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  • Publication Date: 05-2019
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Varieties of Democracy Institute (V-Dem)
  • Abstract: This year’s Democracy Report shows that the trend of a third wave autocratization – the decline of democratic regime traits – continues and now affects 24 countries. When we weight levels of democracy by population size – because democracy is rule by the people and it matters how many of them are concerned – it emerges that almost one third of the world’s population live in countries undergoing autocratization. Yet democracy still prevails in a majority of countries in the world (99 countries, 55 percent). This section analyses the state of democracy in the world in 2018 and developments since 1972, with an emphasis on the last 10 years. Our analysis builds on the 2019 release of the V-Dem dataset.
  • Topic: Authoritarianism, Developing World, Democracy, Populism
  • Political Geography: United States, Turkey, Ukraine, India, Brazil
  • Author: Ayşe S Kara
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: AURUM Journal of Social Sciences, Altinbas University
  • Abstract: Dünya çapında en çok ciro yapan şirketlere bakıldığında bu şirketlerin gelişmiş ülkelerde faaliyet gösterdiği görülür ancak nasıl bir ironidir ki bu şirketler faaliyet gösterdikleri topraklarda üretimde yetersizlik ve gelir dağılımında eşitsizlik problemine çözüm getirmekte çoğunlukla başarısız olmaktadır. Özünde, şirketlerin kuruluş amacı topluma katkı sağlamaktır; şirketler, fakirliği azaltmada ve yaşam standardını yükseltmede toplumların güçlü kaynaklarıdır. İki anahtar slogan olan ‘herkes için üretim’ ve ‘gelir dağılımında eşitlik’ kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk (KSS) kavramının temelini oluşturur. Değişen rekabet anlayışıyla sürdürülebilirliğin gittikçe önem kazandığı global toplumda şirketler; ekonomik, çevresel ve sosyal performans yönetim politikalarını hesap verilebilirlik, şeffaflık ve sürdürülebilirlik ilkeleri doğrultusunda sergilemek durumundadırlar. Kurumların sosyal sorumluluk projelerini artan bir hızla hayata geçirme gayretlerine tanık olsak da kavram için ne bir üniversal tanım ne de uygulamalara yönelik bir standart vardır. Günümüz piyasası sosyal refahı arttırmaya yönelik çalışmaları ödüllendirmektedir; bu da, işletmeler arasında kendini bu alanda en iyi göstermek için yarış başlatmıştır. Bu yarışı konu alan en popüler argüman ise KSS çalışmalarının araç mı yoksa amaç mı olduğudur. Bu çalışma literatürde yer alan teorileri, model, öneri ve eleştirileri detaylarıyla ele alıp sosyal ve ekonomik hedeflerin birbirinden ayrı mı yoksa farklı mı olduğunu irdelemeyi ve KSS için kapsamlı bir tanım önermeyi amaçlamaktadır
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Sasha Al-Alou
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Arab Reform Initiative (ARI)
  • Abstract: This paper describes Syrian emigration to Turkey since 2011, and the forms of organization in which Syrian refugees have engaged. It provides figures on the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey inside and outside the camps and the places of their distribution in Turkey, by province. The paper also studies this distribution according to three factors: the nature of asylum (individual/group), the ethnic factors for the groupings, and investment associations. It examines the fissures in the relations between the Syrians in Turkey (based on the region, class, or profession within the Syrian institutions). In addition, it addresses forms of solidarity within Syrian communities in Turkey and inside Syria. These forms of solidarity are classified into three categories: economic, relief, and cultural and political. The paper concludes that the Syrian elite, with its various specializations, was not immune from the situation in Syria; rather the elite also continues to provide support within Syria, and looks forward to the post-conflict phase, in which it can participate in all aspects of reconstruction.
  • Topic: Civil War, Immigration, Refugees, Revolution
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Damascus
  • Author: Loren Landau, Kabiri Bule, Ammar A. Malik, Caroline Wanjiku-Kihato, Yasemin Irvin-Erickson, Benjamin Edwards, Edward Mohr
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Building on original quantitative and qualitative fieldwork in three refugee hosting cities – Nairobi, Gaziantep, and Peshawar—this study explores the role of social networks in furthering or hampering displaced persons’ ability to achieve self-reliance. Experiences are diverse, but several general findings emerge: (1) Group membership is remarkably low; (2) Social networks are an invaluable asset for many but are either unavailable or a hindrance for others; (3) The in-group networks that initially offer protection become less effective in the long-term; and (4) Economic security is closely depending on people’s ability to forge connections beyond co-nationals.
  • Topic: Immigration, Governance, International Development, Urban, Cities
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Kenya, Africa, South Asia, Turkey, Middle East, Nairobi, Gaziantep, Peshawar
  • Author: Marc Lynch
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Project on Middle East Political Science (POMEPS)
  • Abstract: Turkey has been in the news repeatedly in 2016, from the coup attempt of July to the subsequent government purges to its renewed fight against the PKK and crackdown on Kurdish populations. However surprising these developments may appear for an outside observer, they are deeply rooted in the history of the Turkish state, the evolution of the ruling Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, AKP), and the complex identity politics of the region. In October, more than a dozen scholars of Turkish politics gathered at Rice University’s Baker Institute in Houston for a Project on Middle East Political Science workshop to delve into some of these underlying themes. The memos produced for that workshop have been published individually on the POMEPS website and the full collection is now available as a free download here. The authors in this collection provide rich context, new data, and sharp analysis of the nuanced challenges facing the country and the region today
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East