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  • Author: Jumoke Adegbonmire
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Review of Human Rights
  • Institution: Society of Social Science Academics (SSSA)
  • Abstract: State responsibility is a cardinal principle of international law. The doctrine of State sovereignty under international law accords States’ legal personality and requires that they fulfill international obligations. International law imposes obligations on States to perform their duties in ensuring that a breach of international law does not go unpunished. Consequences for such actions means that States need to adhere to procedural and substantive law in addition to offering reparation for the violation of an international obligation. In the past, violation of an international obligation was only attributed to States as they were considered to be the only entity that could possess rights and duties within the international sphere. Therefore States were considered to be the only ones that could be criminally liable for acts that could be attributed to them. But the development in human rights law and the advent of rules governing personal criminal responsibility has extended the scope of international obligations under international law to include States and individuals as being liable for international crimes. The international law disallows immunity from prosecution in foreign domestic courts for the most serious crimes: Re-Pinochet case. This means State responsibility and individual responsibility for wrongful acts are not mutually exclusive.
  • Topic: Crime, Human Rights, International Law, Torture, Extradition
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Saudi Arabia
  • Author: Nurlana Muzaffar Aliyeva
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Nowa Polityka Wschodnia
  • Institution: Faculty of Political Science and International Studies, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
  • Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problems of new Azerbaijani prose. Author analyzed problems of new Azerbaijani prose in the context of all Turkish literature. The features of Azerbaijani literature of XVII–XIX century are investigated through some of factors which touch nationality, religious, modernity. Examples of Azerbaijani writers’ works of art are given in the article. The human conception is more criticized in works of writers.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Religion, Arts, Culture, Literature, Modernity
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Azerbaijan
  • Author: Haluk Alkan
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Istanbul Journal of Economics
  • Institution: Istanbul University Faculty of Economics
  • Abstract: Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi is an open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal published two times a year in June and December. It has been an official publication of Istanbul University Faculty of Economics since 1939. The manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal must be scientific and original work in Turkish or English. Being one of the earliest peer-reviewed academic journals in Turkey in the area of economics, Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi aims to provide a forum for exploring issues in basicly economics and publish both disciplinary and multidisciplinary articles. Economics is the main scope of the journal. However, multidisciplinary and comparative approaches are encouraged as well and articles from various social science areas such as sociology of economics, history, social policy, international relations, financial studies are welcomed in this regard. The target group of the journal consists of academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.
  • Topic: Economics, International Political Economy, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth, Political Science, Banking
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Haluk Alkan
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Istanbul Journal of Economics
  • Institution: Istanbul University Faculty of Economics
  • Abstract: Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi is an open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal published two times a year in June and December. It has been an official publication of Istanbul University Faculty of Economics since 1939. The manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal must be scientific and original work in Turkish or English. Being one of the earliest peer-reviewed academic journals in Turkey in the area of economics, Istanbul Journal of Economics-İstanbul İktisat Dergisi aims to provide a forum for exploring issues in basicly economics and publish both disciplinary and multidisciplinary articles. Economics is the main scope of the journal. However, multidisciplinary and comparative approaches are encouraged as well and articles from various social science areas such as sociology of economics, history, social policy, international relations, financial studies are welcomed in this regard. The target group of the journal consists of academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Ersel Aydinli, Mustafa Aydin, Andrey Makarychev, Karen Smith, Ramazan Gözen, Pinar Ipek, Deniz Kuru, Haluk Özdemir, Chih-yu Shih, Siddharth Mallavarapu, Ching-Chang Chen, Seçkin Köstem, Eyüp Ersoy, Knud Erik Jörgensen, Berk Esen
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace
  • Institution: Center for Foreign Policy and Peace Research
  • Abstract: 2nd All Azimuth Workshop on Widening the World of IR Theorizing 23-24 September 2016, Ankara
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, Conference
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Ilter Turan
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace
  • Institution: Center for Foreign Policy and Peace Research
  • Abstract: There are certainly grounds for optimism when it comes to progress in Turkish international relations (IR). Turkish academia has come a long way since the 1960s. The rapid expansion of IR study in Turkish academia can be attributed to the expansion in the Turkish educational system, especially after 1980, and the rising importance of international relations through globalization. Turkish society has very large potential for future work in IR, with many highly qualified scholars. Compared to a few decades ago, more IR articles are being authored by Turkish scholars, both abroad and in Turkey. The question now is how Turkish scholars can become an even stronger voice in the international academic community. In this paper, I suggest better collaboration with government and universities to develop better PhD programs, participate in PhD consortiums and establish stronger links with the international community.
  • Topic: International Relations, Science and Technology, Academia
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Cenker Korhan Demir, Engin Avcı
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace
  • Institution: Center for Foreign Policy and Peace Research
  • Abstract: This article aims to determine the academic disciplinary condition of Turkish terrorism studies in comparison to international ones. We first examine contemporary international terrorism studies and new trends, and then longitudinally assess Turkish terrorism studies via context and methodology. Last, we discuss how and through which perspectives the Turkish discipline could improve and thus contribute to the contemporary literature. We generated three datasets after examining theses, dissertations, and articles. Further, we conducted interviews with and administered questionnaires to terrorism experts to interpret the dataset findings. Regarding context, the most striking point of the Turkish research field is its multi-disciplinary character; because of this fact, Turkish terrorism studies tend to neglect the broader field’s terminology and theoretical accumulation. Regarding methodology, a significant problem in the terrorism studies in Turkey is that studies are mostly composed of literature reviews rather than empirical research, thus there is much opportunity for development.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Academia, Methods
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, has become the latest victim of the Turkish government’s crackdown on press freedoms. Turkey’s Information Technologies and Communications Authority (BTK) did not give an explanation for last week’s ban. But the blocking of Wikipedia came as little surprise in Turkey, whose citizens have experienced sporadic blackouts of social media sites since May 2013.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Internet, Social Media, Freedom of Expression, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, Seamus Hughes, Andrew Zammit, Ahmet S. Yayla, Matthew Dupee, Daniel H. Heinke
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: CTC Sentinel
  • Institution: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
  • Abstract: In our feature article, Seamus Hughes and Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens focus on the threat to the United States from the Islamic State’s “virtual entrepreneurs” who have been using social media and encryption applications to recruit and correspond with sympathizers in the West, encouraging and directing them to engage in terrorist activity. They find that since 2014, contact with a virtual entrepreneur has been a feature of eight terrorist plots in the United States, involving 13 individuals. In our other cover article, Ahmet Yayla, the former police counterterrorism chief in the Turkish city of Sanliurfa near the Syrian border, outlines how investigations into the New Year’s Eve Reina nightclub attack in Istanbul have made clear the “immense scale of the Islamic State threat to Turkey.” While the attack, remotely steered by Islamic State operatives in Raqqa, was the work of a single gunman, a 50-strong network in Istanbul with access to at least half a million dollars provided logistical support. With the Islamic State declaring all-out war on Turkey, Turkish counterterrorism capacity severely weakened by recent purges, as many as 2,000 Islamic State fighters already on Turkish soil, and the possibility that Islamic State fighters will flood into Turkey as the caliphate crumbles, Yayla warns of severe implications for international security. Daniel Heinke, the director of the state bureau of investigation (LKA) in Bremen, outlines the key findings of an official German study of almost 800 German foreign fighters—the largest such study by a Western government—and the takeaways for smarter counterterrorism. He notes that while the number of Germans traveling to join the Islamic State has slowed to a trickle, there has been a surge in violent Islamist extremism inside the country, creating concern that returning foreign fighters will add “lethal capabilities to an already highly adrenalized Islamist community.” Andrew Zammit outlines how the jihadi threat in Australia has transformed since the Islamic State called for attacks in Western countries. While there has been an increase in attacks and plots in Australia, they have also become less sophisticated and ambitious. Finally, Matthew DuPée examines the growing financial windfall the Afghan Taliban and other jihadi groups are extracting from illegal mining in Afghanistan, which is now providing the Taliban with as much as $300 million in revenue per year.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Terrorism, Taliban, Counter-terrorism, Islamic State, Mining, Jihad, Foreign Fighters
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey, Middle East, Germany, Australia, Syria, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Ioannis Salavrakos
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
  • Institution: Centre for Military, Security and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: The intellectual aspiration of the paper is to cast light on one of the most neglected conflicts in history, that of the Greek-Turkish war of 1919-1922. The paper analyses the Greek defeat pointing out that it was the outcome of the following factors: 1) economic factors, 2) tactical errors at the war theatre, 3) inability to have the support of Great Powers. The paper also highlights the Turkish strengths as opposed to Greek weaknesses
