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  • Author: Leon Quinn
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Skills for Life project was a one-year project focused on supporting predominantly Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women in Cardiff to “build long-term, lasting outcomes [beyond] moving into entry-level work and beyond ‘first jobs’ (whilst recognising their value as stepping stones)”. Skills for Life is a sister project of Future Skills, and run as part of Oxfam’s UK Programme Women United. It was delivered by Oxfam Cymru in partnership with South Riverside Community Development Centre (SRCDC).
  • Topic: Poverty, Labor Issues, Sustainability, Skilled Labor, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, England, Wales
  • Author: Faiza Hesham Hael
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This accountability review is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15. The report documents the findings from a review carried out in December 2014 which examines the degree to which Oxfam meets its own standards for accountability. The project ’Humanitarian Assistance and Resilience Building in Western Yemen’ is a two-year project supporting vulnerable communities in Al-Hodeidah and Hajjah governorates. Oxfam and its partners aim to build resilience and provide humanitarian assistance to men, women and children, contributing to reducing the impact of chronic poverty, natural hazards and conflict. This assignment examined accountability to partners and communities in terms of transparency, feedback/listening and participation – three key dimensions of Accountability for Oxfam. In addition it asked questions around partnership practices, staff attitudes, and satisfaction (how useful the project is to people and how wisely the money on this project has been spent) where appropriate.
  • Topic: Poverty, Governance, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Emily Ball, Ceri Hughes, Donna-Louise Hurrell, Tom Skinner
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A more inclusive labour market would offer more people the chance to take part in rewarding, well-paid work, bringing both economic and social benefits. In the context of declining union membership, limited employment regulation and a growing disconnect between pay and living costs, employment charters are one means for cities to engage employers and start a conversation about how their employment practices can enable local people to live and work well. This paper and the accompanying case studies grew out of a conversation about ways to facilitate more inclusive growth in cities. It focuses on Greater Manchester and reviews the rationale, design and impact of several local employment charter initiatives in the UK to assess the role that they can play in creating and sustaining quality jobs.
  • Topic: Poverty, Labor Issues, Employment, Inequality
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: David Eiser, Ryan McQuigg, Francis Stuart
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In 2015 Oxfam Scotland called for the creation of an Inequality Commission, building on Scotland’s politicians from across all parties stating their support to tackle economic inequality. The Scottish government has committed to establishing a Poverty and Inequality Commission in 2017–18, but its design will be critical. This report, produced in collaboration with the Fraser of Allander Institute, explores the scale of inequality in Scotland and the drivers behind it. The report examines some, but not all, of the intersecting and overlapping dimensions of economic inequality and poverty – as well as potential policy responses and the powers of the Scottish Parliament. The report then explores lessons from the work of previous commissions and makes a series of recommendations for the Scottish government as it establishes the new Poverty and Inequality Commission.
  • Topic: Poverty, Governance, Inequality, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Scotland
  • Author: Hugo Hooijer, Madelon Meijer
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Dutch oofficial development assistance (ODA) for agriculture has been on the rise in the last five years. However, it remains unclear whether Dutch ODA expenditures on agriculture are reaching female smallholder farmers. Empowering smallholders, especially women, is a proven solution for reducing hunger and poverty. This is particularly true of the rural poor, who are the worst affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper calls on the Dutch government to combine a strong ODA budget for agriculture with a solid strategy for resolving hunger by 2030, to scale up climate finance for adaptations in the agricultural sector, and to supply improved data on the impact of agricultural investments for each target group and gender.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since the turn of the century, the poorest half of the world’s population has received just 1% of the total increase in global wealth. Meanwhile, half the new wealth has gone to the richest 1%. At present, mainstream business is driving, rather than reversing, this disturbing trend. To help reverse this trend, we need rapid growth of equitable business structures with purpose, fairness and sustainability embedded into their model. In efforts to promote such equitable business structures, and the fourth sector, Oxfam is launching the Future of Business Initiative. Through this initiative, Oxfam will help such enterprises access finance and work with global companies on how they can include them in their supply chains. Oxfam will also investigate how having more businesses structured more equitably can contribute towards tackling global inequality, and ways government policies can better foster them, and the broader fourth sector.
