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  • Author: Simone Lombardini
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2016/17, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. The evaluation took place in November 2016 in Tunisia, and intended to evaluate the success of the ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ project in increasing women’s empowerment. The project ‘AMAL: Supporting Women’s Transformative Leadership’ is a multi-country programme operating in Morocco, Tunisia, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Yemen, with regional coordination from Lebanon. The results coming from this Effectiveness Review are not meant to be indicative of the overall impact of AMAL, but more a focused assessment for the Tunisia component. The AMAL project operating in Tunisia started in 2012, following the revolution of 2011, with the objective to increase women’s awareness of their political and socio-economic rights, and support women to play a more active role in the political and socio-economic life of their community and country.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Robert Fuller, Alexia Pretari
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Resilience, Food Security and Nutrition Project (Projet de Resilience, Securite Alimentaire et Nutritionnelle, PRSAN) was carried out in the North and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso between 2013 and 2017 by Oxfam and Christian Aid, together with two implementing partners, the Alliance Technique d’Assistance au Developpement (ATAD) and the Office de Developpement des Eglises Evangeliques (ODE). The project was aimed at enabling particularly vulnerable households to increase their resilience and improve their food security and nutritional situation. Project activities included supporting households in crop production, market gardening, processing and household businesses, providing awareness-raising on good nutritional practices, carrying out community-level disaster assessments and establishing early-warning committees, and distributing livestock and cash transfers. The Effectiveness Review was aimed at evaluating the success of this project in enabling participants to build their resilience to shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This report is part of Oxfam’s Effectiveness Review Series.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Gender Issues, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The continuing conflict in South Sudan, which began in December 2013, is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of millions of South Sudanese women, men, boys and girls, with the result that South Sudan is now one of the most food-insecure countries in the world. Women and men of all ages are suffering from the effects of conflict, including abuses and loss of control over, and access to, vital resources. This report presents the results of a gender analysis field study conducted in South Sudan in May-June 2016. The study was carried out as part of the ECHO-ERC project ‘Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice’. The report highlights the different impacts the conflict is having on women and men; whether and how these needs are being addressed; and where opportunities may exist for UN agencies, donors, South Sudanese authorities and civil society to incorporate a stronger gender element into their programmes and responses. It also aims to explain how programmes can be gender-sensitive in times of protracted conflict.
  • Topic: Civil Society, United Nations, Humanitarian Intervention, Food Assistance, Disaster Management
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Adesoji Adeniyi
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Prolonged conflict, proxy wars, and inter-communal strife characterize many regions in Africa. This violence has caused untold atrocities, deaths, sexual violence, and displacement, as well as accelerating poverty and shattering lives and communities across the continent. Uncontrolled arms in Africa fuel this violence and are increasingly putting lives at immense risk. This report provides evidence about the human costs of uncontrolled arms: injuries and fatalities, internally displaced people and refugees, gender-based violence, and erosion of social cohesion and communal trust. Covering Mali, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and Libya, it provides arms control recommendations to African states, the African Union and Regional Economic Communities, donor communities, and the private sector.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Refugees, Arms Trade, Conflict, Violence, Proxy War, African Union
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Mali, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Vanessa Ushie
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Africa Mining Vision (AMV) is a policy framework that was created by the African Union in 2009 to ensure that Africa uses its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development. Eight years after its inception, implementation has been slow and there is a low level of awareness of the framework among key stakeholders in the mineral sector. This paper shows that the AMV has specific weaknesses that should be addressed through its national implementation, in order to enhance the benefits for African citizens. Africa’s leaders and citizens must act now to ensure that the goals of the AMV are realized. It is a transformative policy that can drive sustainable development on the continent.
  • Topic: Development, Natural Resources, Mining, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Steph Avis, Eliza Hilton, Ankets Petros
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice.
  • Topic: Development, Gender Issues, Institutionalism, Risk
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam is leading the Freetown WASH Consortium (FWC) programme in Sierra Leone, which aims to contribute to health improvement through specific pro-poor WASH interventions that are aligned to the government’s 24-month post-Ebola recovery planning. Oxfam’s strategy focuses on promoting citizen engagement and the translation of community needs into policies.
  • Topic: Ebola, Public Health, Pandemic, Community
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sierra Leone
  • Author: Aurore Mathieu
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Internally displaced people in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are struggling to find long-term solutions to improve their resilience to shocks in a region that has been beset by armed conflict for more than 20 years. In 2016 Oxfam partners undertook a survey among host communities and displaced people in Masisi and Lubero, North Kivu, to gain a picture of the formal and informal mechanisms developed by displaced people to integrate into host communities. It revealed that although the majority of displaced people wish to return eventually to their place of origin, the least vulnerable displaced people are those who manage to integrate into their host communities. This paper reports the views of displaced people and host communities. It aims to influence the debate underway on solutions to displacement in the province of North Kivu and provides concrete suggestions for ways to strengthen those mechanisms; in particular by redefining the interventions of humanitarian and development actors and authorities to consider the needs of host communities
  • Topic: Displacement, Local, Humanitarian Crisis, Internal Displacement
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Gavin Stedman-Bryce
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of an impact evaluation, carried out in January 2016. The purpose of the evaluation was to rigorously assess the effectiveness of the Raising Her Voice project in South Africa (RHV-SA), in terms of its contribution to greater women’s empowerment. Usually, evaluations under this thematic area are evaluated using quasi-experimental impact evaluation techniques. In this case, given the characteristics of the project, a different impact evaluation technique has been applied, called process tracing. Where interventions have small sample sizes for evaluators to draw from (referred to as small ‘n’ evaluations), this can make it difficult to adopt traditional counterfactual approaches to establishing causality for a range of technical and practical reasons. This is a situation typically faced in projects under Oxfam’s Good Governance outcome area (previously known as Citizen Voice and Policy Influencing). Evaluations of interventions under this outcome area are concerned with establishing whether or not they contributed to an observed change; in other words, they are concerned with assessing a causal claim. To make this type of assessment possible, Oxfam developed a pre-qualified protocol, based on process tracing.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Governance, Gender Based Violence , Feminism
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Africa
  • Author: Hugo Hooijer, Madelon Meijer
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Dutch oofficial development assistance (ODA) for agriculture has been on the rise in the last five years. However, it remains unclear whether Dutch ODA expenditures on agriculture are reaching female smallholder farmers. Empowering smallholders, especially women, is a proven solution for reducing hunger and poverty. This is particularly true of the rural poor, who are the worst affected by the impacts of climate change. This paper calls on the Dutch government to combine a strong ODA budget for agriculture with a solid strategy for resolving hunger by 2030, to scale up climate finance for adaptations in the agricultural sector, and to supply improved data on the impact of agricultural investments for each target group and gender.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Gender Issues, Poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, Farming
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich, Simeon Ogamba
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Kenya Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Resilience and Governance Programme is built upon a theory of change which emphasizes empowerment, rights and the ability of citizens – particularly women – to develop and implement their own strategies for better access to services to improve health and quality of life. The programme’s approach holds that the best-placed actors to deliver improved water and sanitation are the country’s government, civil society and private sector, who are held accountable by the citizens they serve in promoting the quality and sustainability of services. The programme addresses water and sanitation challenges in urban and rural settlements of Kenya, strengthening the capacity of county governments, water-user associations and water utility companies to provide safe, sustainable services; developing and piloting innovative solutions; and working with other civil society partners to call for policy changes that address the needs of the most vulnerable people. This document particularly focuses on the question of whether water ATMs are a sustainable solution to water supply.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Innovation, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Ian Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The programme has four main objectives: Employment and value chain development. Enhancing the enabling environment for agricultural markets and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Strengthening citizen participation in government decision making related to the agriculture sector. Strengthening women’s economic leadership. This document focuses on these areas and how the programme has addressed the government’s ban on the use of plastic bags, which created an obstacle for small-scale producers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Gender Issues, Governance, Leadership, Participation, Value Chains
  • Political Geography: Africa, Rwanda
  • Author: Franziska Mager, Martin Walsh, Fiona Remnant
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women’s economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report. The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Economic Inequality, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa
  • Author: Richard Chilvers
  • Publication Date: 08-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Within and Without the State (WWS), a programme funded by the UK Department for International Development, has been working in South Sudan since 2012 to improve the relationship between citizen and state. This case study describes the efforts of Community Empowerment and Progress Organization, a WWS partner, to work with young people in cattle raiding camps and support local communities to find their own solutions for peace. In the midst of a renewed outbreak of violence just two days before the country’s fifth anniversary, supporting local level peace initiatives remains as vital as ever.
  • Topic: Peace, Cattle, Farming, Ranching, Raiding
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Marcos Do Amaral
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Mozambique is described as the third most exposed African country to the risks of disaster, particularly floods, cyclones and drought. It is one of the world’s worst affected countries in terms of climate change, resulting in high levels of poverty and vulnerability, and major impacts on natural resources and physical infrastructures. Oxfam is building the capacity of Mozambique’s civil society so it can effectively participate in disaster management, directly support affected and vulnerable people, and, in terms of the humanitarian situation, have a critical vision and voice.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Africa, Mozambique, Southern Africa
  • Author: Fernando Almansa
  • Publication Date: 05-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Somaliland, Puntland and South Central Somalia, the International Community is mixing its political interests with its humanitarian agenda. Insecurity severely hampers access in many parts, making it difficult to implement and monitor humanitarian responses. International humanitarian actors need to revisit their strategies and invest more in working with local agencies to deliver aid. Local humanitarian actors need to take courageous humanitarian leadership with full accountability and transparency. Many international donors often appear to give priority to broader security agendas and the need for transparency over humanitarian action to save lives. This report assesses the capacity of local humanitarian actors to deliver humanitarian aid in response to the repeated crises that the country faces. It is the starting point of an Oxfam project to build the strength of local humanitarian actors to deliver effective humanitarian responses.
  • Topic: Security, International Cooperation, Transparency, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia, Puntland, Somaliland
  • Author: Kiri Hanks, Julie-Anne Richards
  • Publication Date: 06-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is already the biggest threat to winning the fight against hunger. Coal is the biggest single cause of climate change, yet the G7 countries are still burning huge amounts, despite efficient, affordable, renewable alternatives being available. G7 coal power stations emit twice as much fossil fuel CO2 as the whole of Africa, and their contribution to global warming will cost Africa alone more than $43bn per year by the 2080s and $84bn by 2100, and lead to several million tonnes of staple crops lost worldwide. This year will see crucial new UN climate talks in Paris. To set the tone for a successful climate agreement at the UN talks in December, the G7 must lead the world in setting out clear plans for a just transition away from coal. This Oxfam briefing paper shows how with the right mix of regulatory and policy measures, some countries can move to coal-free electricity grids within the next decade. Oxfam commissioned the think-tank E3G to review the current coal situation in all G7 countries.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, United Nations, Hunger, Coal
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Siham Rayale, Ed Pomfret, Deborah Wright
  • Publication Date: 08-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report looks at Somali women's experiences with conflict, peace, violence, insecurity and state rebuilding. It uses an approach geared towards gender-just peace-building to understand the ways in which Somali women have fulfilled their role as agents of change, while navigating the challenges posed by women's exclusion from many forms of public life (government, civil society, universities, open markets etc). Interviews and focus groups have been used to illustrate diverse perspectives and to demonstrate that Somali women have always been principal agents of change and social transformation. The report's recommendations are an acknowledgement of the role Somali women have played throughout the course of Somali history, and continue to play today, in shaping the pathway towards greater participation for women across Somali regions, and the challenges they face in so doing.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Social Movement, Women, Gender Based Violence
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Alice Krozer
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The emerging economies Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Turkey - in short, the BRICSAMIT - have come to be considered the economic powerhouses of recent decades. Not only have these countries managed to reduce poverty; most have embarked on a steep economic growth path and play an increasingly influential role on the global scene. But today, all eight BRICSAMIT countries occupy the top ranks as some of the most unequal countries in the world. The price these countries - and millions of their citizens - pay for this is high. Excessive inequality hampers development prospects: negatively impacting growth potential, threatening poverty reduction, leading to mass migration flows and 'brain drain', and reducing opportunities for young people. This report, which was commissioned by civil society networks across the BRICSAMIT countries, aims to increase the urgency to tackle the structural causes of inequality by shedding light on the nature and scope of the issue in the BRICSAMIT, and the economic, political and social consequences these countries are now facing as a result.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Migration, Poverty, Economic Inequality
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, China, Europe, Indonesia, Turkey, Asia, South Africa, Brazil, South America, Mexico
  • Author: Jennifer Leavy, Naomi Hossain
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Who wants to farm? In an era of land grabs and environmental uncertainty, improving smallholder productivity has become a higher priority on the poverty and food security agenda in development, focusing attention on the next generation of farmers. Yet emerging evidence about the material realities and social norms and desires of young people in developing countries indicates a reasonably widespread withdrawal from work on the land as an emerging norm. While de-agrarianisation is not new, policymakers are correct to be concerned about a withdrawal from the sector: smallholder productivity growth, and agricultural transformation more broadly, depend in part on the extent to which capable, skilled young people can be retained or attracted to farming, and on policies that support that retention. So who wants to farm, and under what conditions? Where are economic, environmental and social conditions favourable to active recruitment by educated young people into farming? What policy and programmatic conditions are creating attractive opportunities in farming or agro-food industry livelihoods?
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa, Latin America