  • Topic: Diplomacy, War, Economy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece, Asia, Mediterranean
  • Author: Murat Ulgul
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Rest: Journal of Politics and Development
  • Institution: Centre for Strategic Research and Analysis (CESRAN)
  • Abstract: For decades, change in Turkish foreign policy has remained as “a neglected phenomenon” in the literature while continuity is explained with two main pillars: Westernization and preference for the status quo. The topic started gaining popularity at the end of 2000s when some conflicts of interest emerged between Turkey and its traditional partners. Scholars mainly explained this change as the result of the new Turkish leadership under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s Justice and Development Party (AKP). While the debate in this period provided extensive literature on the subject, the arguments created could not explain the policy fluctuations during the AKP era. In this article, the change in AKP foreign policy is examined during three time periods that show different characteristics in terms of domestic and international opportunities/constraints. It is argued that while Westernization still remains an important pillar in Turkish foreign policy, the main change seems to be in Turkey’s traditional preference for the status quo.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy, Arab Spring, Civil-Military Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Zeynep Kaplan
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: As an emerging technology field, there is an on-going mo-tivation for analysing the trend of research networks of nanotechnol-ogy. This paper attempts to present the evolution of Turkey in nano-technology research by taking into account the academic publications to indicate the overall trend and the leading actors and subject catego-ries in the systems of nanotechnology innovation. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (i) to present the trend of nanotechnology research and (ii) to highlight Turkey’s collaboration patterns in the relevant re-search sub-fields with the EU member states. In this framework, the study aims to show whether Turkey has the capability to collaborate with the advanced group of countries such as the EU in nanotechnol-ogy and to identify the sub-fields of common interests. Finally, the re-sults of collaboration among two parties will be correlated with the Web of Science subject categories. The findings are expected to be useful for developing the future areas of research in nanotechnology domain in collaboration with the EU.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Science and Technology, European Union, Nanotechnology
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Kenan Göçer, Cem Çetin
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Mülkiye Mektebi’nin maliye hocalarından İbrahim Fazıl Pelin (1886-1944), iktisat ve maliye dersleri vermiş ve bu alanda ders notları dâhil hayli kitap yazmıştır. Çağdaşı Mehmed Cavid Bey ile pek çok ortak noktaya sahip oluşu dikkat çekmektedir. Selaniklidir, iktisatçıdır ve liberal iktisadi görüşlere sahiptir. İstanbul Üniversitesi’nde hocalık yaptığı sırada, Hukuk Mektebi birinci sınıf öğrencileri için hazırlanan İlm-i İktisad Dersleri, 1914 tarihinde kitap olarak yayınlanmıştır. Kitap ile ders notları arası bir yerde duran eserin başlangıç kısımları, iktisadi düşünce tarihine ayrılmıştır. Bugün için bile pek tanınmayan Fransız ve İngiliz iktisatçılara yapılan atıflar ve ayrıntılı bilgilerle zenginleşmiş kitabın akıcı bir üslûba sahip olduğu aşikârdır.
  • Topic: Economics, Education, Science and Technology, History
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: M. Kemal Aydın
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Tarihsel analizler, Türkiye Ekonomisinin en temel sorununun dış açık olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Kalkınma girişimlerini kesintiye uğratan bu sorunu aşmak için 1980’li yılların başında ithal ikameci büyüme modeli terk edilerek ihracata dönük büyüme modeli benimsenmiştir. 1980’li yılların sonuna doğru bu modelin sürdürülebilir olmadığının görülmesi üzerine, 1990’lı yılların başından itibaren yüksek faiz ve düşük kur beklentisine odaklı kısa vadeli sermaye girişlerinin [portföy yatırımları] uyaracağı tüketim talebine dayandırılmış yeni bir büyüme modeli hayata geçirilmiştir. Ne var ki bu model, iktisadi yapının kırılganlığını artırarak 1994, 2000 ve 2001 yıllarında ağır finansal krizler yaşanmasına sebep olmuştur. 2001 Krizi’nin ardından mali disiplin, sıkı para politikası ve bankacılık reformu temelinde kurgulanmış bir program izlenerek yeni bir büyüme dalgası yakalanmıştır. Bu dönemde enflasyonun denetim altına alındığı, bütçeden yapılan faiz ödemelerin azaldığı, devletin borçlanma gereğinin ve toplam borç yükünün hafiflediği görülmektedir. Diğer taraftan 2005’den itibaren doğrudan yatırım girişlerinin keskin bir biçimde artmaya başlaması ile birlikte dış açık’ın finansmanında kısa vadeli sermaye girişlerine duyulan ihtiyaç azalmıştır. Bütün bu gelişmeler sayesinde Türkiye Ekonomisi, 2008’de vuku bulan Küresel Finans Krizi’ni minimum hasar ile atlatmayı başarmıştır. Bu krizin bir sonucu olarak 2008 ve 2009 yıllarında hafif bir sarsıntı geçiren Türkiye Ekonomisi [işsizlik ve dış açık sorunlarını henüz çözememiş olmakla birlikte] 2010’dan itibaren hızlı bir biçimde toparlanmıştır.
  • Topic: Government, Financial Crisis, Budget, Economy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Mehmet Zeki Ak, Veysel Inal
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de terörizm ve doğrudan yabancı yatırım arasındaki ilişkiler eşbütünleşme ve nedensellik testleriyle, 1980-2015 dönemi için incelenmiştir. Seriler arasındaki ilişkiler, mevcut literatür-den farklı olarak önce Hatemi-J ve Irandoust (2012) tarafından geliştirilen, saklı eşbütünleşme yaklaşımıyla incelenmiştir. Bu analiz sonucunda terörizm ve doğrudan yatırımlar arasında eşbütünleşme ilişkisinin olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Daha sonra, seriler arasındaki asimetrik neden-sellik ilişkileri Hatemi-J (2012) yöntemiyle araştırılmıştır. Bu analiz sonucunda ise literatürdeki mevcut çalışmaların bulgularına ters düşecek biçimde terör eylemleri ile ekonomik büyüme arasında herhangi bir nedensellik ilişkisi olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Bütün bu bulgular birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, Türkiye özelinde terörist saldırıların doğrudan yabancı yatırım davranışlarını etkilemediği sonucuna ulaşılmaktadır.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Pavlo Ignatiev
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: AUSTRAL: Brazilian Journal of Strategy International Relations
  • Institution: Postgraduate Program in International Strategic Studies, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Abstract: Iraqis very important for the world community because of its strategic position at the crossroads between the Persian Gulf, theMideteraneanSeaand theRed Seaalong with huge oil and mineral wealth. Moreover, Iraqi case illustrates all aspects of the US Middle Eastern policy since the end of the Cold War. The article analyses political and economic processes in Iraq after the demise of Saddam Hussain’s regime, evaluates the efficiency of post-war reconstruction of this Arab country in security and economic fields, singles out the reasons behind the civil war between Sunni and Shia followers, explains the paradox of semi-independent status of Iraqi Kurdistan as well as foreign policy of official Baghdad towards important neighbours – Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The rise of Islamic State of Iraq andLevantcapitalizing on sectarian devide and an attempt of Iraqi leadership to neutralize this threat also has become the part of analyzis.
  • Topic: Security, Economics, Violent Extremism, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Baghdad, Saudi Arabia, Jordan
  • Author: Muhammad Nadeem Mirza, Lubna Abid Ali, Irfan Hasnain Qaisrani
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study focuses on the growth of transnational forces and increased global interdependence in the Post-Cold War period, posing serious challenges to conservative regimes in the Middle East – manifested by popular uprisings for economic and political change, beginning 2010 in Tunisia. Since then the Arab states of Middle East are in turmoil. The situation has become complex due to the presence of Al-Qaeda network and ISIS (‘Islamic’ State of Iraq and Syria) radicals in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. Such non state extremists groups are a collective threat to future Europe also. On the other hand various countries of the Middle East and gulf region, have been engaged in waging the proxy wars against each other in order to achieve their specific objectives. Geographically, historically and politically Turkey has been a bridge between Middle East and Europe. The underlying assumption of this study establishes Turkey’s matured foreign policy not only as a model for struggling states of the Muslim World but holds keys to emerging threats to Europe. The study explores possibilities of Turkey to be central player not only for the resolution of regional issues but also as an active player at the global level.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, European Union, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Mediterranean
  • Author: Dilek Barlas
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article discusses Turkey’s activities after its membership to the League of Nations in 1932 and especially to the Council in 1934 and its ambivalent position towards to the League. This work is based on the archival documents on Turkey at the League of Nations’ Archives in Switzerland. Even though bulk of documents on Turkey has not been classified yet, collection presently available is sufficient to reflect the ambivalent position of Ankara towards the League in the interwar era. Ankara believed that the League could contribute a great deal to the world peace but at the same time it questioned the implementation of its principles.
  • Topic: International Relations, Diplomacy, History, League of Nations
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Mediterranean
  • Author: Mustafa Uluçakar
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article analyzes Turkish civil-military relations with the help of two different models of civil-military relations (separation and concordance) in order to bring a new perspective to the analysis of civil-military relations. The article begins with a short review of the theoretical framework of the separation and concordance models, followed by a brief history of four military interventions that occurred in Turkey in 1960, 1971, 1980, and 1997. The article will then analyze Turkish civil-military relations through the separation and concordance models in an attempt to decide which model would be more appropriate to explain the Turkish case. It reaches the conclusion that the concordance model is more appropriate than the separation model to serve that purpose. However, the concordance model has some methodological weaknesses, requiring modification in order to properly analyze the case of Turkey.
  • Topic: History, Civil-Military Relations
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Mediterranean
  • Author: Arda Bilgen
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Despite radical changes and transformations at global scale in the past decades, security and development have retained their critical positions in global political agenda with their theoretical and practical dimensions. Over time, two areas have also undergone significant changes and transformations and converged to each other, especially after the emergence of human security and human development. The aim of this study is to broadly describe and discuss how “human” has become the common denominator of security and development and in what ways two areas have been conceptualized under security-development nexus. In this regard, common characteristics of security and development, paradigm shifts in both areas, their convergence process, different ways as to how security-development relationship has been conceptualized, and critiques towards such attempts will be discussed.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Human Security
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus