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  • Author: Marc J. Cohen, Mecuria Tigist, Simon Parrish
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More than 600 development organizations publish to the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) Standard. IATI provides up-to-date and reliable aid data to improve accountability, coordination and effectiveness. Aid flow traceability throughout the implementation chain is a key part of this. This research report shows that, using 2013-2015 IATI data, it is only possible to verify that 7% of US aid to Ghana ($28m) arrived in the country. It concludes that this traceability gap stems from limited IATI reporting by the international NGOs and firms that implemented most aid activities. To enhance traceability, the US government should require its implementers to publish to IATI.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation, Governance, Accountability, NGOs
  • Political Geography: North America, Global Focus, United States of America
  • Author: Jorrit Kamminga, Akram Zaki
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Huge numbers of people are returning to Afghanistan – more than two million since 2015 – while the country is still highly fragile, with ongoing fighting and internal displacement in many areas and high levels of poverty. Oxfam’s field research in Herat, Kabul, Kunduz and Nangarhar finds that for as long as these conditions do not improve, a safe and dignified return cannot be guaranteed, and forced returns remain irresponsible. With more people returning on a daily basis, tensions are likely to grow and pressure on scarce resources will increase, exacerbating inequalities in this unstable and fragile country. Sending Afghans back to volatile areas will likely result only in more displacement and fragility.
  • Topic: Refugees, Fragile States, Displacement, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Refugees in the UK often find themselves separated from their families by their brutal experiences of conflict and persecution, just at the time when they need each other the most. This separation can drag on for years or sometimes indefinitely because of the UK’s restrictive rules on refugee family reunion. This joint report by the Refugee Council and Oxfam is one of the first to look at how family reunion and ongoing forced separation from loved ones affect the ability of refugees to successfully integrate into UK society.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Conflict, Borders, Family, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Global Focus
  • Author: William Dick, Andrea Stoppa
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Burkina Faso has made important progress in finding appropriate solutions for agricultural risk management. In recent years significant experience has been gathered, and the growing interest in agricultural insurance is encouraging the various actors to develop new initiatives. This report argues that key stakeholders should now agree on strategic decisions and pursue a coordinated and comprehensive approach.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Environment, Science and Technology, Rural
  • Political Geography: Africa, West Africa, Burkina Faso
  • Author: John Adams
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Lebanon hosts approximately 1.5 million Syrians who have fled the war in their country since 2011. Funding for assistance for refugees and refugee-affected populations in Lebanon is declining sharply across all sectors. As of January 2018, only 9% of the year’s WASH sector appeal had been secured. Unless more funding is secured there will be substantial reductions in WASH services for refugee communities. This report is an analysis of impacts and risks of reduced and limited WASH funding on Syrian refugees in informal tented settlements in Bekaa, Lebanon.
  • Topic: Refugees, Sanitation, Humanitarian Crisis, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Lebanon, Syria
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Fiscal policy can be a powerful tool for governments to help achieve a ‘human economy’, if these policies are designed to address gender inequalities and the gender biases in current macroeconomic thinking. This report uses the case of one element of fiscal policy – public spending – to demonstrate how such policy design could help achieve gender equality and improve human development outcomes in developing countries. The report identifies unpaid care and domestic work as a key area where fiscal policy has a significant impact on gender equality. Using data from Oxfam’s 2017 Household Care Survey in Uganda and Zimbabwe, the report explores the impact on adults’ and children’s/adolescents’ time use of access to improved water sources, electricity, healthcare and childcare. It also considers secondary impacts on measures of well-being and women’s empowerment, including women’s health and decision making.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Science and Technology, Infrastructure, Fiscal Policy, Domestic Policy
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Harash Desai, Gabriele Maneo, Erica Pellfork, Annika Schlingheider
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Adaptive management is at the heart of ‘Doing Development Differently’. It emerges from stakeholders’ calls for development programmes to be more flexible and responsive to their contexts. Whether it becomes a mainstreamed practice depends on how much it is embraced by donors and implementers alike, especially in funding, design, monitoring, evaluation, and learning cycles. This report was developed by a group of students from the London School of Economics as part of their Master’s degree programme, in partnership with Oxfam Great Britain. It presents a collection of case studies from Oxfam and other agencies to illustrate concrete examples of how programmes can incorporate adaptive practices at different stages of the planning cycle. It also offers practical suggestions to development actors to support adaptive practices. It argues that PMEL for adaptive management entails flexible funding mechanisms; iterative design processes; developing locally owned approaches; and creating an enabling environment for learning.
  • Topic: Civil Society, NGOs, Management, Strategic Planning
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Sandrine A. Koissy-Kpein, Lucia Rost
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Care work is essential for personal wellbeing, a healthy society and a functioning economy. But across the world, it is overwhelmingly done by women, which restricts their opportunities. Policy makers rarely recognize the public responsibility for facilitating unpaid care and domestic work through investments in infrastructure and care services. In 2017, Oxfam’s Women’s Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) initiative conducted a Household Care Survey (HCS), collecting data in the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to inform the design of public policies and local development programmes. The study tests which infrastructure, equipment and other factors influence care-work patterns. It finds that access to improved water sources is associated with reduced hours of care work, and household equipment facilitates men’s participation in care. It also finds that heavy workloads related to long hours of unpaid care can impact women’s health and well-being. Perceptions of care work, community expectations and fear of sanctions for deviating from social norms play an essential part in maintaining the gendered division of care work. The report presents recommendations for government and private sector decision-makers, development practitioners and researchers in the area of women’s economic empowerment on how they can contribute to facilitate the recognition, reduction and redistribution of unpaid care work.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Local, Norms, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Philippines, Zimbabwe, Asia-Pacific
  • Author: Mariana Matoso
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report shares Oxfam’s experience with a water treatment plant community-led operator in Juba, South Sudan. It contributes to the debate on the role that communities can play in the process of managing water supply systems amid protracted crises. The report gives guidance on how to support professionalization of community services by providing business, governance and institutional support, and calls on donors and implementing agencies to develop WASH programmes which consider medium-term institutional support that ensures sustainability and pro-poor accessibility.
  • Topic: Water, Infrastructure, Governance, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Ines Smyth
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The aim of promoting gender equality and women’s rights as integral parts of development efforts is enshrined in the key strategies and plans of many organizations. This is the case for the individual affiliates that comprise Oxfam International (OI), and the Oxfam confederation as a whole. This report sets out to assist Oxfam to better understand and learn from the Confederation’s work in this area to date. The purpose of the report is to provide an initial mapping of work on transformative leadership for women's rights (TLWR) in order to offer suggestions, impetus and a programmatic framework for the development of an ambitious global program on TLWR. It is intended to complement and drive Oxfam’s efforts to bring about the transformation of the pervasive gender inequality that limits women’s wellbeing, confidence and potential, reproduces negative masculinity traits, and contributes to the inequity dominant in contemporary societies.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Leadership, Feminism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus