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  • Author: Gül ARIKAN AKDAĞ
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: Since its first incumbency after the 2002 general elections Turkish politics has witnessed considerable changes in the policies of the AKP in economic and political realms. Academics have tried to understand the nature and possible causes of these policy changes mostly focusing on the electoral concerns. This study provides a different dimension to the debate by focusing on the party organization as a possible dynamic preventing / enabling this kind of a policy change. As such, it relates the policy changes of the AKP to the changes in the inner structure of the party organization. This kind of change is tracked through the analysis of the social and political backgrounds of the members of the party's main decision organ-the Central Decision and Administrative Committee.
  • Topic: Elections, Democracy, Political structure, State Building
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia, Ankara
  • Author: Robert Pearson
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: American Diplomacy
  • Institution: American Diplomacy
  • Abstract: “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” This famous opening line from Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina is important also for democracies. While Turkey and Venezuela are each unhappy in their own way, they also may share some common elements in their struggles for democracy that provide lessons.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Authoritarianism, Elections, Democracy, Economy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, South America, Venezuela, United States of America
  • Author: Margo Berends
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: American Diplomacy
  • Institution: American Diplomacy
  • Abstract: Although Aleppo is now under the control of forces supporting the Syrian government and the city has been evacuated, it is but one city and the Syrian crisis is far from over. Millions have been displaced by the violence, either within Syria or across its borders, and the refugee crisis reverberates across the Middle East, Europe and beyond. While there has been much discussion of the refugee crisis, there has been limited coverage in mainstream American media of the needs of refugees and displaced people beyond the basics.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Humanitarian Aid, Non-Governmental Organization, Refugee Issues, Women, Displacement, Public Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Jordan, United States of America
  • Author: Fatih Mehmet Sayin, Murat Doğan
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Georgia and Turkey have become important partners in the Caucasus region after the independence of Georgia in 1991. Two countries preferred to follow pro-West policies in their foreign policy against the Russian factor. They have geopolitical importance and geostrategic location for Russia throughout history. This article analyzes the foreign policies of Georgia and Turkey and examines the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline as a common foreign policy between them. The paper found out that this kind of project between Georgia and Turkey would make them important actors rising from the regional level to the global level in the future.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Oil, History, Bilateral Relations, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey, Caucasus, Georgia, Mediterranean
  • Author: Nikola Gjorshoski
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: Modern constitutional and political concepts, in a broad sense, represent an expressed codification of the elements of value that structure the relevant society or the particular group that tries to project or channel them through the existing order. The secularism vs. Islamism dichotomy is a part of such a conceptual framework. The author elaborates and compares both ultimate constitutional and political designs, specifying them through the example of Turkey and Iran, as well as to shows the basic characteristics through the prism of their political legitimacy, the organization of power, the human rights and freedoms, as well as the possibility of political activism. The thesis that the author notes develop in the direction of a warning that the extremes contained in the constitutional provisions in the vividly ideologically divided societies can be a source of conflict and/or can generate instability or suffocation of the pluralism in the political arena.
  • Topic: Islam, Politics, Constitution, Islamism, Secularism
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Haluk Alkan
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Istanbul Journal of Economics
  • Institution: Istanbul University Faculty of Economics
  • Abstract: Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi is an open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal published two times a year in June and December. It has been an official publication of Istanbul University Faculty of Economics since 1939. The manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal must be scientific and original work in Turkish or English. Being one of the earliest peer-reviewed academic journals in Turkey in the area of economics, Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi aims to provide a forum for exploring issues in basicly economics and publish both disciplinary and multidisciplinary articles. Economics is the main scope of the journal. However, multidisciplinary and comparative approaches are encouraged as well and articles from various social science areas such as sociology of economics, history, social policy, international relations, financial studies are welcomed in this regard. The target group of the journal consists of academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.
