and institution-building, enabling sustainable civil society engagement in the policy process, a critical component given Oxfam’s planned phase-out in 2017. This document particularly focuses on the programme’s use of the Social Network Analysis methodology to support the sustainability of its alliances.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Alliance, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Europe, Caucasus, Asia, South Caucasus
  • Author: Rhoda Avila, Sarah Barakat, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam’s climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) programme in the Philippines focuses on conflict-prone and climate change-sensitive areas, as well as areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan in Mindanao. The programme aims to help poor women, men and their communities become more resilient to the impacts of climate change. This includes enhancing their well-being and emotional resilience to the shocks, stresses and uncertainties of everyday life. The programme hopes to achieve this by helping community members and local and national government to prepare for disasters, and by encouraging government to secure investment and support from the private sector.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Leadership, Participation
  • Political Geography: Philippines, Oceania
  • Author: Sarah Barakat, Melanie Kesmaecker-Wissing
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Using learning from protection programming in Colombia, Oxfam has been implementing its community protection programme in the DRC since 2006. It aims to help individuals prevent, and respond to, violence and abuse, while also holding duty-bearers to account for the protection of civilian populations. The programme uses a community-based approach that involves building Community Protection Structures (CPSs). Supported by Oxfam and partners, these are designed to identify the main threats faced by communities and find the best way of addressing them, while engaging with local authorities. The programme seeks to address power imbalances, between men and women and also between rights holders and duty-bearers. Its core premise is that communication among community members, and between them and local authorities, is key in order to find pragmatic ways to uphold people’s rights while also holding authorities to account. This communication must be informed by a shared understanding of human rights.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Civil Rights, Community, Protected People
  • Political Geography: Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Max Lawson, Matthew Martin
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In 2015, the leaders of 193 governments promised to reduce inequality as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Without reducing inequality, meeting the SDG to eliminate poverty will be impossible. Now Development Finance International and Oxfam have produced the first index to measure the commitment of governments to reducing the gap between the rich and the poor. The Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index uses a new database of indicators covering 152 countries, which measures government action on social spending, tax and labour rights – three areas found to be critical to reducing inequality. This first version of the CRI Index is work in progress, and DFI and Oxfam welcome comments and additions. We find that there is an urgent need for coordinated global investment to significantly improve the data on inequality and policies to reduce it, and much greater concerted action by governments across the world to reduce the gap between rich and poor.
  • Topic: Education, Health Care Policy, Inequality, Sustainable Development Goals, Tax Systems, Land
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since the turn of the century, the poorest half of the world’s population has received just 1% of the total increase in global wealth. Meanwhile, half the new wealth has gone to the richest 1%. At present, mainstream business is driving, rather than reversing, this disturbing trend. To help reverse this trend, we need rapid growth of equitable business structures with purpose, fairness and sustainability embedded into their model. In efforts to promote such equitable business structures, and the fourth sector, Oxfam is launching the Future of Business Initiative. Through this initiative, Oxfam will help such enterprises access finance and work with global companies on how they can include them in their supply chains. Oxfam will also investigate how having more businesses structured more equitably can contribute towards tackling global inequality, and ways government policies can better foster them, and the broader fourth sector.
  • Topic: Development, Poverty, Labor Issues, Private Sector, Equity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Diana Sarosi
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Tourism is booming and generates millions of jobs for women around the world. Yet the hotel industry exemplifies the vast inequality of today’s world. The women who make hotel beds and clean hotel toilets labour long hours for meagre pay, face sexual harassment and intimidation, are exposed daily to toxic chemicals and live in fear of arbitrary dismissal. Meanwhile, the top-earning hotel CEOs can earn more in an hour than some housekeepers do in a year. Such systematic exploitation is not inevitable. The hotel industry, consumers and governments must all be part of the solution to end the economic exploitation of women. This report examines the working lives of housekeepers in Toronto, Canada, Punta Cana, Dominican Republic and Phuket, Thailand. In dozens of interviews with hotel housekeepers, representatives of workers’ organizations and hotel managers, Oxfam found five overarching trends common to the three locations: in non-unionized hotels, extremely low wages that are not sufficient to live on; serious health risks and high rates of injury; high rates of sexual harassment; difficulty organizing due to employer resistance and bad management practices; and a lack of adequate child care.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Governance, Tourism, Sexual Violence, Exploitation
  • Political Geography: Canada, Asia, Caribbean, Dominican Republic, North America, Thailand
