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You searched for: Content Type Policy Brief Remove constraint Content Type: Policy Brief Publishing Institution Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University Publication Year within 10 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 10 Years Publication Year within 5 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 5 Years Topic Development Remove constraint Topic: Development
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  • Author: Jamal Saghir, Yasmina El Amine
  • Publication Date: 05-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: The challenge of water security is growing globally. Achieving and sustaining water security, in both developed and developing countries, is likely to increase in complexity and priority as climate change intensifies, but also as the demands of economic growth increase. For most MENA countries that were already facing water security and major social, health and economic challenges before COVID-19, this additional pressure is particularly excruciating. Like COVID-19 and climate change, water scarcity in MENA is a global problem that requires collective action. There is no more urgent time to address the MENA’s water crisis than now, when people are constantly being reminded to use water to combat the spread of the virus. The Arab world appears to have averted significant health impacts from COVID-19, possibly shielding to a certain extent its health sector, however other sectors are at risk of collapsing, as the region is on the brink of an even more devastating water crisis. Drawing on countries’ responses to the outbreak and on unique traits and issues typical to the region, this policy paper discusses COVID –19 and the MENA and explores lessons learnt from the pandemic, in light of the upcoming water crisis in the MENA. It examines the issues of inequality and regional cooperation. It argues that fostering innovation for resilience is crucial in the absence of strong institutional response or capacity of governments, while also tackling critical ways to address and prepare for increasing water scarcity in the region. Finally, the paper provides policy recommendations that represent fundamental requirements for sustainable water development in the MENA countries.
  • Topic: Development, Water, Crisis Management, Sustainability, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: Middle East, North Africa
  • Author: Erik Martinez Kuhonta, Franque Grimard, Kai Scott
  • Publication Date: 11-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: On 8 November 2020, Myanmar will hold its second election since the country’s gradual liberalization began. Despite presenting itself as a force for liberal democracy five years ago, the National League for Democracy (NLD) has demonstrated its unwillingness to commit itself to the protection of civil freedoms and the expansion of federal governance. It has fallen short of campaign promises by failing to enact meaningful constitutional change, improve economic performance, and address the protracted peace process. Notably, the government has created a climate that represses dissidents and undermines ethnic pluralism. Yet, the NLD’s support base remains strong, in part as a result of Aung San Suu Kyi’s continued ability to appeal to a Bamar-majority voter base by opposing the military cronyism of past and rooting herself in ethno-nationalist values, as witnessed in her decision to respond to charges of genocide at the International Court of Justice at the Hague. As a result, the NLD’s continued dominance over the Union Solidarity Development Party (USDP) is expected to continue. In the ethnic states, the situation is different—here, the ethnic political parties are expected to make gains on the NLD, as their recent merging place them well to take advantage of anti-NLD sentiment that has grown within ethnic minorities over the years because of the NLD’s perceived Bamar-centric governance. In addition, a lack of trust in the Union Elections Commission and complications due to covid-19 are significant sources of risk in the running of the 2020 election.
  • Topic: Development, Government, Human Rights, Elections, Domestic politics
  • Political Geography: Asia, Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Christian Novak
  • Publication Date: 01-2020
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: To advance education in lowermiddle-income countries, official donors and multilateral development banks must increase their financial support to address the financial gap. Specific recommendations: • Expand the use of innovative development financing solutions. • Expand the use of innovative aid solutions. • Multilateral development banks to increase financing volumes and to strengthen efforts to maximize financial additionality and private capital mobilization. • Review the classification of LICs and LMICs. • Increase domestic budget allocation. Implementing the recommendations require coordinated efforts of all stakeholders. In addition, it is paramount that lower-middleincome countries design and fully implement effective long-term education programs and systems. Benchmarking and feedback must be constant, prompting sustained improvement and the adoption of international best practices.
  • Topic: Development, Education, United Nations, Foreign Aid, Finance, Sustainable Development Goals
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Franque Grimard, Christian Novak
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Development financial institutions, especially their private sector windows, must play a more effective role in contributing to achieve the 2030 Agenda. In order to achieve such higher needed effectiveness, DFIs must update their operating models and methods, and the most recently launched DFIs, like FinDev Canada, must widely adopt a modernized approach towards development financing. In this regard, we recommend that DFIs: • Increase mobilization volumes of private capital. • Widen the offering of financial products and structures with high financial additionality. • Maximize their investment potential. We believe that the implementation of the specific recommendations presented in this Policy Brief would significantly contribute to the necessary actions to achieve the 2030 Agenda. However, accomplishing the SDGs is not only dependent on the adaptation of DFIs, but also on complementary effective actions from countries, the international financial system and the private sector, in addition to collaboration among all stakeholders.
  • Topic: Development, United Nations, Finance, Sustainable Development Goals
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jamal Saghir
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Today, the challenge of water security is global, and growing. Achieving and sustaining water security, in both developed and developing countries, is likely to increase in complexity and priority—not only as climate change intensifies, but also as the demands of economic growth increase. While most developed countries invested heavily in water security, often starting early on their path to growth, most of the world’s developing countries remain relatively water insecure. The dominant threats to water security vary geographically and over time. Relative risks to populations vary globally: South Asia has the largest global concentration of population at risk of all water-related hazards; the Middle East and North Africa (MNA)2 stands out as having the highest percentage of the population facing scarcity and the only region where risks are still growing; and Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest percentage of population without access to water and sanitation. What is clear is that water security is not a stagnant goal, it is a dynamic process affected by changing climate, political set up, growing economies, and resource degradation. Moreover, as social, cultural, political, economic priorities and values evolve, water security will evolve with them. This note argues that in the MNA countries, instead of water security becoming an impediment to growth and factor in conflicts, water for growth and water security can be a factor of prosperity and peace.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Water, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Middle East, North Africa
  • Author: Jamal Saghir
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Sub-Saharan African countries are experiencing rapid urban growth challenging policy makers to provide infrastructure and services under tight fiscal constraints. Urbanization has the potential to boost economic growth, attract capital, create jobs, and fight poverty; but cities in Africa are failing to reap these benefits. More than half of SSA population lives in urban areas, but 55% of these citizens are established in informal settlements underserved by public services and threatened by natural disasters. GDP in Africa is mainly concentrated around urban areas proving that national economic growth depends on the productivity of the cities. Urban development should be a national priority sustained by policy reforms, strategic investments in infrastructure, decentralization, and stronger inter-governmental systems and institutions.
  • Topic: Development, Urbanization, GDP, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: N. Aguilar Delgado, P. Perez-Aleman
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Recommendations stemming from different meeting spaces have different potentials for being transformed into inclusive decisions. The involvement practices vary across the different spaces, which in turn affect the interaction between governments and non-state actors. The creation of institutional mechanisms and programs that promote non-state actors’ attendance were effective for increasing participation. Non-state actors must be strategic in identifying spaces and developing skills to be more included.
  • Topic: Development, Non State Actors, Regulation, Transnational Actors
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jamal Saghir, K. Agha
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: To ensure the longterm success and appeal of energy efficiency, key international efforts could include: Increasing international cooperation to transfer best implementation practices. Harmonizing international financing procedures, for simpler access to financing sources for country- level energy efficiency programs. Supporting improved certification of energy efficiency equipment, through international recognized energy efficiency certification agencies.
  • Topic: Development, Energy Policy, International Cooperation, Global Markets
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jamal Saghir
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: The objective of this policy brief is to discuss issues affecting sustainable infrastructure development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)2 countries including challenges, opportunities, and investment options facing SSA countries. Sustainable infrastructure refers to the designing, building, and operating of infrastructure 3 projects taking into account social, economic, financial, ecological and environmental considerations. Sustainable infrastructure enhances quality of life for citizens, helps protect vital natural resources and environment, and promotes a more effective and efficient use of financial resources.4 Infrastructure development and financing are an indispensable component of growth for any economy, and are an essential building block for SSA countries to get on the path of sustainable development. However, at present, SSA countries lack adequate and sustainable infrastructure to support increased economic growth. Overall and by all indicators, SSA is the least endowed region of the world in terms of infrastructure, even when compared too low- and middle-income countries in other developing regions. Moreover, private sector investments in SSA infrastructure remain among the lowest in the world. This is due to a number of contributing factors, including small country size that affects economies of scale and service delivery costs; low incomes that constrain affordability; weak institutions; underdeveloped domestic capital markets resulting in lack of locally-denominated long term capital; and relatively poor business environments. Closing SSA’s infrastructure gap would thus require a multi-track approach to increase all forms of public and private investments and leverage a variety of financial instruments, including guarantees.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Economic Growth, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Author: Jamal Saghir, Hans Hoogeveen
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) agriculture is a dominant sector in the economies of most countries accounting for between 30 to 40 percent of gross domestic product, and the sector is a leading source of jobs for over two-thirds of Africa’s population. And yet, though it has the potential to be an agricultural power, a combination of low productivity and an inadequate policy framework make SSA the world’s most food-insecure region. Over the last 40 years it has also been steadily losing its share of the global agricultural market. With less than 10% of SSA’s population, Thailand exports more food products than all SSA countries combined, and Brazil’s food exports are now 150% higher than those of SSA, although levels were similar in the 1980s. The “Green Revolution” that transformed tropical agriculture in Asia and Latin America largely bypassed Africa, with total factor productivity growth in agriculture lagging behind that of other regions in the world (Evenson and Gollin 2003) 1 . Two main factors are responsible. First, little land on the continent is irrigated. Only two percent of Africa’s renewable water resources are used, compared to a global average of five percent. Of the 183 million hectares of cultivated land in SSA, 95 percent is rain-fed and less than 5 percent benefits from some sort of agricultural water management practice—by far the lowest irrigation development rate of any region in the world. Moreover, of the 7.1 million hectares equipped with irrigation equipment, only 5.3 million are currently operational. Second, modern inputs and technological processes are grossly underutilized. Africa has, by far, the lowest rate of improved seed and fertilizer use of any region— a rate that has remained virtually constant for the last 40 years—and the lowest level of mechanization in the world. In consequence, African farmers have the lowest farm productivity; their grain yields only one-half of those achieved by Asian or Latin American farmers.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Poverty, Economy
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Maxime Honigmann
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Global-local power dynamics are often framed with the phrase: “all geopolitics is local.” This adage references the convergence of global forces at the local level, presenting small communities with complex ranges of globalization-produced challenges. As more and more of these forces intersect and interact, local politics has gradually become more complex, with previously reliable patterns of demographics, environment, and economics fundamentally disrupted. From the elimination of traditional sources of livelihood to the introduction of revolutionary information technologies, local leaders everywhere have had to “sink or swim” – by either depending passively on the status quo, or taking an active, adaptive approach to confronting present and future challenges. The latter approach, while certainly requiring more investment from all actors involved, holds the key to a community’s empowerment, legitimacy, and ultimately, survival. It must be noted that communities do not always act benevolently, and their boundaries are not always clear – as Robert argues, “community is fundamentally contested ground” and exclusionary practices can be readily observed (Chaskin 2008, 73). Nevertheless, as a localized form of social organization, community governance systems are best-placed to uphold and adapt the principles of resilience to sustainably maintain the wellbeing of their populations. Resilience measures will remain at a significant disadvantage if they do not take into account input from the local communities they are addressed to. Community members know their area’s needs, offer unique streams of innovation, possess legitimacy in the discursive process, and can build and leverage beneficial social support systems intrinsic to their community. The end benefits are clear: countless studies have found flexible, nuanced, and locally-adapted resilience strategies to be most effective (cite sources here).
  • Topic: Development, Power Politics, Geopolitics, Resilience
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Lauren Konken, Geneva List
  • Publication Date: 01-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: How can strategic partnerships shape the lives and economic opportunities of communities surrounding large-scale mining operations? The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Anglo American PLC, and TechnoServe have pioneered a pilot partnership to implement a regional development plan that leverages the resources and skills of each contributing partner. The project, Beyond Extraction: Economic Opportunities in Communities Hosting Mining Operations, develops a flexible multifaceted program based on three pillars – local procurement, workforce development, and local government capacity building. From this systemic approach, onthe-ground operations will be tailored to the needs of local municipalities surrounding select Anglo American mining operations in each participating country. Each initiative builds on nearly a decade of program conceptualization and implementation through a pre-existing partnership between Anglo American and TechnoServe, combining lessons learned and resources from four enterprise development programs that have been executed collaboratively since 2006. Overall this new strategic partnership serves to elevate and expand Anglo American’s core business practices with the goal of developing local mining communities in ways that ensure sustainability and productivity beyond the lifespan of their mining operations in the region. In this case study we discuss the development of this strategic partnership as well as the challenges it has faced prior to its approval by the IDB in the summer of 2016. Within the context of global mining operations and the subnational regions in which it plans to operate, we analyze how the program goes beyond corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a public private partnership for development (PPPD). As the IDB develops an agenda for work within the extractives sector, this pilot builds on major corporate-bank partnerships surrounding large scale mining operations with a regional focus. The project serves as a precedent and key learning exercise from a multinational perspective for all partners involved as to the challenges and opportunities of strategic partnerships in the extractive sector.
  • Topic: Development, Natural Resources, Mining, Banking
  • Political Geography: South America, North America, Global Focus
  • Author: Shashank Aeri, Trevor N. May
  • Publication Date: 01-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
  • Abstract: Launched in 2013, the “4e Camino al Progreso” program is an Inter-American Development Bank/Multilateral Investment Fund-sponsored social investment project led by SABMiller and implemented by the executing agency FUNDES in six Latin American countries. Capitalizing on the opportunities inherent in the brewer’s value chain, the initiative provides business and leadership consulting to small retailers, known as tenderos, in impoverished neighbourhoods. The project aims to improve the profitability and sustainability of the stores, or tiendas, allowing their proprietors to achieve a better quality of life and contribute more time and resources to improving their communities. Empowering these retailers to become better business operators ultimately strengthens SABMiller and other companies’ distribution network, creating benefits for the local and regional economy. The case presents a promising model for similar corporate-social partnerships and contains innovative examples of how the private sector can contribute to substantive development initiatives. Given the partnership’s variegated players and contacts, the case highlights stakeholder relations strategies and challenges. The project’s design also demonstrates scalability and sustainability potential, although the ultimate success of these ambitions will depend on strategic decision-making and managing SABMiller’s evolution as it merges with Anheuser Busch InBev, the world’s largest brewer. 1 While its ultimate results remain to be seen, this project raises three main lessons given its progress to date: first, sometimes even the most obvious solutions, such as using technology, do not come with an equally straightforward technique for adoption and implementation; second, reconceptualising the bottom of the pyramid as an engine of growth in the value chain, rather than simply a group of undervalued consumers; and third, understanding how productivity and efficiency contribute to sustainability, which may be undermined if this relationship is not recognized.
  • Topic: Development, Business , Investment, Private Sector
  • Political Geography: Global Focus