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  • Author: Linda Zhang, Ryan Berg
  • Publication Date: 02-2021
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Jamestown Foundation
  • Abstract: The People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is drawing increased scrutiny from U.S. policymakers. The International Liaison Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (ILD) (中共中央对外联络部, zhonggong zhongyang duiwai lianluo bu) is one of the many Chinese organizations active in LAC. Although its footprint is relatively small compared to larger trade and governmental organizations, the ILD’s emphasis on ideology and on long-term relationship building in its engagements is noteworthy and should be monitored more closely within the context of China-Latin America relations.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, International Affairs, Political Parties, Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
  • Political Geography: China, Asia, Latin America
  • Author: Sungwoo Hong, Yeo Joon Yoon, Jino Kim, Jeewoon Rim, Jimin Nam
  • Publication Date: 02-2021
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP)
  • Abstract: The conflict between the United States and China may be the issue of most importance as well as interest to the world, prior to COVID-19. This conflict between the two countries is appearing not only in the economic sector, but also in various field such as politics, diplomacy, and military affairs. Such competition between the two countries is likely to escalate further as multilateral systems such as the WTO are threatened and protectionism intensifies in the post-COVID-19 world. Even within Latin America, the competition between the two countries frequently appears in a variety of forms. Conflicts between the United States and China in Latin America tend to occur mainly in the infrastructure sectors. Furthermore, the United States pressured Latin American countries to choose between the United States and China, with the results of this pressure depending on the political orientation of the ruling government. In order to investigate the impact of retaliatory tariffs between the two countries on Latin American countries’ exports and welfare, we employ an event analysis for exports and computational general equilibrium (CGE) model for welfare, with Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Chile as the subject of our analysis. Based on the outcome of the event study, Brazil’s exports to the United States moderately increased due to the tariff imposition, and such an effect persisted for short term. Its exports to China rose considerably immediately after the tariff imposition, and then the impact tended to decrease over time. By contrast, it is difficult to conclude that the tariff imposition had a statistically significant and lasting effect on the exports of the remaining three countries to the United States and China. As a result of the analysis using the CGE model, meanwhile, the tariffs imposed between the United States and China trivially increased the welfare of Latin American countries.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Economy, Tariffs, Exports, Trade, Rivalry
  • Political Geography: China, Asia, South America, Latin America, Korea, United States of America
  • Author: Carlos Monge
  • Publication Date: 08-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Natural Resource Governance Institute
  • Abstract: Mining companies are asking governments to make consultation and environmental procedures more flexible to mitigate production risks and attract new investments. However, there is no real reason to slacken regulations in order to promote mining in Latin America. Conversely, the region should strengthen these standards to prepare for a possible new mining cycle fueled by the transition to clean energy. In the event of a new mining cycle, governments should safeguard against overreliance on commodity exports and the use of fossil fuels. Instead, governments and companies should explore ways in which the mining sector can contribute to economic diversifications and energy transitions. Demand and prices for minerals produced in the region have fallen as a result of the global recession. Logistical issues resultant from pandemic-related lockdowns have slowed internal production. Consequently, mining taxes and royalties will likely fall this year. Prices have not fallen enough to threaten the commercial feasibility of current projects, the global investment budget remains robust, and the region is attractive to mining investors. Furthermore, the global transition to clean and sustainable energies will most probably increase the demand and prices for the critical minerals (copper, silver, lithium and others) produced in the region.
  • Topic: Energy Policy, Commodities, Mining, Coronavirus, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: Latin America
  • Author: Karolien van Teijlingen, Barbara Hogenboom
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Relations
  • Abstract: COVID-19 struck Latin America in the middle of what was already a tough economic, political and social period. This policy brief looks into the effects of the pandemic on employment and labour rights in the Colombian and Peruvian large-scale mining sectors. Mining has been severely affected by low commodity prices and demand, interrupted supply chains, national lockdowns and the (partial) closure of operations. Companies have tried to cut costs on the back of their labour force, resulting in layoffs, renegotiations and suspension of contracts. Informal economies around mining operations also suffer from the fall in demand for services and goods. The most impacted groups are outsourced workers and workers in the informal economy, the latter being predominantly women. On the long-term, these countries risks a race to the bottom in terms of labour rights. The brief calls upon (Dutch) companies and investors working in the Latin American commodity sectors to put social and economic justice at the centre of their operations.
  • Topic: Labor Issues, Mining, Global Value Chains, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America
  • Author: Alicia Garcia-Herrero, Elina Ribakova
  • Publication Date: 05-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Bruegel
  • Abstract: COVID-19 is by far the biggest challenge policymakers in emerging economies have had to deal with in recent history. Beyond the potentially large negative impact on these countries’ fiscal accounts, and the related solvency issues, worsening conditions for these countries’ external funding are a major challenge.
  • Topic: Monetary Policy, Regulation, Finance, Economy, Central Bank, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: Europe, Asia, Latin America
  • Author: Victória Monteiro da Silva Santos
  • Publication Date: 01-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: BRICS Policy Center
  • Abstract: By tracing concepts such as truth, justice, reparations, and nonrepeats, as well as models such as the International Commission against Impunity, the Interdisciplinary Group of Independent Experts, and the Truth Commission, the article discusses some of the ways in which a diversity actors sought to address and transform the complex patterns of organized violence that routinely impact various Latin American societies.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Transitional Justice, Justice, Reconciliation , Truth, Reparations
  • Political Geography: Colombia, Latin America, Mexico
  • Author: Diana Gómez Correal, Angélica Arias Preciado, Mónica Durán Scott, Auris Murillo Jiménez, Angélica Bernal Olarte, Diana Montealegre Mongrovejo, Marina López Sepúlveda, Yusmidia Solano Suárez
  • Publication Date: 03-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre Desarrollo (CIDER), Universidad de los Andes
  • Abstract: Este documento de política pública hace parte de la investigación “Inclusión de las afectaciones vividas por las mujeres y sus procesos de resistencia en las Comisiones de la Verdad de Perú y Colombia: miradas retro y prospectivas de la justicia transicional” liderada por la profesora Diana Gómez. Es producto de un trabajo colaborativo entre el Cider de la Universidad de los Andes, la Red de Mujeres del Caribe, la Colectiva Feministas Emancipatorias, la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe, la Universidad del Atlántico y la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano. El documento de política pública resalta la importante tarea que ha desarrollado la Comisión en la región Caribe con la puesta en marcha de toda la infraestructura institucional que le da forma a la macro-región, los esfuerzos por la implementación de la perspectiva de género y la inclusión de las vivencias de las mujeres en el mandato de la CEV, al tiempo que evalúa los logros y retos que existen en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género. El documento contiene recomendaciones producto de un trabajo de campo que hizo seguimiento a la implementación de la Comisión durante los primeros nueve meses en el Caribe colombiano. Las recomendaciones giran en torno a la inclusión del género y en especial de las vivencias de las mujeres en el mandato de la Comisión, y se estructuran en siete ejes de análisis: participación, esclarecimiento, sanación, reconocimiento de las mujeres como sujeto político, convivencia, funcionamiento de la CEV e informe final. Estos ejes de análisis alimentan los objetivos y mandatos de la CEV.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Social Justice, Truth
  • Political Geography: Colombia, Latin America
  • Author: Andrés Hernández, Ethel Segura, Cristhian Molina
  • Publication Date: 02-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre Desarrollo (CIDER), Universidad de los Andes
  • Abstract: Esta publicación recoge los tres mejores trabajos de identificación de hechos metropolitanos elaborados en el curso de Métodos de análisis del territorio, ofrecido en el primer semestre de 2018 por el profesor Andrés Hernández, la catedrática Ethel Segura y el consultor Cristhian Molina. En una discusión interdisciplinaria que permitió la integración de distintas perspectivas, los estudiantes de la Maestría en Planificación Urbana y Regional del Cider usaron las tres técnicas usadas en el curso para desarrollar los estudios de caso: i) la metodología de hechos metropolitanos, ii) los mapas elaborados por ellos y iii) el análisis normativo y las fuentes de información. Sobre esta base, a lo largo del semestre los autores hicieron un ejercicio de análisis comparado de los hechos metropolitanos en Bogotá Región y en el área metropolitana de Medellín. Los casos de estudio fueron los siguientes: i) los servicios de provisión en los territorios que hacen parte del borde rural oriental de Bogotá, ii) la cuenca del Río Bogotá como estructurante de la nueva área metropolitana, iii) el tren de cercanías como detonante del área metropolitana de Bogotá y, iv) la segregación socioespacial en el área metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá. De esta manera, el nuevo Documento de Trabajo da cuenta de un análisis detallado desde ciertos hechos metropolitanos, el cual permite evidenciar la importancia del estudio de diferentes tipos de fenómenos que transforman los territorios en escala metropolitana y del territorio en su complejidad. Además, posibilita un mejor análisis de las dinámicas detrás de los mismos (oportunidades, tensiones y conflictos).
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Economic Development , Territory, Metropolitanism, Urban Planning
  • Political Geography: Colombia, Latin America
  • Author: Ninna Nyberg Sørensen, Cesar Castilla
  • Publication Date: 03-2019
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Venezuela is facing a deep economic, political, and social crisis, with acute shortages of food, medicine and other basic goods. Over 3.4 million Venezuelans, a tenth of the population, have left the country, presenting Latin America with an unprecedented migration crisis. However, diaspora engagement in humanitarian efforts could also be part of the solution to the crisis. RECOMMENDATIONS ■ The exodus illustrates increasing difficulty distinguishing between voluntary and forced migration. To overcome barriers in accessing protection and social services, migrants and refugees must be granted legal status in receiving countries. ■ The migration crisis is politicized by many actors. Supply routes for vital humanitarian assistance are needed, but historical experiences should warn against the use of military force or other forms of intervention. ■ UN efforts to complement humanitarian help with development assistance to poorer reception areas should be supported. Ways to connect the Venezuelan diaspora to ongoing humanitarian and future development efforts directed at Venezuela should also be pursued.
