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  • Author: Amelie Gauthier
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More than half of Central African Republic’s population is in need of urgent humanitarian aid – amidst chronic underfunding, persisting violence across the country and unsuccessful peace agreements. This briefing calls for a huge and concerted effort by the government, donors and all stakeholders to consolidate progress, to support peace and reconciliation and to ensure that CAR does not revert back into a deeper crisis. It presents a fair share analysis and urges donors to step up their commitments and meet their funding responsibility to stabilize the fragile situation in the country.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Humanitarian Aid, Political stability, Violence, Peace, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Central African Republic
  • Author: Man-Kwun Chan
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Investments which support households to better meet their unpaid care responsibilities – such as childcare, food preparation and laundry – can yield substantial returns in terms of macro-economic growth, job creation and other key government priorities. This briefing looks at selected evidence and examples and argues that governments should: include commitments to support households’ unpaid care work in relevant policies and programmes, and collect data on unpaid care to support policy making; increase households’ access to care-supporting infrastructure and services; encourage men and boys to share care work; and step up efforts to give women a real voice in policy making, and a real opportunity to speak out about unpaid care.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Health Care Policy, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Diego Alejo Vazquez Pimentel, Max Lawson, Inigo Macias Aymar
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Last year saw the biggest increase in billionaires in history, one more every two days. This huge increase could have ended global extreme poverty seven times over. 82% of all wealth created in the last year went to the top 1%, and nothing went to the bottom 50%. Dangerous, poorly paid work for the many is supporting extreme wealth for the few. Women are in the worst work, and almost all the super-rich are men. Governments must create a more equal society by prioritizing ordinary workers and small-scale food producers instead of the rich and powerful.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Trade and Finance, Food, Health Care Policy, Inequality, Economic Growth, Tax Systems, Supply Chains
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Investment in small-scale agriculture is needed in order to meet the ambitious objective set by the United Nations and signed by the world leaders in 2015: to eradicate hunger, ensure food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 (SDG 2). However, reaching this ambitious goal with the current level of resources committed will not be possible without concerted action on global challenges such as worsening climate change, fluctuating energy prices, diversification of diets in emerging economies and a growing pressure on natural resources such as land and water for purposes other than food. In the world today, 795 million people – one in nine people – still experience limited access to healthy and nutritious food; essential for children to develop properly and for fostering good health. Most of the people affected live in developing countries – 98 percent –and in Africa, one person in four suffers from hunger.1 Paradoxically, those who suffer from hunger are mainly farmers or people who depend on agriculture as their main source of income. To end the injustice of hunger in the world, there is therefore a need for a shared effort from public and private players, geared to allocate more and better investment for the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. In this paper, Oxfam investigates the flows of official development aid (ODA) committed by Italy in the last ten years to promoting food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development in its partner countries. The analysis aims to identify the main features of Italian ODA in this sector in order to evaluate its level of transparency and accountability. It also aims to verify the coherence, in financial terms, between the real allocation of resources and the political importance that Italy has historically assigned to food security issues. In parallel, this paper examines the involvement of Italian agri-food industries in rural development programmes financed through Italian ODA. In light of the wide- ranging debate which aims to promote a greater involvement of the private sector in development, Oxfam investigated the experience gained to date by Italy in one of the priority sectors of its development cooperation policy. The paper’s analysis focuses on three case studies featuring different modalities and objectives for private sector involvement, with the aim to assessing the impacts of their contribution in terms of the reduction of poverty and food insecurity in local communities. Oxfam’s purpose is to contribute to the ongoing national debate in Italy on the eligibility criteria that would promote private sector support for co- financed cooperation initiatives in partner countries; in line with the objectives and goals of the Italian International Development Cooperation policy.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Poverty, United Nations, Food, Hunger, Rural
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy, Global Focus
  • Author: Elysia Buchanan
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In December 2017, South Sudan marked four years of devastating conflict. Only a few months later, it has reached another critical point: more South Sudanese are hungry than ever before. While the February 2018 Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) does not declare famine, any classification of IPC 3 upwards means people need aid to survive. This means that 6.3 million people are struggling to get enough to eat, and are dependent on humanitarian aid that is increasingly difficult to access. This report examines the impact of the ongoing conflict on hunger through the prism of livelihoods; women’s empowerment; displacement; water, sanitation and hygiene; and the spread of disease. It provides recommendations for the international community and warring parties on what they can do to stop the violence, increase access to humanitarian aid and allow the people of South Sudan to recover.