  • Topic: Development, Poverty, Labor Issues, Private Sector, Equity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jill Rubery
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This discussion paper was commissioned by Oxfam’s UK Programme to understand why certain occupations in the UK labour market, traditionally dominated by women, are low-paid. The paper argues that jobs associated with traditional and outdated notions of ‘women’s role in the home’ extends into the jobs market. This affects attitudes towards remuneration in professions such as cleaning and caring. The paper sets out a framework for understanding the risks of low pay and to explore the issue of the undervaluing of low-paid jobs with respect primarily to women. The author calls these the five ‘V’s: visibility, valuation, vocation, value-added and variance, and sets out a possible series of policy responses.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Labor Issues, Inequality, Income Inequality, Labor Rights
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Franziska Mager, Martin Walsh, Fiona Remnant
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women’s economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report. The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Economic Inequality, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Marcos Do Amaral
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Mozambique is described as the third most exposed African country to the risks of disaster, particularly floods, cyclones and drought. It is one of the world’s worst affected countries in terms of climate change, resulting in high levels of poverty and vulnerability, and major impacts on natural resources and physical infrastructures. Oxfam is building the capacity of Mozambique’s civil society so it can effectively participate in disaster management, directly support affected and vulnerable people, and, in terms of the humanitarian situation, have a critical vision and voice.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Africa, Mozambique, Southern Africa
  • Author: Leila Smith
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study of research in practice describes how in 2014 Oxfam staff researched and developed a powerful killer fact ' that the 85 richest people owned as much wealth as the poorest 3.5 billion people ' and how this triggered international media coverage, political commentary, and record-level website hits.
  • Topic: Poverty, Media, Inequality, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Teresa Cavero
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Europe is facing unacceptable levels of poverty and inequality. Instead of putting people first, policy decision making is increasingly influenced by wealthy elites who bend the rules to their advantage, worsening poverty and economic inequality, while steadily and significantly eroding democratic institutions. Austerity measures and unfair tax systems across Europe are skewed in favour of powerful vested interests. It is time to reverse the course of poverty and inequality in Europe, putting people first.
  • Topic: Poverty, European Union, Economic Inequality, Elites
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Alice Krozer
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The emerging economies Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Turkey - in short, the BRICSAMIT - have come to be considered the economic powerhouses of recent decades. Not only have these countries managed to reduce poverty; most have embarked on a steep economic growth path and play an increasingly influential role on the global scene. But today, all eight BRICSAMIT countries occupy the top ranks as some of the most unequal countries in the world. The price these countries - and millions of their citizens - pay for this is high. Excessive inequality hampers development prospects: negatively impacting growth potential, threatening poverty reduction, leading to mass migration flows and 'brain drain', and reducing opportunities for young people. This report, which was commissioned by civil society networks across the BRICSAMIT countries, aims to increase the urgency to tackle the structural causes of inequality by shedding light on the nature and scope of the issue in the BRICSAMIT, and the economic, political and social consequences these countries are now facing as a result.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Migration, Poverty, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, China, Europe, Indonesia, Turkey, Asia, South Africa, Brazil, South America, Mexico
  • Author: Marc J. Cohen, Bhawan Singh
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Haiti's climate has changed over the past four decades. Annual mean temperatures have risen, and the rainy season now begins up to three months later than usual. Projections of future climate change indicate that annual mean temperatures will continue to rise over the course of the 21st century. Rainfall variability is also expected to increase, meaning more extreme droughts in the dry season and more intense rainfall in the wet season. Sea-level rise and increased storm surges are also expected. The coastal plains are increasingly subject to the influx of saltwater, and as ocean surges lead to saltier soils, farmers can no longer cultivate them. These factors will exacerbate current serious problems of flooding and erosion in coastal areas that lie in the direct path of tropical storms and hurricanes. In the absence of significant adaptation efforts, these dynamics will in turn have severe impacts on water resources, land, agriculture, and forests. Annual population growth of 1.5 per cent means over 11 million mouths to feed by 2020 and additional pressure on agricultural resources.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Poverty, Natural Disasters, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Caribbean, Haiti
  • Author: Marília Leão, Renato S. Maluf
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Brazil has achieved promising results in the fight against hunger and poverty. This paper describes the path toward building a new governance framework for the provision of public policies that initiated a virtuous cycle for the progressive elimination of hunger and poverty. However, it is important to emphasize that the country continues to be characterized by dynamics that generate inequalities and threaten social and environmental justice.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Poverty, Food, Governance
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Latin America
  • Author: Adele Peers
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This research reviews Myanmar's Disaster Management Law from the angle of inclusivity. It aims to make Myanmar's disaster management cycle more inclusive of women, children, persons with disabilities and aged persons. It offers recommendations aimed at government and members of the Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group (DRRWG) as to how to address inclusivity gaps identified through an analysis of the Disaster Management Law, and beyond. It suggests that many of the gaps can be addressed by construction of robust and inclusive Rules and Regulations to accompany the Law. While this research is focused predominantly on inclusion within Myanmar's Disaster Management Law, it also discusses disaster management processes more broadly. In this way, this research offers useful insights with regards to current and future challenges for comprehensive disaster management in Myanmar.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Natural Disasters, Governance
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Yared Teka Tsegay, Masiiwa Rusare, Rashmi Mistry
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: South Africa is considered a 'food-secure' nation, producing enough calories to adequately feed every one of its 53 million people. However, the reality is that, despite some progress since the birth of democracy in 1994, one in four people currently suffers hunger on a regular basis and more than half of the population live in such precarious circumstances that they are at risk of going hungry.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: South Africa
  • Author: Moussa Haddad
  • Publication Date: 06-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The combination in the UK of economic stagnation and public spending cuts is causing substantial hardship to people living in poverty. This amounts to a 'Perfect Storm' of falling incomes, rising prices, public service cuts, benefit cuts, a housing crisis, and weak labour rights. By making different political choices, the government can both protect people in poverty and help to stimulate economic recovery in the short term, and set the UK on the way towards economic, social and environmental sustainability in the long term.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment, Poverty, Labor Issues, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Déborah Itriago
  • Publication Date: 05-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Paraguay's tax system is insufficient to provide the resource base to eradicate poverty in the country, and has done little or nothing to achieve a more equal distribution of income and wealth. Two major taxation reforms over the last decade have done little to alleviate the fiscal injustice that is generated partly by the low tax reciprocity of the soy agribusiness – Paraguay's main export crop. Meanwhile, programmes to support small- scale farming receive a level of public financing accounting for just 5 per cent of public expenditure. With one of the highest levels of unequal land ownership in the world, labour informality at very high levels and poor environmental regulation of soy producers, the livelihoods and ecosystems of Paraguay's small-scale producers are at risk. There are serious loopholes in Paraguay's tax system that must be addressed in order to deliver a fairer, progressive taxation system that will allow the country to meet its social objectives.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Environment, International Trade and Finance, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Latin America
  • Author: Sheilah Meikle, Tim Chambers, Alex Frediani, Tom Goodfellow
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More people in the world now live in urban areas than in rural areas. It is estimated that as many as one billion people, 15 per cent of the world's total of seven billion, currently live in urban slums, and this number will likely double within 20 years. Until recently however, Oxfam, like other development agencies, focused primarily on rural poverty.
  • Topic: Demographics, Poverty, Urbanization
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Kenya, Russia, Colombia, Haiti, Guatemala
  • Author: Erinch Sahan, Monique Mikhail
  • Publication Date: 09-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Massive investment in agriculture is desperately needed to help fix the broken food system. Private sector investment can play a vital role in delivering inclusive economic growth, environmental sustainability and poverty reduction. However, in order to do so, it must be adequately regulated and should adhere to some key principles, such as focusing on local food markets, working with producer organisations and respecting the rights of small-scale producers, workers and communities.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Development, Environment, Poverty, Food
  • Author: Jennifer Clapp, Sophia Murphy, David Burch
  • Publication Date: 08-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report is composed of two parts. The first introduces the four big commodity traders – Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), Bunge, Cargill, and Louis Dreyfus – which are the focus of this study. Collectively, these trading companies are often referred to as 'the ABCD companies' because of the coincidence of their initials. Part 2 then looks at these traders in relation to a number of the global issues pressing on agriculture: the 'financialization' of both commodity trade and agricultural production; the emergence of global competitors to the ABCDs, in particular from Asia; and some of the implications of large-scale industrial biofuels, a sector in which the ABCDs are closely involved. It includes a discussion of how smallholders in developing countries are affected by some of these changes, and highlights some development policy implications, given the importance of the ABCDs in shaping the world of food and agriculture.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Chris Warburton Brown
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report has grown out of Oxfam's commitment to tackling the poverty of black and minority ethnic (BME) women in the UK. It aims to improve our understanding of BME mothers' experiences of poverty, to address the way in which the poverty of BME mothers is hidden from conventional data collection, to raise awareness amongst policy-makers and practitioners of the material circumstances of low-income BME mothers, and to improve the ways in which poor BME women are supported to secure greater assets and resources.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Tajikistan is a poor country with limited industry, significant energy production from hydropower, and a low carbon footprint. Poverty in Tajikistan is predominantly found in rural areas, and is increasingly feminized as significant numbers of men migrate to other countries for work. This mountainous terrain of Tajikistan leaves many of its population reliant on marginal land for their livelihoods and thus vulnerable to climate change.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Central Asia, Tajikistan
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Even before the earthquake struck on 12 January 2010, Haiti was the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere, ranked by the United Nations Development Programme as one of the world's 50 poorest countries (2009). In short, life was already a struggle for most families. Then the earthquake hit, and lives were turned upside down. It was the most powerful earthquake in Haiti for 200 years.
  • Topic: Development, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: United Nations, Caribbean, Haiti
  • Publication Date: 02-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Effective aid helps save lives, protect rights and build livelihoods. Yet in conflicts and politically unstable settings from Afghanistan to Yemen, lifesaving humanitarian assistance and longer-term efforts to reduce poverty are being damaged where aid is used primarily to pursue donors' own narrow political and security objectives. This is not only undermining humanitarian principles and donors' development commitments; it impacts on the lives of some of the most vulnerable people affected by conflicts and natural disasters.
  • Topic: Security, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Natural Disasters, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Yemen
  • Author: Elizabeth Stuart
  • Publication Date: 04-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Economic growth in developing countries is desirable and necessary, but it is the distribution of that growth that matters for poverty reduction, rather than the pursuit of growth for its own sake.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Lucia Wegner, Gine Zwart
  • Publication Date: 04-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Against a background of increasing food insecurity, agriculture in developing countries must undergo a significant transformation in order to increase production and respond to climate change. It is estimated that feeding 8.2 billion people – an additional 1.4 billion – in 2030 would require raising overall food production by some 50 per cent between 2005/07 and 2030. Feeding a larger urban population in a context of increasing scarcity of land and water, while also adopting more sustainable production methods, is a daunting challenge. In Africa, where it is predicted that population levels will double during the same period, the challenge will be even more acute.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Poverty, Science and Technology, Food, Famine
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Azmat Budhani, Haris Gazdar
  • Publication Date: 06-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Indus floods of 2010-2011 were the direct cause of over 1,700 deaths and the displacement of an estimated 18 million people across Pakistan. Official estimates of the economic costs of the damage caused by the floods range from $8.74bn to $10.85bn, which include the estimated costs, early recovery for the provision of relief, rebuilding destroyed infrastructure, and other economic losses to individuals, communities, firms, and the government.
  • Topic: Political Economy, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Robert Bailey
  • Publication Date: 06-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Niger is the epicentre of hunger. Here, it is chronic. Corrosive. Structural. Systemic. Over 65 per cent of people survive on less than $1.25 a day. Nearly one in two children is malnourished. One in six dies before they reach the age of five.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Poverty, Food
  • Author: Dirk Willenbockel
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report is a contribution to the Oxfam report: 'Growing a Better Future'. It explores a range of scenarios for food price increases to 2030 through the GLOBE model. Over and above providing a global perspective, the research provides disaggregated results for a range of countries and country groups identified by Oxfam.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Economics, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Alex Evans
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Today, the world produces enough to feed all seven billion of its inhabitants - but nearly a billion people still go without. This paper is about why this global scandal continues, and what can be done to solve it. Its central argument is that access to food is as important as how much food is produced - and that in a world of food price volatility, climate change and other kinds of shocks and stresses, the challenge of building resilience in the food system takes on overwhelming importance.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Poverty, Food
  • Author: Kate Kilpatrick
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The 2008 food price crisis had a devastating impact on poor Guatemalans. This was followed by widespread crop failure and a food emergency in 2009, affecting an estimated 2.5 million people (de Schutter 2010). With a heavy reliance on imported staple grains and the most productive lands allocated to export crops, Guatemala's food system is broken.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Guatemala
  • Author: Steve Jennings
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report analyses the number of reported disasters in those regions where the majority of the world's poor and vulnerable people live: sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. It presents analysis of the trends in the number of reported disasters, assesses what country-level factors influence the reported number of disasters, and compares the findings with independent published studies.
  • Topic: Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Asia, Caribbean
  • Author: Javier Perez, Myriam Gistelinck, Dima Karbala
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: La gestión y el acceso a la tierra y el agua son clave para asegurar la seguridad alimentaria y la reducción de la pobreza. En los próximos años, esta importancia irá en aumento. Sin embargo, estos recursos naturales a menudo se convierten en objeto de importantes conflictos de poder entre empresas, Estados y comunidades. Estos conflictos no tienen lugar en el seno de un vacío institucional, sino que los gobiernos nacionales y las instituciones internacionales son los responsables de diseñar el escenario en el cual operan estos distintos intereses. Las normas nacionales e internacionales permiten a las empresas invertir en tierras, agua y otros recursos naturales tanto en sus propios países como en el extranjero.
  • Topic: Security, Poverty, Power Politics, Natural Resources, Food
  • Author: Katie Wiseman, Raju Pandit Chhetri
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is an urgent concern in Nepal. In recent years, the country has faced more than its fair share of extreme weather patterns. Increases in temperature extremes, more intense rainfall, drier winters and delays in summer monsoons have become quite common and are expected to get worse. In fact, a recent Climate Change Vulnerability Index, calculating susceptibility to impacts of climate change over the next 30 years, places Nepal 4th out of 170 countries. This report examines the national situation of climate change adaptation policy and programming, highlighting key areas of progress, weakness and challenges. The report notes that current initiatives have yet to deliver benefit to the marginalized and vulnerable communities in the country - the very groups that need it most. Based on the findings, the report presents a set of recommendations for the Government, donor community and civil society.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Environment, Poverty, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Asia, Nepal
  • Author: Genia Kostka, Jenny Scharrer
  • Publication Date: 07-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The key findings of this report are that sesame is a suitable crop for poverty alleviation for smallholders in Benishangul Gumuz and that the smallholder model is competitive versus the large-scale investor model in terms of productivity. Farmers can achieve high profits without significant up-front investments. With minimal expenditure for sesame seeds and some simple equipment for ploughing, weeding and harvesting, farmers can cultivate sesame on a family labor basis. Potential income is higher in the smallholder model than from either communal land management, or from the salaries from large-scale investors (see Figure 1) However, this potential is mirrored by the highest risk for farmers to receive the lowest income. Smallholders can mitigate this risk as well as increase their income further through membership of primary production co-operatives that offer higher sales prices and paid-out dividends.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Ethiopia
  • Author: Niall Cooper, Lucy Brill, Moussa Haddad, Rachel Newton, Jenni Viitanen
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) is an analytical model that seeks to build on the existing assets and strategies that people living in poverty use to support themselves, and then to identify what needs to change in order for their livelihoods to become more secure and sustainable.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Political Economy, Poverty, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Tariq Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Donor governments are prioritizing aid 'results' in advance of the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HFL4) in Busan, Korea, due to take place at the end of 2011. But there is a real risk that their efforts will lead to a poorly designed results policy that could undo years of work to make aid more useful for fighting poverty.
  • Topic: Development, Government, Poverty, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Korea
  • Author: Deborah Itriago
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report focuses on tax policy in developing countries: who pays tax, what taxes are paid, and how. Tax policy can have a huge impact on inequality and poverty reduction, either positively or negatively, depending on what tax policies a country decides to implement. Taxation is also often at the heart of the social contract between citizens and their government, and progressive taxation is central to creating strong, democratic, and effective states.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Education, Poverty, Social Stratification, Health Care Policy
  • Author: Simon Feeny
  • Publication Date: 02-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At a macroeconomic level, the Global Economic Crisis (GEC) has had less impact on many Pacific countries than on most other developing countries across the world. However, this does not imply that Pacific country economies are performing well. Economic growth rates for most countries in the Pacific region are expected to be low for 2009 and 2010 and the majority of economies are likely to contract on a per capita basis in these years.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Economics, Poverty, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Australia/Pacific
  • Publication Date: 03-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In October 2009, Oxfam and the European Women's Lobby (EWL) commissioned research to explore and analyse the hidden impact of the current economic recession on women's poverty in EU countries. The research was conducted with EWL member organisations, and supplemented with other research and information available at the end of 2009.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Poverty, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Catherine Pettengell
  • Publication Date: 04-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is fast pushing communities, particularly the most poor and marginalized, beyond their capacity to respond. Across the world, staple subsistence crops are approaching their outer viable temperature ranges; erratic rainfall patterns and changing seasons are upsetting agricultural cycles and leaving many struggling to feed their families; and rising sea levels are causing the inundation of crops and the contamination of water supplies with salt water.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Poverty, Third World
  • Author: Senait Regassa, Christina Givey, Gina E. Castillo
  • Publication Date: 04-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate variability in Ethiopia is not new—its diverse agro-ecological zones have brought a dazzling variety of micro-climates, and corresponding weather patterns, and people have developed ways to respond successfully to these challenges. But now, in addition to the usual struggles, Ethiopians living in poverty are additionally suffering the effects of climate change—both more variable climate and more extreme weather events. Women, men, families, and whole communities are struggling with how to understand this new variability, identify new patterns, and establish what resources they need to be able to move beyond reacting and coping to adapting to the new realities and being resilient. Policy makers, likewise, face the daunting challenge of how to refine policies, especially investments in and related to agriculture, to focus on poverty and vulnerability reduction in context of the new realities of climate change.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Author: Katerina Kyrili, Matthew Martin
  • Publication Date: 07-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The financial crisis has hit developing countries hard, driving millions more people into poverty and reversing several years of rapid progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). For most of the poorest people, the impact will depend on what governments do with their budgets–how much they spend to fight against the crisis, protect the poorest, and revive progress towards the MDGs. This report examines what 56 low-income countries have done in 2009 and are planning to do in 2010. It is unique in drawing on budget documents issued in June–December 2009, and therefore in being able to describe what is happening in detail, in order to look ahead to 2010 and beyond. This study is particularly timely as the deadline for countries to reach the MDGs is now only five years away.
  • Topic: Development, Poverty, Third World, Global Recession, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Elizabeth Stuart
  • Publication Date: 07-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It is a stable democracy, with an efficient and increasingly transparent government. The entire budget is published online. Strong education and health plans are in place, and the government promotes the use of generic medicines. In recent years growth has been consistently robust, at around 6 percent. The country hosts a world-renowned film festival. It has consistently sought to reform and modernize, just as the IMF and World Bank have prescribed. And, in turn, donors love to fund it. It was, for instance, one of the first countries to qualify for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) programme. So confident is the international community that its money will be in safe hands that it readily gives budget support – which is very positive, as this form of aid allows the government to fund recurrent expenditures such as teachers' and doctors' salaries, though from a donor's perspective it is more difficult to trace, in large amounts.
  • Topic: Economics, Markets, Poverty, Third World, Global Recession, Financial Crisis
  • Publication Date: 06-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Liberia's newly approved water and sanitation policy states that water is life' and sanitation is dignity'. These powerful statements signal a welcome commitment in a country where safe water and decent sanitation have long been absent for the vast majority of the population, with catastrophic impacts on life and social welfare. The key challenge for the Government of Liberia, and the donors who support it, will be to turn this commitment into positive outcomes for Liberia's 3.5 million people. This report therefore focuses on the questions that will be crucial in this process. Firstly, is the water and sanitation sector in Liberia prioritised to reflect this commitment? Are there clear, actionable plans to make this commitment a reality? Does Liberia have resources and sufficient support to ensure that communities stop risking their lives and dignity? Finally, what challenges remain and what can be done to address them?
  • Topic: Development, Health, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Janet Veitch
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This response to the Coalition Government's proposals on working age benefits and tax credits in its consultation paper, 21st-Century Welfare, takes a gender lens to the reforms. It is written in the context of Oxfam's work against poverty in the UK and its longstanding concern with the poverty and inequality of women. The response below follows the same structure as the consultation document.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Rory Sullivan, Helena Viñes Fiestas, Rachel Crossley
  • Publication Date: 11-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: “We can't afford not to invest in the developing world. We all know that's where the greatest need is; but that is also where some of the greatest dynamism is.” Ban Ki Moon, UN Secretary-General speaking at the UN Global Compact Leaders Summit, June 2010.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Robert Bailey
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Driven by upward trends in the number of climate - related disasters and human vulnerability to them, by 2015 the average number of people affected each year by climate-related disasters could increase by over 50 percent to 375 million. This figure will continue to rise as climate change gathers pace – increasing the frequency and/or severity of such events – and poverty and inequality force ever more people to live in high -risk places, such as flood plains, steep hillsides and urban slums, while depriving them of the means to cope with disaster.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Economics, Environment, Globalization, Poverty
  • Author: Jean-Denis Crola
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Between June 2008 and July 2009, over 40 billion dollars were pledged by the main donor countries to provide emergency response to the food crisis and to sustainably invest in agriculture in developing countries. In addition, the donor and beneficiary countries, the United Nations, the World Bank and other actors called for better coordination of interventions on the ground, as well as increased investment in national strategies and policies. These two elements were identified as essential points for action in the joint statement on food security made at L'Aquila, during the last G8 summit.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Alan Doran, Ntongi McFadyen, Robert C Vogel
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: So far the private sector has made only small progress in responding to the needs of, and opportunities in, the market segment of small-scale agricultural enterprises, after the widespread withdrawal of the paradigm of government funded and controlled agricultural development. The unmet needs for finance of producer associations and other forms of SMEs (small- and medium-sized enterprises) in agriculture, for transactions in the size range £5,000 to £500,000, constitute the missing middle. The crucial issue is how to overcome the barriers to scaling-up the private sector's response.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Poverty, Third World