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  • Author: Jorrit Kamminga, Akram Zaki
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Huge numbers of people are returning to Afghanistan – more than two million since 2015 – while the country is still highly fragile, with ongoing fighting and internal displacement in many areas and high levels of poverty. Oxfam’s field research in Herat, Kabul, Kunduz and Nangarhar finds that for as long as these conditions do not improve, a safe and dignified return cannot be guaranteed, and forced returns remain irresponsible. With more people returning on a daily basis, tensions are likely to grow and pressure on scarce resources will increase, exacerbating inequalities in this unstable and fragile country. Sending Afghans back to volatile areas will likely result only in more displacement and fragility.
  • Topic: Refugees, Fragile States, Displacement, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Middle East
  • Author: John Adams
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Lebanon hosts approximately 1.5 million Syrians who have fled the war in their country since 2011. Funding for assistance for refugees and refugee-affected populations in Lebanon is declining sharply across all sectors. As of January 2018, only 9% of the year’s WASH sector appeal had been secured. Unless more funding is secured there will be substantial reductions in WASH services for refugee communities. This report is an analysis of impacts and risks of reduced and limited WASH funding on Syrian refugees in informal tented settlements in Bekaa, Lebanon.
  • Topic: Refugees, Sanitation, Humanitarian Crisis, Hygiene
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Lebanon, Syria
  • Author: Sarah Barakat
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Women in the Middle East and North Africa region face challenges in their attempts to seek and get justice. Despite some promising legal awareness initiatives, mostly led by civil society, women’s knowledge of their rights and family law is limited. They lack social capital and the financial means to claim their rights, and the systems in place to provide financial support are insufficient and often ineffective. Women’s pursuit of justice is further limited by entrenched patriarchal values at community and court levels. Though some laws in the countries covered by this research have been positively amended recently, women still face discrimination in the judicial system based on their sex, their religion, and their financial status.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Justice
  • Political Geography: Africa, Middle East, Yemen, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan
  • Author: Wasim Durani, Ronald Van Moorten, Saskia van Veen
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report presents the findings of research conducted to support the work of the Marriage, No Child's Play programme. The programme aims to change social norms that perpetuate the practices of early and forced marriage. It currently operates in four districts of Pakistan: Larkana and Shikarpur in Sindh, and Lodhran and Muzaffargarh in South Punjab. To increase understanding of the role that social norms currently play in these communities, Oxfam and partners conducted exploratory qualitative research in each of the four districts. Drawing on in-depth interviews with respondents, the report puts forward social norms the researchers believe are central to the marriage decision-making process in the four districts. It highlights potential opportunities to open up conversations and outlines ways for the programme to respond. A key aim of the Marriage, No Child’s Play programme is to change social norms that perpetuate early and forced marriage practices. To increase understanding of the role that social norms currently play in the communities where the Marriage, No Child’s Play programme operates, Oxfam and partners conducted exploratory qualitative research, which will provide a basis for programme implementation and follow-up research. The research consisted of in-depth interviews with 40 respondents: young and married men (n=10) and women (n=10), and mothers (n=10) and fathers (n=10). They were sampled from communities in the four districts of the Marriage No Child’s Play’s programme in Pakistan: Larkana and Shikarpur in Sindh, and Lodhran and Muzaffargarh in South Punjab. Partner staff supported the field research team in selecting respondents. The interview design combined the use of questions with a vignette – a hypothetical story related to early marriage. Oxfam and partners analysed and interpreted the results in a workshop.
  • Topic: Children, Family, Norms, Marriage
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Simone E. Carter, Luisa Dietrich
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This gender and conflict analysis of ISIS-affected communities of Iraq aims to improve understanding of gender dynamics in the context of conflict and displacement. The report sets out to identify the differential impact of ISIS occupation on women, girls, men and boys in order to explore shifts in prevailing gender norms held by study participants in Anbar, Salah Al Din and Nineveh governorates of Iraq. The objective is to enhance the understanding of the social pressures women and men experience when aiming to conform to context-specific gendered expectations of masculinity and femininity, in order to derive concrete recommendations for gender-responsive and conflict-sensitive humanitarian and recovery programming.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Terrorism, ISIS, Conflict, Local, Community
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Francesca El Asmar, Nour Shawaf
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: As the Syrian crisis enters its sixth year, the world is witness to what has been characterized as the largest humanitarian emergency of our time. More than 11 million people have fled their homes, of whom around five million have sought refuge in neighbouring countries. Lebanon is hosting 1.5 million refugees from Syria, and 31,500 registered Palestinian refugees from Syria as of December 2016. This report presents the results of Oxfam’s research project which looked at the perceptions and expectations of refugees in Lebanon in relation to their future, their present situation and their past experiences. It aims to open up discussion on lasting solutions that will allow refugees to influence the decisions being made and to define concepts of safe and dignified living. The report argues that the perceptions, lived experiences and expectations of the refugees themselves should be the building blocks of their future, whereby freedom to make choices is a fundamental component of dignity.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East, Lebanon, Syria
  • Author: Kristine Anderson, Henri Myrttinen
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This study examines the impact of fragility and conflict on gender justice and women’s rights in the MENA, as a part of an Oxfam project entitled ‘Promoting the Needs of Women in Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa’ funded through the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. It specifically aims to understand how conflict and fragility in four different contexts – Egypt, Iraq, the Occupied Palestinian Territory and Yemen – have impacted the realization of gender equality and gender justice in the past several years of political and social upheaval.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Territorial Disputes, Feminism, Conflict, Equality
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Antonio Massella
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The current internal conflict in Iraq, its ensuing displacement and emerging returns, coupled with political and economic crises facing the country, are just the latest in a series of ongoing upheavals that Iraq’s youth are experiencing. This is a grim set of circumstances for any young person, and is particularly troubling in Iraq where pre-crisis figures indicate that 61% of the population is below the age 24 and 20% between the ages of 15 and 24. With the support of ECHO, Oxfam conducted an in-depth qualitative study of youth perspectives on experiences of displacement and return in newly retaken areas around Mosul. The main objective of this study is to investigate how circumstances for youth in Iraq may spur further conflict and shape displacement and return experiences; inform current policies around stabilization; influence the development of a durable solutions framework for displacement in Iraq; and support further development of conflict-sensitive programming as Oxfam moves its response from humanitarian to early recovery.
  • Topic: Education, Displacement, Youth, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East