  • Topic: Economics, International Political Economy, Political Science, Tax Systems
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Haluk Alkan
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Istanbul Journal of Economics
  • Institution: Istanbul University Faculty of Economics
  • Abstract: Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi is an open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal published two times a year in June and December. It has been an official publication of Istanbul University Faculty of Economics since 1939. The manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal must be scientific and original work in Turkish or English. Being one of the earliest peer-reviewed academic journals in Turkey in the area of economics, Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi aims to provide a forum for exploring issues in basicly economics and publish both disciplinary and multidisciplinary articles. Economics is the main scope of the journal. However, multidisciplinary and comparative approaches are encouraged as well and articles from various social science areas such as sociology of economics, history, social policy, international relations, financial studies are welcomed in this regard. The target group of the journal consists of academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.
  • Topic: Economics, International Political Economy, Markets, Political Science, Capital
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Bénédicte Florin
  • Publication Date: 03-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: This paper is based on interviews held with Istanbul waste collectors who cross the city to collect recyclable waste. Bound in some sense to garbage, these waste collectors are cast to the edges of the city and to the margins of society. Their working and living spaces are both degraded and threatened by encroaching urban renovation projects and real-estate developments; associated waste-management reforms do not recognize the work of waste collectors as legitimate and therefore exclude these “poor”, “dirty, and “archaic” waste collectors. Through an analysis of small and discrete practices of resistance of waste collectors, namely by continuing to collect waste despite its illegal status as well as through mobilization efforts to become organized as “waste workers”, this article argues that far from being passive, these waste collectors resist against exclusion and elaborate a justificatory discourse to defend their role in society.
  • Topic: Class, Sanitation, Cities, Waste, Resistance
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Istanbul
  • Author: Ross Wilson
  • Publication Date: 03-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Ambassador's Review
  • Institution: Council of American Ambassadors
  • Abstract: Turkey has recently come to look like a beat-up boy. At home, it seems to have regained the authoritarianism of its past. Abroad, its behavior looks rough edged and militaristic. It gets blamed for not doing enough, or the right things, on Syria, the problem of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and Europe’s migrant crisis. Some have concluded that this country, its regional policies in tatters and under the assault of an autocratic president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, can no longer be regarded as an ally. Much of the criticism is on target, some less so. Real issues exist in Turkey and in the relationships that the United States and European countries have with it. At a tough time for the region, concerted and effective strategies to protect the interests the United States and its allies have in and with this key European and Middle Eastern country are more important than ever.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Authoritarianism, European Union
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia
  • Author: H. Akin Unver
  • Publication Date: 05-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of International Affairs
  • Institution: School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
  • Abstract: As the Middle East goes through one of its most historic, yet painful episodes, the fate of the region’s Kurds have drawn substantial interest. Transnational Kurdish awakening—both political and armed—has attracted unprecedented global interest as individual Kurdish minorities across four countries, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria, have begun to shake their respective political status quo in various ways. It is in Syria that the Kurds have made perhaps their largest impact, largely owing to the intensification of the civil war and the breakdown of state authority along Kurdish-dominated northern borderlands. However, in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran too, Kurds are searching for a new status quo, using multiple and sometimes mutually defeating methods. This article looks at the future of the Kurds in the Middle East through a geopolitical approach. It begins with an exposition of the Kurds’ geographical history and politics, emphasizing the natural anchor provided by the Taurus and Zagros mountains. That anchor, history tells us, has both rendered the Kurds extremely resilient to systemic changes to larger states in their environment, and also provided hindrance to the materialization of a unified Kurdish political will. Then, the article assesses the theoretical relationship between weak states and strong non-states, and examines why the weakening of state authority in Syria has created a spillover effect on all Kurds in its neighborhood. In addition to discussing classical geopolitics, the article also reflects upon demography, tribalism, Islam, and socialism as additional variables that add and expand the debate of Kurdish geopolitics. The article also takes a big-data approach to Kurdish geopolitics by introducing a new geopolitical research methodology, using large-volume and rapid-processed entity extraction and recognition algorithms to convert data into heat maps that reveal the general pattern of Kurdish geopolitics in transition across four host countries.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Geopolitics, Borders, Translation
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Kurdistan
  • Author: Çağlar Yurtseven
  • Publication Date: 01-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Rest: Journal of Politics and Development
  • Institution: Centre for Strategic Research and Analysis (CESRAN)
  • Abstract: The paper estimates dishwasher demand and supply in Turkey. The constructed Stackelberg type oligopolistic competition, with its strong testable implications is demonstrated to be consistent with a stable market composed of a leader firm and followers. The paper has an important contribution to demand estimation literature as well. The complaint calls rate for a product is offered and shown to be a valid proxy to help the problem of omitted variable bias due to the unobserved characteristics as perceived quality or after sale service quality. Elasticities calculated for each demand determinant can help durable good firms in emerging countries to use their investment and marketing resources more efficiently.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Demand, Supply , Consumerism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Rahman Dag
  • Publication Date: 07-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Rest: Journal of Politics and Development
  • Institution: Centre for Strategic Research and Analysis (CESRAN)
  • Abstract: Civil-military relationship is generally examined through the use of an institutional approach or theories (concordance) that emphasise the salience of power struggles and social cohesion. These contributions are important but often exclude the role of contesting ideologies. To address this gap, this paper takes an ideological approach to address civil-military relations in Turkey. The analyses commence with the military reforms of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century and the Republican period. The paper argues that modernization projects of the Empire paved the way for military superiority which turned into being saviour and founders of the Republic. It then moves to consider the ideological parameters that coloured the military establishment, arguing that the target of modernization was itself systemized and internalized into Kemalist ideology and the duty to preserve this remains inculcated in the contemporary military establishment.
  • Topic: Military Strategy, Military Affairs, Coup, Civil-Military Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Onder Canveren
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Turkish Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: International and regional organizations can act as persuasive actors with re- gard to minority rights in a given country by raising awareness, putting the issue on agenda, and endorsing a new platform in a country which may lead to a policy change. Despite the general observation that Turkey’s Europeanizati- on process has had limited impact on the minority issues in Turkey, there are numerous examples that the European Union (EU) has played a constructive role in improving of rights and fundamental freedoms for the Kurdish populace living in Turkey. The Law on Compensation for Damage Arising from Terror passed in 2004 is a case worth addressing in order to ascertain both the symbo- lic and discursive policy change. The aim of this article is to explain how the EU used democratic tools to promote change in Turkey’s political structure for the displaced Kurds. The Europeanization of Turkey, based on specific con- ditionality, is taken as primarily responsible for granted for the shift and the policy change. In this policy-oriented case study, hypotheses from Rationalist and Constructivist Approaches in Europeanization literature are investigated to explain the causes and constitutive relations of the policy shift from repudiate to compensation.
  • Topic: Migration, Regional Cooperation, Minorities, European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Erdem Cam
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada işyerinde sosyal diyaloğu sağlamada önemli görevleri olan işyeri sendika temsilcilerinin sorunları araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren iki konfederasyona üye olan sendikalardaki işyeri sendika temsilcileri ile 2012-2017 yılları arasında odak grup mülakat ve derinlemesine mülakat yapılmıştır. Çok farklı işkollarından olan bu temsilcilerin belirtmiş oldukları sorunlar, temsilcilerin işyerinde ortaya çıkan sorunları nasıl çözdükleri hakkında ipuçları vermektedir. Çalışmada temsilcilerin davranışları kuramsal olarak iki ana başlık altında incelenmiştir. Bu başlıklar çatışmacı yaklaşım çerçevesinde işçilerin hakları için mücadele eden temsilciler ile yapısalcı kuram başlığı altında işverenle uzlaşan ve diyaloğu esas alan temsilcilerdir. Bu çalışmanın bulguları sayesinde Türkiye için işyerinde demokratik çalışma ortamının daha iyi nasıl kurulabileceği ve sendikal kararların tabandan karar alıcılara doğru nasıl etki edebileceği yönünde öneriler yapılabilir. | In this study, the problems of union stewards who have important roles in ensuring social dialogue in the workplace were investigated. For this purpose, focus group and in-depth interviews were conducted with workplace union stewards who are the representatives of two labour confederations in Turkey between 2012 and 2017. The problems expressed by these union stewards from many different branches of activity have been given some clues about how the union stewards sort out the problems that arise in the workplace. The behaviours of the workplace union stewards were theoretically examined under two main approaches in this study. These are the representatives who struggle for the rights of workers within the framework of the confrontational approach and representatives who compromise with the employer under the structuralist theory and take dialogue as basis. Thanks to findings of this study, suggestions can be made that how to establish a democratic working environment in the workplace and how trade union decisions can create an impact from shop floor to decision makers in Turkey.
  • Topic: Labor Issues, Democracy, Unions
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Semanur Yılmaz
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Ülkemizde sivil toplum kuruluşları niceliksel olarak her geçen gün artış gösterse de niteliksel anlamda gelişim aynı paralellikte artmamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Mor Çatı Vakfı’nı çağdaş sivil toplum anlayışı ilkeleri çerçevesinde değerlendirmektir. Araştırma kapsamında Haziran 2019’da yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu yaklaşımıyla bir Mor Çatı gönüllüsüyle ve ardından Temmuz 2020’de 3 Mor Çatı gönüllüsüyle bir uzaktan görüşme programı aracılığıyla odak grup görüşmesi yapılmıştır. Görüşme metinleri incelendiğinde bulgular 3 başlık altında sınıflandırılmıştır: Vakfın kuruluşu, amacı ve örgütlenme biçimi. Bulgulara göre Mor Çatı, hukuki ilkeler çerçevesinde özerk halde örgütlenen, meşru bir kuruluştur. Kâr amacı güden bir kuruluş değildir ve kamu yararına olacak çalışmalarda bulunmaktadır. Karar alma ve uygulama noktasında iç işleyişinde bağımsızdır. Hedefleri doğrultusunda ülkenin yasama ve yürütme araçlarını etkileyerek politika üretme noktasında başarılıdır. Faaliyetlerini yürütürken şiddet ve zor kullanmama ilkesi ile hareket etmektedir. Kurum hakkında bilgi almak isteyen bireylere karşı şeffaf davranmaktadır. Toplumsal farklılıklara ve çeşitliliğe karşı hoş görülüdür. Kamuoyu oluşturabilmektedir ancak köklü bir geçmişe sahip bir örgütlenme için aktif gönüllü sayısı azdır.
  • Topic: Civil Society, NGOs
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: David J. Bercuson, Julian Lindley-French, Alan Stephenson, Neil Desai, John Adams, Charity Weeden, Elinor Sloan, Mike Day, Stephen M. Saideman, Kyle Matthews, David McLaughlin
  • Publication Date: 09-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Global Exchange
  • Institution: Canadian Global Affairs Institute (CGAI)
  • Abstract: The Dispatch (later called The Global Exchange) is the Canadian Global Affairs Institute’s quarterly magazine featuring topical articles written by our fellows and other contributing experts. Each issue contains approximately a dozen articles exploring political and strategic challenges in international affairs and Canadian foreign and defence policy. This Fall 2016 issue includes articles on climate change, digital security, Brexit and more.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Climate Change, Diplomacy, Cybersecurity, Brexit, Military Spending, Alliance, Space
  • Political Geography: Britain, Turkey, Canada, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Hussain hajj
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: This article aims to present some notes and findings about the fieldwork that I conducted in Istanbul with Syrian musicians in 2015. The main questions of the research were the identity of the Syrian musicians and the status of Syrian music and musicians in Istanbul. In this article I will first present some details about the musical institutions in Syria and the problems related to “being a musician” and studying music in the era of Al-Baath party ruling. I will add some notes about the Kurdish musicians in Syria. The second section is about Syrian musicians in Istanbul. I will discuss how far they can communicate among each other and with musicians from Turkey, and what are the messages that they try to spread through their music. For this aim, I analyze some musical activities that took place in Istanbul, such as the concerts of the Syrian community, as well as the relationship with the Turkish music of the Syrian alternative media in Turkey. Then, I discuss whether Turkey is seen as a temporary or permanent station by Syrian musicians. Lastly, I will analyze two musical activities and their repertoire that took place in two different stages to show the diversity of Syrian community in Istanbul. Keywords: Syrian refugees, ethnomusicology, musicians, cultural diversit
  • Topic: Diaspora, Culture, Refugees, Music
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Istanbul
  • Author: Selin Altunkaynak
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: Turkey undertakes an important role in responding to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by hosting the largest number of refugee population around the world through opening its borders to Syrian refugees subsequent to the conflict in Syria after 2011. Turkey has been managing the refugee phenomenon at the beginning with a discourse of 'guest'. The temporary protection regime for Syrian refugees in Turkey ratified in October 2014 on the one hand, and the discourse of 'guest' on the other, constitute significant basis to the sociological aspect of the matter at hand. By nature, the terms 'host' and 'guest' imply an element of temporariness. Against this backdrop, there is a pressing need to focus on the fact that over 2.5 million refugees settled in the urban areas will not be returning shortly to their country of origin even if the war is over now. This study, based on gendered perspective, aims to explore the factors determining the perception of the insider for the outsider and vice versa within the scope of Simmel's 'stranger' typology. Following Simmel's definition of the stranger, in this article I consider Syrian refugees as people who comes today and stays tomorrow. The methodology of this study is based on in-depth interviews with refugee women from Syria and native women in Turkey as well as focus group meetings in Hatay and Gaziantep provinces, conducted in the framework of my PhD thesis.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Migration, United Nations, Refugees
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Syria
  • Author: Sophie Kloss
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: Host societies typically draw boundaries towards immigrants on the basis of specific axes of diversity that are important to their self-understanding. This article analyzes Turkey's self-definition and resulting treatment of immigrants in the context of the current refugee influx by evaluating choices and justifications of political decision-makers. It argues that the highlighting of religious brotherhood towards Syrian refugees and the use of religious arguments to justify hospitality point to a recurrence of religion as key variable of identification in Turkish society and provides evidence for a neo-Ottoman turn. Also, it suggests that Syrian refugees in Turkey are mainly treated as temporary guests who are tolerated, rather than seen as permanent members of society. therebye, Turkey highlights a boundary towards outsiders and protects a homogenous core, thus employing aspects of an assimilationist mode of immigrant incorporation. Overall, this research outlines how the underlying self-image can find relevance in political decision-making such as the treatment of immigrants and thus sheds light on how boundaries and social categories are created and dissolved. It furthermore provides an indication of the state of contemporary Turkish society, which constitutes a foundation for future assessment on the direction it might be heading. this research outlines how the underlying self-image can find relevance in political decision-making such as the treatment of immigrants and thus sheds light on how boundaries and social categories are created and dissolved. It furthermore provides an indication of the state of contemporary Turkish society, which constitutes a foundation for future assessment on the direction it might be heading. this research outlines how the underlying self-image can find relevance in political decision-making such as the treatment of immigrants and thus sheds light on how boundaries and social categories are created and dissolved. It furthermore provides an indication of the state of contemporary Turkish society, which constitutes a foundation for future assessment on the direction it might be heading.
  • Topic: Migration, United Nations, Refugees, Diversity
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Asia, Syria, Ankara
  • Author: Roger L. Jennings
  • Publication Date: 04-2016
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: American Diplomacy
  • Institution: American Diplomacy
  • Abstract: Currently the Greek and Turkish Cypriots are negotiating a unification of the two populations on the island of Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriots are very optimistic an agreement will be reached, but Greek Cypriot President Anastasiades counsels caution. When the world understands the history of Cyprus, the Greeks and the Turks, then people will understand why the negotiations as they are currently being conducted will fail. Ultimately, Turkey and its client the Turkish Cypriots will lose patience with the Greek Cypriot method of negotiation, and north Cyprus will become a province of the Republic of Turkey. The Greek Cypriots will not like a large influx of Turks to this new Turkish province. A successful conclusion to the negotiations is within the control of the Turkish Cypriots, but their leaders do not comprehend their potential and are not interested in advice. The current political administration of north Cyprus is following the same course as the failed prior political administrations.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Sovereignty, History, Territorial Disputes, Negotiation
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Mediterranean