  • Author: Mark Vincent Aranas
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East Asia (GRAISEA) programme works to promote women’s economic empowerment in agricultural value chains. The agricultural sector is heavily reliant on women workers, but these women do not have equal access to resources – only 12 percent of the three million landowners in Asia are women, for example. Together with the Institute for Social Enterprise for Asia and its partners, GRAISEA documented the stories of women who have been empowered by partnerships in the Philippines and Thailand. This case study tells their stories and presents a set of benchmarks for how transformational partnerships can be implemented in agricultural value chains.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Economic Inequality, Fishing, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Asia, South East Asia
  • Author: Monica Stephen
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report summarizes the findings of new research on the impact of violent conflict on civil society organizations (CSOs) and the implications for international actors who partner with them. It finds that local CSOs working in violent conflict settings are more important than ever, as they are at the forefront in responding to the needs of the millions of civilians caught up in violent conflict around the world. Where international actors struggle to get access to contested territories and rely on national or local CSOs to reach conflict-affected communities, partnerships allow life-saving resources to reach the people who need them most. And as commitments to localization grow, international funding flows to CSOs are set to increase. Yet this study finds that international actors often fail to understand the highly politicized and insecure environments they operate in and do not do enough to support and strengthen the CSOs with whom they work.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Refugees, Displacement, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jonathan Lain
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in January 2016 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the ‘Joint Programme on Disaster Risk Management and Humanitarian Preparedness’. The project under review was implemented between April 2011 and March 2016 in four districts in the Terai region of southern Nepal – Dhanusha, Rautahat, Salarhi, and Saptari. The project was carried out by Oxfam in partnership with several organisations, including the Koshi Victims Society (KVS), the Social Development Research Centre (SDRC), Bagmati Welfare Society Nepal (BWSN), Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS), and Rural Development Centre (RDC). The project had three broad objectives, which were developed during its planning phase: (1) to strengthen and institutionalise Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR), (2) to enhance the capacity of local institutions to prepare for and respond to humanitarian emergencies, (3) to create an enabling environment for people to demand their ‘rights in crisis’.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Infrastructure, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jill Rubery
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This discussion paper was commissioned by Oxfam’s UK Programme to understand why certain occupations in the UK labour market, traditionally dominated by women, are low-paid. The paper argues that jobs associated with traditional and outdated notions of ‘women’s role in the home’ extends into the jobs market. This affects attitudes towards remuneration in professions such as cleaning and caring. The paper sets out a framework for understanding the risks of low pay and to explore the issue of the undervaluing of low-paid jobs with respect primarily to women. The author calls these the five ‘V’s: visibility, valuation, vocation, value-added and variance, and sets out a possible series of policy responses.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Labor Issues, Inequality, Income Inequality, Labor Rights
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Franziska Mager, Martin Walsh, Fiona Remnant
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women’s economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report. The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Economic Inequality, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Edmund Cairns
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since 25 August, more than 626,000 Rohingya have reached Bangladesh from Myanmar. Rohingya women and men have told Oxfam devastating stories of killings, rape and sexual violence. This report is an opportunity for some of them to share their stories, hopes, and their experiences of living in overcrowded refugee camps with overflowing latrines and contaminated water. Heavy rains and the cyclone season in 2018 threaten to bring new disaster and increase the risk of cholera. And irrespective of the recent bilateral agreement between Myanmar and Bangladesh, most Rohingya are terrified of returning to Myanmar while the discrimination that drove them away is unchanged.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Bilateral Relations, Refugee Crisis, Gender Based Violence , Violence, Sexual Violence, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Vaqar Ahmed, Mustafa Talpur, Sadaf Liaqa
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Pakistan does not currently mobilize sufficient tax revenue to finance essential public services, including healthcare and education, on which the poor rely the most. Consequently, these services remain inadequate, hampering efforts to reduce poverty and address extreme inequalities. Furthermore, the current tax system in Pakistan is seen by many as unfair and inequitable. Two-thirds of tax revenue is mobilized through indirect taxes, which are regressive in nature and unfairly burden those least able to pay them. Against this backdrop, this paper explains the four basic elements necessary for a fair and just tax regime, which, if implemented, would strengthen the domestic revenue base, increase equity and improve overall development outcomes, as the public sector will have more resources at its disposal to spend on human and social well-being.
  • Topic: Education, Tax Systems, Fiscal Policy, Social Services
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Renata Rendon, Matta Samiou
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since the beginning of 2015 more than one million migrants, including refugees, fleeing war, persecution, natural disasters and poverty, have travelled through Turkey to Greece in search of safety and a dignified life in Europe. Lacking safe and legal alternatives, they put their lives in the hands of smugglers and risk everything during perilous sea and land crossings. Oxfam and ActionAid have listened to hundreds of refugee and migrant women and men on Lesvos island, in Athens and in the Epirus region of northwest Greece to understand why they fled their countries, what their immediate needs are, and what they plan to do next. This paper presents the key messages that they want European people and their governments to hear.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugees, Refugee Crisis, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece
  • Author: Karol Czuba, Tyler O'Niell
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This protocol outlines plans for conducting an evidence synthesis on the impact of food aid on pastoralist livelihoods. The distinctiveness of pastoralists - including factors related to the erosion of their livelihood strategies and the difficulty posed by identification of frequently mobile households - and their particular vulnerability to humanitarian crises suggest that the effects of humanitarian interventions targeting them are likely to differ from other populations. The purpose of this review is to use evidence synthesis methods to: systematically identify all available evidence on the impact of food assistance to pastoralist livelihoods (during and after) a humanitarian crisis; compare and contrast the effects of assistance delivered (by population, assistance type etc.); qualitatively and (if possible) quantitatively synthesize identified data and concepts; assess the quality of evidence, as appropriate; and identify gaps in the current evidence-base and further comment on future research needs in this space. To the review team's knowledge, this will be the first evidence synthesis that specifically addresses the impacts of food assistance provided in the context of humanitarian interventions on pastoralists' livelihoods. This review is commissioned under the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center that aims to improve humanitarian policy and practice.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Food, Food Security, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Guilia Capitani
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The flow of migrants into Italy continues to be dealt with as an 'emergency' situation. The EU's 'hotspot' approach, outlined in the European Agenda for Migration of May 2015 as a short-term measure, has been implemented in Italy and Greece and is an approach involving EU officers, in collaboration with national authorities, in the identification, fingerprinting and registration of migrants. This paper from Oxfam Italia examines the hotspot approach in Italy through the experiences of humanitarian agencies and civil society organizations on the ground, and through the voices of migrants themselves. It concludes that, due to the lack of a legal framework, the hotspot approach seriously violates the fundamental rights of people reaching Italian shores. Oxfam calls for the Italian government and the European Union to define hotspot procedures and activities in EU and national regulations and to take medium-term action to expand the capacity of the receiving and support systems in Italy.
  • Topic: Migration, Diaspora, Immigration, Refugees, Legal Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe, Greece, Italy, Mediterranean
  • Author: Tim Gore, Rebecca Pearl-Martinez
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Paris Agreement marked a major breakthrough in support for climate action from many parts of the business community, including from key actors in the food and beverage sector. But despite significant progress, much work remains both to cut greenhouse gas emissions and to support the millions of people already hit by climate change. As one of the sectors that is at highest risk of being affected by climate change, responsible for a giant emissions footprint and reliant on millions of small-scale farmers and agricultural workers in the regions most vulnerable to climate change, the food and beverage sector should lead the next generation of post-Paris corporate climate commitments. This paper presents new data commissioned from the research consultancy CE Delft on the greenhouse gas emissions footprints and water scarcity footprints of major food commodities. The data demonstrate the vital role the food and beverage industry can and must play in turning the Paris Agreement into a springboard for the stronger climate action needed.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Food, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Richard Chilvers
  • Publication Date: 08-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Within and Without the State (WWS), a programme funded by the UK Department for International Development, has been working in South Sudan since 2012 to improve the relationship between citizen and state. This case study describes the efforts of Community Empowerment and Progress Organization, a WWS partner, to work with young people in cattle raiding camps and support local communities to find their own solutions for peace. In the midst of a renewed outbreak of violence just two days before the country’s fifth anniversary, supporting local level peace initiatives remains as vital as ever.
  • Topic: Peace, Cattle, Farming, Ranching, Raiding
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Wolfgang Gressmann
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Conflicts and humanitarian crises affect men, women, girls, and boys differently due to their different societal roles and the deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities which become exacerbated during crises. Men and boys form the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict and associated impacts like forced recruitment or arbitrary detention. Women bear the burdens of running the households under extreme stress and are often exposed to different forms of gender-based violence. During emergencies, women and girls become more vulnerable as basic services collapse and livelihoods diminish. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and the changes that have resulted in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data to further inform immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Nguyen Thu Huong
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Public administration services in Vietnam are often slow and inefficient. In Quang Tri province, Oxfam developed an innovative mobile phone scorecard tool: the M-Score. This tool enables citizens to score the performance of public administration services via mobile phone and ensures their feedback is recorded and responded to. There have been encouraging results. One inspiring result is the decreased number of reported bribery cases and a plan to improve the quality of public services in the 2016 Resolution of the People’s Council of Quang Tri.
  • Topic: Corruption, Transparency, Phone, Mobile Network
  • Political Geography: Vietnam
  • Author: Conor Molly
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Violence against women and adolescent girls is a systemic and ingrained problem in Bangladesh. Oxfam Novib worked with a group of local partners in Bangladesh, including BRAC, WECAN, HASAB and Rupantur, to address the problem in the Khulna Division through an intervention strategy centered on the utilization of edutainment methodologies. The project combined interactive, high quality modern communications tools, including televised docudramas and public service commercials, and traditional edutainment, such as street theatre, together with targeted and more intense school and community interventions in 10 select locations in the Khulna Division. As a result, more than 3,000 students (60 percent were girls) and 3,000 parents reported changing their values and attitudes towards sexual violence against adolescents. Through a mass campaign, the project reached approximately 500,000 people across the Bangladesh.
  • Topic: Communications, Culture, Social Movement, popular culture
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, South Asia, Asia
  • Author: Marcos Do Amaral
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Mozambique is described as the third most exposed African country to the risks of disaster, particularly floods, cyclones and drought. It is one of the world’s worst affected countries in terms of climate change, resulting in high levels of poverty and vulnerability, and major impacts on natural resources and physical infrastructures. Oxfam is building the capacity of Mozambique’s civil society so it can effectively participate in disaster management, directly support affected and vulnerable people, and, in terms of the humanitarian situation, have a critical vision and voice.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Africa, Mozambique, Southern Africa
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In 2015 there was a huge increase in the number of migrants, including refugees, arriving in Greece and travelling along the Balkan route on their way to destination countries further north. According to UNHCR, more than one million refugees and migrants crossed the Mediterranean in 2015. This report looks at the protection concerns of people on the move, especially women and children, in Macedonia and Serbia following the closure of the Balkan route. It is based on research and information gathered by Oxfam and its partners: the Belgrade Centre for Human Rights and Atina in Serbia, and the Macedonian Young Lawyer Association and Open Gate/ La Strada in Macedonia. The report includes recommendations on how to protect and promote their safety, dignity and human rights.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Migration, Refugees, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Serbia, Macedonia
  • Author: Evelien Van Roemburg, Alexandra Saieh, Daniel Gorevan
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam's research shows that less than three percent of the Syrian refugee population have actually arrived in rich countries through resettlement programmes. By analysing resettlement policies and practices in eight key countries, looking at capacity (i.e. investment in staff and facilities), security procedures, resettlement criteria and the general political climate towards refugees, this paper shows why resettling at least 10 percent of the refugee population from Syria is both necessary and possible.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugees, Displacement, Resettlement
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Leila Smith
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study of research in practice describes how in 2014 Oxfam staff researched and developed a powerful killer fact ' that the 85 richest people owned as much wealth as the poorest 3.5 billion people ' and how this triggered international media coverage, political commentary, and record-level website hits.
  • Topic: Poverty, Media, Inequality, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Soman Moodley
  • Publication Date: 08-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Syrian refugees have the capacity to provide key support for service delivery and the expertise to contribute to the expansion of new productive economic sectors. This paper highlights an innovative approach to solid waste management and income generation, and aims to promote further dialogue on the role that Syrians can play in the Jordanian economy.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis, Community, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Jordan
  • Author: Malcolm Sayers
  • Publication Date: 03-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The world faces twin challenges: delivering a decent standard of living for everyone, while living within our environmental limits. These two concerns are brought together in Oxfam's Doughnut model, which visualizes a space between planetary boundaries and a social floor where it is environmentally safe and socially just for humanity to exist. Here, The UK Doughnut: A framework for environmental sustainability and social justice suggests areas of life that might constitute a social floor below which no-one in the UK should fall, and begins the process of identifying which environmental boundaries might be useful for incorporation into a national UK analysis. The report provides a snapshot of the UK's status by assessing its current position against the suggested set of domains and indicators.
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Deborah Hardoon
  • Publication Date: 01-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Global wealth is increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small wealthy elite. These wealthy individuals have generated and sustained their vast riches through their interests and activities in a few important economic sectors, including finance and insurance, and pharmaceuticals and healthcare. Companies from these sectors spend millions of dollars every year on lobbying to create a policy environment that protects and enhances their interests further. The most prolific lobbying activities in the US are on budget and tax issues; public resources that should be directed to benefit the whole population, rather than reflect the interests of powerful lobbyists.
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Fernando Almansa
  • Publication Date: 05-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Somaliland, Puntland and South Central Somalia, the International Community is mixing its political interests with its humanitarian agenda. Insecurity severely hampers access in many parts, making it difficult to implement and monitor humanitarian responses. International humanitarian actors need to revisit their strategies and invest more in working with local agencies to deliver aid. Local humanitarian actors need to take courageous humanitarian leadership with full accountability and transparency. Many international donors often appear to give priority to broader security agendas and the need for transparency over humanitarian action to save lives. This report assesses the capacity of local humanitarian actors to deliver humanitarian aid in response to the repeated crises that the country faces. It is the starting point of an Oxfam project to build the strength of local humanitarian actors to deliver effective humanitarian responses.
  • Topic: Security, International Cooperation, Transparency, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia, Puntland, Somaliland
  • Author: Maria Dolores Bernabe
  • Publication Date: 05-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A better way of growing food is the best bet against climate change for Southeast Asia's small-scale food producers. Sustainable agriculture - agriculture that can meet the needs of present and future generations, ensures the efficient production of safe, high-quality agricultural products in a way that protects the natural environment, and improves on the economic conditions of farmers and local communities - offers the best chances for countries belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to deal with climate change. By scaling-up sustainable agricultural practices across the region, ASEAN can help feed its peoples and support the livelihoods of small-scale food producers, and help curb greenhouse gas emissions to push back impending catastrophe.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Environment, Regional Cooperation, Food
  • Political Geography: Asia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Kiri Hanks, Julie-Anne Richards
  • Publication Date: 06-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is already the biggest threat to winning the fight against hunger. Coal is the biggest single cause of climate change, yet the G7 countries are still burning huge amounts, despite efficient, affordable, renewable alternatives being available. G7 coal power stations emit twice as much fossil fuel CO2 as the whole of Africa, and their contribution to global warming will cost Africa alone more than $43bn per year by the 2080s and $84bn by 2100, and lead to several million tonnes of staple crops lost worldwide. This year will see crucial new UN climate talks in Paris. To set the tone for a successful climate agreement at the UN talks in December, the G7 must lead the world in setting out clear plans for a just transition away from coal. This Oxfam briefing paper shows how with the right mix of regulatory and policy measures, some countries can move to coal-free electricity grids within the next decade. Oxfam commissioned the think-tank E3G to review the current coal situation in all G7 countries.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, United Nations, Hunger, Coal
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Edmund Cairns
  • Publication Date: 07-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The UN Secretary-General has called the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016 'to make humanitarian action fit for the future'. Tens of millions of people receive humanitarian aid every year, but millions more suffer without adequate help and protection, and their number is relentlessly rising. One summit cannot change everything. But the key tests of its integrity and success are that the World Humanitarian Summit: €¢ demands that states are held to account for their international obligations on assistance and protection; and €¢ sets out genuinely new ways to support local humanitarian action, to reverse the growing gap between the amount of aid needed and given, and to reduce the risk of future disasters
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, United Nations, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Siham Rayale, Ed Pomfret, Deborah Wright
  • Publication Date: 08-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report looks at Somali women's experiences with conflict, peace, violence, insecurity and state rebuilding. It uses an approach geared towards gender-just peace-building to understand the ways in which Somali women have fulfilled their role as agents of change, while navigating the challenges posed by women's exclusion from many forms of public life (government, civil society, universities, open markets etc). Interviews and focus groups have been used to illustrate diverse perspectives and to demonstrate that Somali women have always been principal agents of change and social transformation. The report's recommendations are an acknowledgement of the role Somali women have played throughout the course of Somali history, and continue to play today, in shaping the pathway towards greater participation for women across Somali regions, and the challenges they face in so doing.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Social Movement, Women, Gender Based Violence
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Teresa Cavero
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Europe is facing unacceptable levels of poverty and inequality. Instead of putting people first, policy decision making is increasingly influenced by wealthy elites who bend the rules to their advantage, worsening poverty and economic inequality, while steadily and significantly eroding democratic institutions. Austerity measures and unfair tax systems across Europe are skewed in favour of powerful vested interests. It is time to reverse the course of poverty and inequality in Europe, putting people first.
