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You searched for: Content Type Research Paper Remove constraint Content Type: Research Paper Publishing Institution Oxfam Publishing Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Oxfam Publishing Publication Year within 25 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 25 Years Publication Year within 10 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 10 Years Topic Gender Issues Remove constraint Topic: Gender Issues
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  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Fiscal policy can be a powerful tool for governments to help achieve a ‘human economy’, if these policies are designed to address gender inequalities and the gender biases in current macroeconomic thinking. This report uses the case of one element of fiscal policy – public spending – to demonstrate how such policy design could help achieve gender equality and improve human development outcomes in developing countries. The report identifies unpaid care and domestic work as a key area where fiscal policy has a significant impact on gender equality. Using data from Oxfam’s 2017 Household Care Survey in Uganda and Zimbabwe, the report explores the impact on adults’ and children’s/adolescents’ time use of access to improved water sources, electricity, healthcare and childcare. It also considers secondary impacts on measures of well-being and women’s empowerment, including women’s health and decision making.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Science and Technology, Infrastructure, Fiscal Policy, Domestic Policy
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Sandrine A. Koissy-Kpein, Lucia Rost
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Care work is essential for personal wellbeing, a healthy society and a functioning economy. But across the world, it is overwhelmingly done by women, which restricts their opportunities. Policy makers rarely recognize the public responsibility for facilitating unpaid care and domestic work through investments in infrastructure and care services. In 2017, Oxfam’s Women’s Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) initiative conducted a Household Care Survey (HCS), collecting data in the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to inform the design of public policies and local development programmes. The study tests which infrastructure, equipment and other factors influence care-work patterns. It finds that access to improved water sources is associated with reduced hours of care work, and household equipment facilitates men’s participation in care. It also finds that heavy workloads related to long hours of unpaid care can impact women’s health and well-being. Perceptions of care work, community expectations and fear of sanctions for deviating from social norms play an essential part in maintaining the gendered division of care work. The report presents recommendations for government and private sector decision-makers, development practitioners and researchers in the area of women’s economic empowerment on how they can contribute to facilitate the recognition, reduction and redistribution of unpaid care work.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Local, Norms, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Philippines, Zimbabwe, Asia-Pacific
  • Author: Ines Smyth
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The aim of promoting gender equality and women’s rights as integral parts of development efforts is enshrined in the key strategies and plans of many organizations. This is the case for the individual affiliates that comprise Oxfam International (OI), and the Oxfam confederation as a whole. This report sets out to assist Oxfam to better understand and learn from the Confederation’s work in this area to date. The purpose of the report is to provide an initial mapping of work on transformative leadership for women's rights (TLWR) in order to offer suggestions, impetus and a programmatic framework for the development of an ambitious global program on TLWR. It is intended to complement and drive Oxfam’s efforts to bring about the transformation of the pervasive gender inequality that limits women’s wellbeing, confidence and potential, reproduces negative masculinity traits, and contributes to the inequity dominant in contemporary societies.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Leadership, Feminism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Sarah Barakat
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Women in the Middle East and North Africa region face challenges in their attempts to seek and get justice. Despite some promising legal awareness initiatives, mostly led by civil society, women’s knowledge of their rights and family law is limited. They lack social capital and the financial means to claim their rights, and the systems in place to provide financial support are insufficient and often ineffective. Women’s pursuit of justice is further limited by entrenched patriarchal values at community and court levels. Though some laws in the countries covered by this research have been positively amended recently, women still face discrimination in the judicial system based on their sex, their religion, and their financial status.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Justice
  • Political Geography: Africa, Middle East, Yemen, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan
  • Author: Emma Samman
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Social norms refer to the shared expectations held by a given community. They are often held in place by social approval or rewards for conformity, and by disapproval or sanctions for transgressions. Understanding how and why social norms hold sway can provide a powerful means for understanding the gendered division of work that prevails in many communities and inform strategies aimed at promoting change. This report summarizes the main findings from the qualitative research conducted in August 2017 to support on the identification of the main social norms related to unpaid care and domestic work in rural communities in four districts in Zimbabwe. The research served to identify who the leaders are that communities look up to in order to validate social norms change. It helped to identify nascent opportunities for changes in the gendered division of labour, and what the implications are of the findings for planning and practice in addressing inequalities on unpaid care and domestic work.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Norms, Empowerment , Care