  • Topic: Migration, United Nations, Economy, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, Venezuela
  • Author: Pepe Zhang
  • Publication Date: 10-2019
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: Four new BRI trends to watch: (i) enforcement of transparency, debt, and environmental safeguards; (ii) growing participation of the private sector; (iii) the role of the advanced economies in BRI; and (iv) new BRI sectors beyond infrastructure Governments and companies in Latin America and the Caribbean should engage and help shape an evolving BRI, mindful of both the opportunities and risks involved The United States can play a key role in setting standards for economic development projects in the region and beyond
  • Topic: Energy Policy, Environment, Financial Markets, Trade
  • Political Geography: China, Asia, South America, Latin America
  • Author: Susanna B. Hecht
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centre for International Environmental Studies, The Graduate Institute (IHEID)
  • Abstract: The dramatic Amazon fires images of Au-gust 2019 triggered a geopolitical outcry. Brazilian President Bolsonaro, however, unflinchingly continues to support his destructive model of Amazonian development. This article recalls the extent of the disaster and delves into the reasons behind such disdain for environmental concerns.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Development, Environment
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Latin America
  • Author: Adriana Erthal Abdenur, Giovanna Kuele, Ariane Francisco
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Igarapé Institute
  • Abstract: There is growing recognition at the UN and among member states that peacekeeping must be made more effective, especially in face of major budget cuts and wavering leadership by traditional actors. Against this backdrop, how can member states improve the quality of pre-deployment and mission preparation for UN peacekeeping? This policy brief focuses on one area in which innovation has become more urgent than ever: enhancing the effectiveness of peacekeeping through better training. More specifically, we analyze the emerging configurations, innovations, and challenges of international cooperation for peacekeeping training centers (PTCs), drawing on the case of Latin America.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Peace Studies, Regional Cooperation, United Nations, Peacekeeping, Training, Peace
  • Political Geography: Latin America
  • Author: Maria Elena Rodriguez, Gabriel de Barros Torres
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: BRICS Policy Center
  • Abstract: With the purpose of contributing to expanding transnational investment flows, Brazil signed, in 2015, a series of Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreements (CIFAs) with African and Latin American countries. Among its provisions, the CIFAs feature distinctive characteristics in terms of direct (and indirect) expropriation, corporate social responsibility, dispute settlement mechanisms and national treatment clauses – ultimately, aiming to provide greater legal certainty for investors. However, civil society organizations have warned against the potential impact of this new model of investment agreements on the autonomy of states to establish regulations in the public interest. As such, this Quarterly Brief seeks to analyze similarities and differences between the new Brazilian CIFAs and traditional bilateral investment agreements – as well as to evaluate them in light of alternative frameworks, elaborated by civil society networks, aimed at balancing investment promotion with human and environmental rights protection.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Environment, Treaties and Agreements, Regulation, Social Justice, Land Rights, Public Health
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Latin America
  • Author: Sergio Montero, Tobias Franz, Miller Choles
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre Desarrollo (CIDER), Universidad de los Andes
  • Abstract: Durante la mayor parte del siglo XX, el contexto económico y político en Colombia ha sido caracterizado por políticas de desarrollo regional implementadas de modo jerárquico y vertical por parte del gobierno nacional. Sin embargo, durante las últimas décadas de descentralización, democratización y neoliberalización del Estado en Colombia han surgido nuevas formas de pensar cómo se gobierna y planea el desarrollo de los territorios. En este contexto, el concepto de gobernanza, basado en la idea de que las decisiones de gobierno y política pública deben hacerse a través de redes y asociaciones horizontales entre actores del gobierno, del sector privado y de la sociedad civil, se ha generalizado y expandido a gran velocidad por el país. Hoy en día, no sólo en Colombia sino en toda América Latina, difícilmente podemos encontrar unas guías sobre desarrollo territorial que no incluyan los procesos participativos, la planificación estratégica o las asociaciones público-privadas (APP) como instrumentos deseables en el diseño, planeación e implementación de políticas públicas de desarrollo económico local y regional. La idea de gobernanza es útil para ir más allá de dicotomías como Estado vs. sociedad, o público vs. privado que, por mucho tiempo, han dominado los estudios de gobierno y desarrollo. No obstante, es importante también entender cómo la mezcla de las nuevas herramientas de la gobernanza y las dinámicas institucionales propias de Colombia hace que las relaciones, supuestamente horizontales, de la gobernanza y sus beneficios para el desarrollo local no sean tan fáciles de alcanzar e implementar en la práctica.
  • Topic: Governance, Partnerships, Diversity, Diversification, Economic Development , Elites
  • Political Geography: Colombia, Latin America