  • Topic: Poverty, European Union, Economic Inequality, Elites
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Alice Krozer
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The emerging economies Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Turkey - in short, the BRICSAMIT - have come to be considered the economic powerhouses of recent decades. Not only have these countries managed to reduce poverty; most have embarked on a steep economic growth path and play an increasingly influential role on the global scene. But today, all eight BRICSAMIT countries occupy the top ranks as some of the most unequal countries in the world. The price these countries - and millions of their citizens - pay for this is high. Excessive inequality hampers development prospects: negatively impacting growth potential, threatening poverty reduction, leading to mass migration flows and 'brain drain', and reducing opportunities for young people. This report, which was commissioned by civil society networks across the BRICSAMIT countries, aims to increase the urgency to tackle the structural causes of inequality by shedding light on the nature and scope of the issue in the BRICSAMIT, and the economic, political and social consequences these countries are now facing as a result.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Migration, Poverty, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, China, Europe, Indonesia, Turkey, Asia, South Africa, Brazil, South America, Mexico
  • Author: Pooja Parvati
  • Publication Date: 10-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) is one of the most widespread, and yet the least recognized, human rights violations across the world. It can manifest in many forms, but the most common form experienced by women globally is physical violence inflicted by an intimate partner. Documenting this continues to be a challenge due to lack of reliable, timely datasets. In 2005, the government of India enacted the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), which came into force in 2006. Nine years later, progress in its implementation is insignificant as it remains plagued by challenges such as inadequate funds and human resources, poor coordination across implementing agencies and ineffective monitoring mechanisms. Addressing these would go a long way in strengthening the Act and making it effective. This also corresponds with the Indian government’s wholehearted commitment to ‘Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls’ by the year 2030 through its adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Human Rights, Gender Based Violence , Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: India, Asia, Global Focus
  • Author: David Andres-Vinas, Daniel Gorevan, Martin Hartberg, Melissa Phillips, Alexandra Saieh
  • Publication Date: 11-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: With no end to the conflict in Syria in sight, the four million people forced to flee the country have no foreseeable prospect of safe return. And as the impact of the crisis on neighbouring countries grows and aid dries up, the situation for these refugees is becoming increasingly dire. This briefing calls for a new approach by the international community, including Syria's neighbours; one which offers hope, safety and dignity to the millions of refugees, and gives them a chance to contribute to the societies and economies of their hosts.
  • Topic: Civil War, Refugee Issues, Refugee Crisis, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Global Focus
  • Author: Daisy Gardener, Jasmine Burnley
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Myanmar, the garment industry is booming thanks to an upsurge in investment by international brands, but garment workers are facing tough conditions. According to new research from Oxfam and labour rights groups in Myanmar, garment workers are working up to 11 hours a day, six days a week, but remain trapped in poverty. Following decades of economic isolation, political reforms have seen global retail heavyweights like GAP, H&M, Primark and Adidas starting to source from Myanmar factories. With the garment industry growing quickly, companies need to act now to ensure that workers making their products can access their fundamental rights and provide a decent living for themselves and their families. This briefing paper presents the research findings and makes recommendations for international sourcing companies and factories to help them protect garment workers' rights.
  • Topic: Labor Issues, Investment, Clothing, Garmet Industry
  • Political Geography: Burma, Myanmar
  • Author: Marc J. Cohen, Bhawan Singh
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Haiti's climate has changed over the past four decades. Annual mean temperatures have risen, and the rainy season now begins up to three months later than usual. Projections of future climate change indicate that annual mean temperatures will continue to rise over the course of the 21st century. Rainfall variability is also expected to increase, meaning more extreme droughts in the dry season and more intense rainfall in the wet season. Sea-level rise and increased storm surges are also expected. The coastal plains are increasingly subject to the influx of saltwater, and as ocean surges lead to saltier soils, farmers can no longer cultivate them. These factors will exacerbate current serious problems of flooding and erosion in coastal areas that lie in the direct path of tropical storms and hurricanes. In the absence of significant adaptation efforts, these dynamics will in turn have severe impacts on water resources, land, agriculture, and forests. Annual population growth of 1.5 per cent means over 11 million mouths to feed by 2020 and additional pressure on agricultural resources.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Poverty, Natural Disasters, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Caribbean, Haiti
  • Author: Marília Leão, Renato S. Maluf
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Brazil has achieved promising results in the fight against hunger and poverty. This paper describes the path toward building a new governance framework for the provision of public policies that initiated a virtuous cycle for the progressive elimination of hunger and poverty. However, it is important to emphasize that the country continues to be characterized by dynamics that generate inequalities and threaten social and environmental justice.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Poverty, Food, Governance
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Latin America
  • Author: Adele Peers
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This research reviews Myanmar's Disaster Management Law from the angle of inclusivity. It aims to make Myanmar's disaster management cycle more inclusive of women, children, persons with disabilities and aged persons. It offers recommendations aimed at government and members of the Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group (DRRWG) as to how to address inclusivity gaps identified through an analysis of the Disaster Management Law, and beyond. It suggests that many of the gaps can be addressed by construction of robust and inclusive Rules and Regulations to accompany the Law. While this research is focused predominantly on inclusion within Myanmar's Disaster Management Law, it also discusses disaster management processes more broadly. In this way, this research offers useful insights with regards to current and future challenges for comprehensive disaster management in Myanmar.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Natural Disasters, Governance
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Jennifer Leavy, Naomi Hossain
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Who wants to farm? In an era of land grabs and environmental uncertainty, improving smallholder productivity has become a higher priority on the poverty and food security agenda in development, focusing attention on the next generation of farmers. Yet emerging evidence about the material realities and social norms and desires of young people in developing countries indicates a reasonably widespread withdrawal from work on the land as an emerging norm. While de-agrarianisation is not new, policymakers are correct to be concerned about a withdrawal from the sector: smallholder productivity growth, and agricultural transformation more broadly, depend in part on the extent to which capable, skilled young people can be retained or attracted to farming, and on policies that support that retention. So who wants to farm, and under what conditions? Where are economic, environmental and social conditions favourable to active recruitment by educated young people into farming? What policy and programmatic conditions are creating attractive opportunities in farming or agro-food industry livelihoods?