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Anabel Garrido, Damaris Ruiz
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Latin America and the Caribbean, 1831 women died at the hands of men in 2016, and three out of ten women have suffered male violence during their lives. In recent years, countries in the region have made significant progress in tackling the problem by adopting national laws to protect women. This legislative progress is a significant step forward, but gaps in implementation allow a culture of impunity for men who commit violence against women and girls. Without adequate financing and effective means to prevent, report and punish violence against women, the problem will not go away. This report provides insights into the prevalence of belief systems and gender norms among young women and men in the region. It looks in depth at the most entrenched beliefs and behaviours among the younger population and provides ample evidence that we must challenge and change the prevailing belief systems and gender norms if we are to make real progress in guaranteeing the right of all women and girls to a life free from violence. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 1831 women died at the hands of men in 2016, and three out of ten women have suffered male violence during their lives. In recent years, countries in the region have made significant progress in tackling the problem by adopting national laws to protect women. This legislative progress is a significant step forward, but gaps in implementation allow a culture of impunity for men who commit violence against women and girls. Without adequate financing and effective means to prevent, report and punish violence against women, the problem will not go away. This report provides insights into the prevalence of belief systems and gender norms among young women and men in the region. It looks in depth at the most entrenched beliefs and behaviours among the younger population and provides ample evidence that we must challenge and change the prevailing belief systems and gender norms if we are to make real progress in guaranteeing the right of all women and girls to a life free from violence.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Norms, Domestic Policy
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Caribbean, North America
  • Author: Mita Chowdhury, Nina Gora, Mushfika Laiju, Nicola Padamada, Iulia Toma
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since August 2017, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees have fled Myanmar for camps in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. The research for this report was conducted to identify the needs, vulnerabilities, risks and concerns of Rohingya refugee and host community women, girls, men and boys in Cox's Bazar, as well as the skills and opportunities on which they can build. The analysis shows various gaps in the humanitarian response for both communities, especially in terms of accountability, communication with affected communities and disaster preparedness, but also in equitable access to services, in particular for women and girls, and especially for the Rohingya community. The report presents a range of recommendations for agencies responding to the crisis, including on water, sanitation and hygiene; menstrual hygiene management; food security and nutrition; livelihoods; gender-based violence; community and household power structures; women's and girls' leadership; unpaid care work; coping strategies; and community cohesion, among others.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh, Asia, Myanmar
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report examines the distribution of unpaid care and domestic work in households in the Ugandan districts of Kaabong, Kabale and Kampala. It seeks to understand the connection between social norms and the gendered division of work, including how much time women, men, boys and girls spend on paid work and unpaid care work in a day, as well as how this time use varies between urban and rural areas and between the districts in the study. The authors look closely at childcare, who undertakes it and why. They also analyse what kinds of services are available in each district that might ease the care workload for women and girls. The report makes recommendations for the Ugandan government and relative authorities on how they can recognize, reduce and redistribute care work through policy changes, labour-saving devices and technology, better infrastructure and the provision of care services.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Economic Development , Domestic Policy, Social Roles
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa
  • Author: Simone E. Carter, Luisa Dietrich
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This gender and conflict analysis of ISIS-affected communities of Iraq aims to improve understanding of gender dynamics in the context of conflict and displacement. The report sets out to identify the differential impact of ISIS occupation on women, girls, men and boys in order to explore shifts in prevailing gender norms held by study participants in Anbar, Salah Al Din and Nineveh governorates of Iraq. The objective is to enhance the understanding of the social pressures women and men experience when aiming to conform to context-specific gendered expectations of masculinity and femininity, in order to derive concrete recommendations for gender-responsive and conflict-sensitive humanitarian and recovery programming.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Terrorism, ISIS, Conflict, Local, Community
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Kristine Anderson, Henri Myrttinen
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This study examines the impact of fragility and conflict on gender justice and women’s rights in the MENA, as a part of an Oxfam project entitled ‘Promoting the Needs of Women in Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa’ funded through the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. It specifically aims to understand how conflict and fragility in four different contexts – Egypt, Iraq, the Occupied Palestinian Territory and Yemen – have impacted the realization of gender equality and gender justice in the past several years of political and social upheaval.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Territorial Disputes, Feminism, Conflict, Equality
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine