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  • Author: Solomon Dersso
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), composed of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda with its secretariat headquartered in Djibouti, covers northeast Africa, a region continuing to experience major changes, arguably more than any other part of the continent. This is the only region of Africa where colonially drawn borders have been redrawn. In contrast to other regions of Africa, this is also where the prospect of further redrawing of borders—with Somaliland seeking international recognition as a separate state—remains a real possibility.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Security, Development, Economics, Environment, Regional Cooperation, Governance
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Kenya, Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Underdevelopment, resource scarcity, and environmental degradation are cardinal, even existential, threats to human security. These challenges not only threaten human life and well-being, but also impact the global geopolitical and economic landscape. Chronic underdevelopment condemns more than 1 billion people to lives of poverty, illness, and poor political and economic prospects. Long-term goals of economic and human development are undermined by scarce, unreliable, or unaffordable supplies of vital resources such as food, water, and energy. Climate change threatens to exacerbate the effects of environmental degradation, putting land and livelihoods at grave risk.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Poverty, Natural Resources
  • Author: Gilbert M. Khadiagala
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: “Eastern Africa” denotes the geographical area comprising the seven member states of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD): Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Tanzania is also included because it has had long historical and political interactions with Kenya and Uganda within the rubric of the East African Cooperation (EAC). The main challenges to human security in this region have originated from political and state fragility, resource scarcities, and environmental degradation. All these factors have contributed to a regional context that is characterized by intrastate conflicts, interstate wars, and political extremism. Raging civil wars and interstate conflicts have, in turn, produced forms of statelessness and marginality that have deepened societal insecurities and strained human livelihoods. Consequently, in addition to profound political instability and economic destitution, human security is arrayed against escalating communal violence, small arms proliferation, and massive movements of people within and beyond the region.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Kenya, Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, East Africa
  • Author: Nils Petter Gleditsch, Idean Salehyan, Ragnhild Nordås
  • Publication Date: 05-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: In October 2003, a report to the US Department of Defense received wide public attention for presenting a grim future scenario with warring states and massive social disturbance as a result of dramatic climate change. Although not intended to be a prediction, the authors nevertheless argued the plausibility of a scenario for rapid climate change which could result in a significant drop in the human carrying capacity of the earth's environment—food, water, and energy shortages, as well as extreme weather patterns. In turn, resource constraints and environmental damage could lead to geopolitical destabilization, skirmishes and even war.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Climate Change, Energy Policy, Environment
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Joseph Chamie
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: During the twenty-first century billions of people are expected to join the world's current population of 6.7 billion. Virtually all of these newcomers will be born in the less developed countries of the world, and many in the least-developed.
  • Topic: International Relations, Demographics, Economics, Environment, Health