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa, Latin America
  • Author: Katherine Trebeck, Malcolm Sayers
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: We live on a fragile planet which is under increased human stress, to the extent that we are transgressing several of the planetary boundaries as mapped out by the Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC). We share this planet with over seven billion fellow human beings, too many of whom face extraordinary challenges in building a life free of poverty, indignity, powerlessness and fear. While a small number of people are using the most resources, simultaneously too many are unable to lead lives in which they can flourish and live with dignity.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Alexandra Wanjiku Kelbert
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: How are rapid recent food price changes linked to climate and environmental change? How do people who are vulnerable to these changes view these links? This note explores the views of people living on low and precarious incomes on these connections, based on research designed to explore experiences of food price volatility in 2012, through qualitative research in 23 research sites in 10 countries. The research was not specifically designed to study perceptions of climate and environmental change; these views are collected here because they offer interesting, relatively unmediated insights into how people perceive the causal connections between their food security and environment across varied social and ecological settings.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Climate Change, Economics, Food
  • Author: Nicola Deghaye, Tamlyn McKenzie, Petronella Chirawu
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Recognising inequality is at the heart of the South African 'development problem', Oxfam commissioned the Health Economics and HIV and AIDS Research Division (HEARD) to produce this report, which is divided into two parts, to enable an understanding of the dimensions of inequality in South Africa and to provide Oxfam with a set of basic measures against which it could measure its success in dealing with inequality.
  • Topic: Security, Gender Issues, Health, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Africa
  • Author: Batchelor Simon, Scott Nigel, Valverde Alvaro, Manfre Cristina, Edwards David
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This paper from the Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on ICTs for Sustainability (ICT4S 2014) reviews findings from detailed consultation with 50 global experts in Agriculture and Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). The study explores how ICTs (particularly mobile phones) could be used to accelerate the uptake of sustainable agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper develops a detailed conceptual model, built around the smallholder farmer, for understanding the flow of information through the agriculture sector.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Dornan Paul, Ogando Portela, Maria Jose, Pells Kirrily
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Drawing on survey data from Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty involving 12,000 children in four countries, this paper examines the effects of environmental shocks on food insecurity and children‟s development. The data, from children and their families living in rural and urban locations in Ethiopia, the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, Peru , and Vietnam , provide information on the same individuals over time, allowing consideration of how earlier incidences of food insecurity and exposures to environmental shocks shape later outcomes. Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationships between these and other relevant factors.
  • Topic: Security, Climate Change, Human Welfare, Food
  • Political Geography: India, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh, Peru
  • Author: Hanks Kiri
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: UN Secretary - General Ban Ki - moon invited business leaders to bring to the Climate Summit the bold actions they are undertaking to address climate change. These public – private initiatives are touted to be a key outcome of the summit – especially given that few governments will be in a position to make major new commitments. The hope is that they will inject some positive momentum into the global talks by showing that business is already ' getting on with it ' and leading the way.
  • Topic: Climate Change, International Cooperation, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Coghlan Christopher, Muzammil Maliha, Ingram John, Vervoort Joost, Otto Friederike, James Rachel
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: From 2010 to 2013 the world experienced a number of extreme weather events, several of which were notable for their intensity, duration, and impacts on livelihoods and food security. This report focuses on four case studies – a heat wave in Russia, flooding in Pakistan, drought in East Africa, and a typhoon in the Philippines – that represent a range of extreme weather. It analyses the impact of these extreme weather events on food security, by considering when and why threats emerge. This involves characterization of the weather events, examination of the vulnerable groups affected, and analysis of livelihoods and the role of governance and capital.
  • Topic: Security, Climate Change, Environment, Food
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Africa, Russia, Philippines
  • Author: Nick Chisholm
  • Publication Date: 08-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: On food prices: The case studies on food prices and how people are eating in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Pakistan confirm that price changes, and the impacts of such changes on households, are far more varied in space and time than national average data reveal. In turn, national price movements can clearly diverge from global prices due to a variety of country - specific factors. The case studies also demonstrate that politics and policies have a significant impact on prices: governments can directly (for good or ill) influence the wellbeing of the poor thro ugh decisions on policy instruments such as taxation and levels of subsidies. Finally, there is some evidence that prices in rural agricultural areas are more influenced by seasonal supply and demand factors than are prices in urban areas. In principle, rural producers may benefit from higher prices, but that is not usually the case for small producers, who are still net consumers of basic food commodities.
