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  • Author: Shaddin Almasri
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Earning an income is a struggle for the residents of Za’atari refugee camp in Jordan, and women’s economic participation is extremely low. Oxfam initiated the Lel-Haya (For Life) project in Za’atari to build the capacities of Syrian refugee women, both in vocational training and soft skills. A small number of women involved in the project were subsequently employed by a garment factory in northern Jordan. This briefing note highlights these women’s experiences, the challenges they have faced and how they have overcome them.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Migration, Refugee Crisis, Economic Development
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Jordan
  • Author: Simone Klawitter, Alison Martin
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In the wake of the devastating destruction in Gaza in 2014, the Gaza Reconstruction Mechanism (GRM) was established as a temporary measure to facilitate the entry of construction materials and a range of items classified and treated as ‘dual use’ by Israel. Two and a half years on, vital water sector recovery and development remains hampered and fully controlled by the Government of Israel, demonstrating the extent to which Israeli government policies continue to undermine humanitarian response, cause de-development and exacerbate the separation of the Gaza Strip from the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory and the world. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the GRM in improving access to water, health and sanitation services, assesses the roles and responsibilities of a range of actors and identifies urgent steps in relation to the GRM that should be taken to contribute to the development of a just, effective and sustainable water sector in Gaza.
  • Topic: Development, Territorial Disputes, Water, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Abi Khalil, Alexandra Saieh, Daniel Gorevan
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Jordan and Lebanon collectively make up less than one percent of the world’s economy, but host around 20 percent of the world’s refugees. Donors have recognized the scale of the challenges that this presents and acknowledged that humanitarian assistance must be supplemented with multi-year development support. This briefing note presents a preview of key findings from Oxfam-commissioned research in Lebanon and Jordan and concludes that for assistance to succeed in its aim of helping both refugees and poor host communities there is a need for increased democratic ownership, transparency and accountability in donor and government aid policies.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Finance, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Middle Class
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Lebanon, Jordan
  • Author: Larissa Alles
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The number of people in need as a result of Yemen’s conflict continues to rise, but the international aid response has failed to keep up. International donors should immediately commit to fully funding the Yemen Humanitarian Response Plan. As the tables in this briefing show, some donor governments are pulling their weight, while others are not. Aid alone, however, cannot solve Yemen’s crisis or put the country back on its feet. All sides and their international backers should stop the de-facto blockade and the conflict that are pushing Yemen towards famine.
  • Topic: Famine, Food Security, Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Shannon Scribner
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: As famine takes hold in South Sudan and threatens to spread to northeastern Nigeria, Somalia, and Yemen, world leaders must immediately step up to fully fund the United Nations’ appeal for $6.3 billion. Of this amount, $4.9 billion is urgently needed by July for critical assistance, including health, food, nutrition, and water. If lives are to be saved, humanitarian agencies must be able to rapidly scale up and access people in need. World leaders must not walk away from key meetings, such as the Group of Seven Taormina Summit in Italy and the Group of Twenty Hamburg Summit in Germany, without taking action to increase funding, improve access, resolve conflict and insecurity, and ensure that emergency relief is coupled with long-term approaches to building resilience in affected countries.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, United Nations, Famine, Food Security, Leadership
  • Political Geography: Africa, Middle East, Yemen, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan
  • Author: Amy Keith, Nour Shawaf
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Syrian refugees and Palestine refugees from Syria have fled their homes in search of safety. But Oxfam’s 2017 research revealed that most people interviewed do not consider that they have found complete safety and protection in Lebanon. Refugees’ views on what constitutes ‘safety’ are individual and subjective. This paper argues that the international community and host governments should not make decisions for refugees about what or where is ‘safe’, but instead should support refugees to find safety in the present, and determine their futures for themselves.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugees, Displacement, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria
  • Author: Rebecca Pearl-Martinez
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam analysis finds that governments and donors are failing to provide women farmers with relevant and adequate support for farming and adapting to climate change. Oxfam conducted research on government and donor investments in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Tanzania. It found that funding in these countries is significantly lower than commitments that have been made, and there is little evidence of resources and technical assistance reaching women farmers. Resources are being diverted to priorities other than smallholder farmers, and for the most part governments lack the capacity to deliver funding to them. This paper presents the findings along with recommendations for governments.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Gender Issues, Women, Farming
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Africa, Middle East, Philippines, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Ghana
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It is essential that opportunities for job growth are supported both for refugees in Jordan and the vulnerable communities hosting them. Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) can be a key driver of job growth. Promoting MSMEs could also help to address gender inequality and protection issues for refugees in Jordan. This joint agency paper was written by the LEADERS Consortium of NGOs, which aims to contribute to the economic self-reliance, resilience and stability of Syrian refugees and vulnerable host communities in Jordan. It presents research conducted among women and men small business owners in central and northern Jordan on the challenges they face. It makes recommendations on how the Government of Jordan, businesses, the financial sector and NGOs can support women, refugees and Jordanian host communities to start and grow small businesses.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Refugee Issues, Inequality, Economic Growth, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria, Jordan
  • Author: Larissa Alles
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The current high levels of food insecurity in Yemen and the threat of famine are the results of more than two-and-a-half years of war, and have added to the already high levels existing pre-war. The economic crisis and loss of livelihoods has left people without the means to purchase what is available in the market. The situation has been made dramatically worse by the closure of key entry points for commercial imports, which is also affecting the availability of fuel and clean water. This is a deadly combination, especially for the most vulnerable in society, including women and children. This briefing calls for action by all actors in the conflict and by the international community to protect the civilian population from the effects of the war and to alleviate the food crisis. It calls for renewed momentum towards a peace deal which is inclusive of women, civil society, youth and minorities, and which begins with an immediate, nationwide ceasefire.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, War, Children, Food Security, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Daniel Gorevan, Martin Hartberg, Dominic Bowen
  • Publication Date: 03-2015
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The unanimous adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2139 (UNSCR 2139) at the end of February 2014 brought with it much needed hope for people in Syria and across the Middle East. In the resolution, the UN Security Council (UNSC) – the body responsible for international peace and security – called for an urgent increase in access to humanitarian aid in Syria and demanded that all parties immediately cease attacks against civilians, end arbitrary detention, kidnapping and torture, and lift sieges of populated areas.
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Syria