  • Topic: Hunger, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict, Sanitation
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Anita Kattakuzhy, Chloe Parrish
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: International humanitarian agencies and donors have made a series of global commitments to local actors as part of the localization agenda, including to increase their access to greater direct funding by 2020. This briefing paper reviews 2015 national financial data for Bangladesh and Uganda to better understand how to target international investments in localization. It presents key findings from Oxfam-commissioned research on which factors affect local actors’ ability to access international humanitarian funding. It concludes that in order for global commitments to translate into practice, investments should look at changing the terms of the funding relationship, as well as be based on a context-specific, national analysis of the financial environment.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Environment, Humanitarian Aid, Refugee Crisis, Displacement
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Bangladesh, Africa, Asia
  • Author: Debbie Hillier
  • Publication Date: 04-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Reducing the impacts of disasters on poor people is absolutely vital. Climate/disaster risk financing could play a useful role if it is part of an approach that includes risk reduction, if it strengthens social protection, and if it has real participation from civil society. Insurance, as one component of risk financing, could play a supportive role if carefully designed – keeping in mind the limitations, including the risk of worsening income and gender inequality. The InsuResilience Global Partnership should build more evidence of what works for poor people, invest in pro-poor business models, and ensure the insurance schemes developed are part of a broader approach to reduce risks and the inequalities that make people vulnerable to disasters.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Climate Change, Disaster Relief, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tracy Carty, Armelle Le Comte
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate finance efforts by developed countries are at a critical juncture. There are only two years before the deadline by which developed countries have committed to jointly mobilize $100bn per year to support climate action in developing countries. This $100bn commitment has a pivotal role to play in supporting developing countries to reduce their emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This year will also see governments at the 24th Conference of Parties (COP24) in Katowice agree new rules to govern how climate finance is accounted under the Paris Agreement – rules that will shape the quality and transparency of climate finance provision for many years to come. This briefing paper offers an assessment of progress towards the $100bn goal. The second in a series, it looks at the latest donor figures for 2015-16, with a strong focus on public finance. It considers how close we are to the $100bn goal; where the money is coming from; where it is going; what it is being spent on; and how donors are counting the money they report.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, International Cooperation, Paris Agreement
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Megan Baddeley, Matti Kohonen, Ewan Livingston, Radhika Sarin
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This joint briefing from Oxfam, Christian Aid, ActionAid and the CBI reflects a growing convergence between businesses and tax advocacy groups on the use of tax incentives in the Global South. It argues that tax incentives can be a useful tool in promoting decent jobs and growth. But it also contends that too often tax incentives are used in inefficient and ineffective ways, and in the worst cases are entirely redundant. We hope that its message will be heard by policy makers around the world, and that it will contribute to better policy making that encourages responsible investment. Promoting domestic resource mobilization should mean that governments have more money to invest in essential public services to tackle poverty.
  • Topic: Economics, Tax Systems, Fiscal Policy, Private Sector
  • Political Geography: Global South
  • Publication Date: 05-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: People displaced by conflict (IDPs) in Myanmar’s Kachin State want to return to their land, yet it is being appropriated unfairly. Legal or administrative procedures are undermining IDP rights, ignoring the exceptional circumstances of displacement. Restrictions on movement are making the situation worse. Action is required to resolve the lack of clarity over IDP land rights and to ensure equitable remedy is available where land has been unfairly acquired. This report is produced by The Durable Peace Programme (DPP), an EU-funded consortium of seven international and local organizations supporting peace, reconciliation, rehabilitation and development in Kachin State since 2015.
  • Topic: Displacement, Conflict, Peace, Humanitarian Crisis, Internal Displacement
  • Political Geography: Asia, Myanmar