  • Topic: Food
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Kenya, Vietnam
  • Author: Bowman Kimberly
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report summarizes an internal review of Women‟s Economic Leadership (WEL) programming in Asia. Conducted by an internal MEL advisor in 2013–2014, the review draws upon project documentation, evaluation reports, site visits and staff and partner interviews to try and reflect how WEL programming is being implemented by Oxfam and partners in Asia. Part of a formative evaluation activity, the report aims to help gather and consolidate good practice, based on what Oxfam project teams and partners have learned through recent experience and evaluation. There are at least four distinct topics covered in this report that may be of specific interest to readers.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Sociology
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Emma Seery, Ana Arendar
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Nthabiseng was born to a poor black family in Limpopo, a rural area in South Africa. On the same day, Pieter was born nearby in a rich suburb of Cape Town. Nthabiseng's mother had no formal schooling and her father is unemployed, whereas Pieter's parents both completed university education at Stellenbosch University and have well-paid jobs.
  • Topic: Corruption, Economics, Gender Issues, Social Stratification
  • Political Geography: South Africa
  • Author: Yared Teka Tsegay, Masiiwa Rusare, Rashmi Mistry
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: South Africa is considered a 'food-secure' nation, producing enough calories to adequately feed every one of its 53 million people. However, the reality is that, despite some progress since the birth of democracy in 1994, one in four people currently suffers hunger on a regular basis and more than half of the population live in such precarious circumstances that they are at risk of going hungry.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: South Africa
  • Author: Jo Rowlands
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam works in many countries that are considered fragile – where governance is weak or authoritarian, where people face significant poverty and marginalization, and where the challenges of doing 'aid' work are huge.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Humanitarian Aid, Fragile/Failed State, Governance
  • Author: Kate Bowen
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Occupied Palestinian Territory and Israel (OPTI) is one of four Oxfam country projects delivering the Within and Without the State (WWS) programme, funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) from 2011 to 2016 under the Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Programme Partnership Arrangement (CHASE PPA). WWS is piloting innovative approaches to working with civil society to promote more accountable governance in conflict - affected and fragile contexts.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Arabia
  • Author: Louie Fooks
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Occupied Palestinian Territory and Israel (OPTI) is one of four Oxfam country programmes delivering the Within and Without the State (WWS) programme, funded by DFID from 2011 to 20 16 under the Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Programme Partnership Arrangement (CHASE PPA). WWS is piloting innovative approaches to working with civil society to promote more accountable governance in conflict-affected and fragile contexts.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Political Economy, Governance, Reform
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Arabia
  • Author: Babrak Osman
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Afghanistan is one of four Oxfam country programmes delivering the Within and Without the State (WWS) programme, funded by DFID from 2011 to 2016 under the Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Programme Partnership Arrangement (CHASE PPA). WWS is piloting innovative approaches to working with civil society to promote more accountable governance in conflict-affected and fragile contexts.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Gender Issues, Peace Studies, War, Youth Culture
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Central Asia
  • Author: Rama Anthony
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: South Sudan is one of four Oxfam country projects delivering the Within and Without the State (WWS) programme, funded by DFID from 2011 to 2016 under the Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Programme Partnership Arrangement (CHASE PPA). WWS is piloting innovative approaches to working with civil society to promote more accountable governance in conflict - affected and fragile contexts – and is sharing the experience and learning within Oxfam and with the wider development world.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Fragile/Failed State, Governance
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Adam S. Posen, David G. Blanchflower
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of rises in inactivity on wages in the US economy and find evidence of a statistically significant negative effect. These nonparticipants exert additional downward pressure on wages over and above the impact of the unemployment rate itself. This pattern holds across recent decades in the US data, and the relationship strengthens in recent years when variation in participation increases. We also examine the impact of long-term unemployment on wages and find it has no different effect from that of short-term unemployment. Our analysis provides strong empirical support, we argue, for the assessment that continuing labor market slack is a key reason for the persistent shortfall in inflation relative to the Federal Open Market Committee's (FOMC) 2 percent inflation goal. Further, we suggest our results point towards using wage inflation as an additional intermediate target for monetary policy by the FOMC.
  • Topic: Economics, Markets, Labor Issues
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: On 9 December 2014 UNHCR will convene a ministerial level pledging conference in Geneva on resettlement and other forms of humanitarian admission for refugees from Syria.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria