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  • Author: Ferihan Ayaz, Hatice K. Adıyaman
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Antidepresan kullanımının yararları ya da zararları kamuoyunda tartışıla gelmektedir. Gazetelerdeki antidepresan konulu içeriklerin nasıl sunulduğu, antidepresanlara yönelik tutumlar, antidepresanların neden olduğu ya da tedavi ettiği hastalıklar merak konusudur. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmanın genel amacı antidepresan içerikli yayınların gazetelerde nasıl sunulduğunu ortaya koymaktır. Bu genel amaç doğrultusunda Prnet MSuite Programı aracılığı ile yapılan tarama sonucunda Aralık 2017 itibariyle Türkiye’nin tirajı en yüksek ilk 5 gazetesi olan Sabah, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Posta ve Habertürk gazetelerinde 2015, 2016 ve 2017 yılları arasında içinde “antidepresan” kelimesi geçen toplam 180 içerik, içerik analizi yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda gazetelerin antidepresanlara yönelik tutumunun çoğunlukla nötr ve olumsuz olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. “Antidepresanların başka hasta lıklara neden olması”, antidepresanlara ilişkin risk faktörlerinin ilk sırasında yer almaktadır. Antidepresanlara ilişkin yan etkiler arasında ilk sırada “cinsel problemler” ve “sersemlik / baş dönmesi / uyku hali” gelmektedir. Antidepresan kullanmaya alternatif olarak ilk sırada “toplumsal / ekonomik / siyasi yapının düzelmesi” önerilmiştir. Antidepresanların tedavi ettiği hastalık olarak çoğunlukla depresyona / mutsuzluğa işaret edilmiştir. Ancak kimi zaman antidepresanların tedavi ettiği ve neden olduğu hastalık aynı olabilmektedir. Sonuç olarak gazetelerin genel olarak antidepresanlara olumlu bakış açısının olmadığı, çoğu zaman kafa karıştırıcı bilgilerin verildiği, antidepresanlara ön yargı geliştirebilecek nitelikte içeriklerin var olduğu söylenebilir.
  • Topic: Media, News Analysis, Mental Health, Antidepressants
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Bilge Durutürk
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada feminizmin ve çokkültürlülük ilişkisi üzerine bir inceleme yapılması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu paralelde 1980’li yıllardan beri ortaya konmuş olan ikinci dalga feminizmin parametreleri ve 1990’lar itibari ile toplumsal cinsiyet kavramsallaştırması ve kimlik politikaları paralelinde ele alınan üçüncü dalga feminizmin parametreleri değerlendirilecektir. Bu temel unsurlar üzerinden çokkültürlülük kuramı içerisindeki liberal ve eleştirel yaklaşımların ikinci ve üçüncü dalga feminizm ile kesiştiği problemli durumlar ataerkillik ve kadının özgürleşmesi bağlamında kültürel farklılıkların ortaya koyduğu ırk, cinsiyet ve sınıf temelindeki tartışmalar üzerinden değerlendirilecektir.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, Feminism, Intersectionality, Identity Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Global Focus
  • Author: Erdem Cam, Murat Atan
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Küreselleşen dünyada istihdam, hem ülkeler hem de OECD, Avrupa Birliği gibi ülkeler üstü kurumlar için gündem oluşturan ve önemli hale gelen bir politika alanıdır. Ülkelerin istihdam politikalarının pek çok amacı olabilir. Ancak bunların içinde en temel hedef ülke içinde işsizliği ortadan kaldırmak ya da en düşük oranlarda tutabilmektir. Özellikle işsizlik sorunu, ülke içinde sosyal çöküntüye ve ekonomik açıdan kayıpların oluşmasına neden olmaktadır. Benzer şekilde işsizlik sosyal politika yönünden incelendiğinde toplumda kişilerin yaşam kalitesini azalttığı, toplumsal sorunların arttığı, mutsuzluğun yaygınlaştığı, toplum için telafisi zor olan pek çok toplumsal soruna neden olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Aynı şekilde işsizlik toplumsal zararlarının yanı sıra ekonomik açıdan durgunluğa, işgücünün ve üretimin azalmasına yol açacaktır. Bu nedenle il bazında istihdama yönelik politikalar uygulanması ve işsizlik probleminin çözümüne yönelik politikalar oluşturulması önemlidir. Bu çalışmada 2013 - 2016 yılları arasında il bazında işgücüne katılım oranı, ortalama günlük kazanç ve istihdam oranı değişkenleri çıktı olarak işsizlik oranı ve sosyal güvenlik kapsamındaki aktif çalışanların toplam nüfusa oranı değişkenleri de girdi olarak kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada il bazında uygulanan istihdam politikalarının etkinliği ölçülmüştür. Tüm veriler TÜİK ve SGK veri tabanlarından alınmıştır. Malmquist toplam faktör verimliliği indeksi modelinin çözümünde DEAP 2.1 paket programı ve il bazında sonuçların haritalarının çizilmesi için ArcGIS 10.5 paket programı kullanılmıştır. Bu makalede il ve bölgesel farklılıkların azaltılması için genel politikalar yerine il bazlı politikaların uygulanmasının daha yararlı çıktılar yaratacağı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
  • Topic: Globalization, European Union, Employment, Data
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Şükrü Cicioğlu, Atilla Yıldız
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Ülkelerin gelişmiş veya gelişmekte olmasına bakılmaksızın karşılaştığı sorunların başında ekonomik krizler gelir. Dünya ekonomisinin değişimi ile birlikte ekonomilerin kırılganlıklarının artması sonucu yaşanan krizlerin açıklanması daha da önem kazanmış ve krizlerin tahmin edilebilmesi, politikaların belirlenmesi açısından katkılar sağlar olmuştur. Dünya ekonomisi içinde yakalamış olduğu yüksek büyüme oranları ile önemli bir yeri olan Türkiye ekonomisinde iç ve dış kaynaklı birçok kriz yaşamıştır. Bunun yanında son dönemde faiz ve döviz kurundaki artışlar ekonomide kriz ortamının oluşmaya başladığı yönündeki düşünceleri artırmıştır. Kriz ortamının oluşup oluşmadığının değerlendirilebilmesi ve öngörüde bulunabilmek amacıyla reel göstergelerin değerlendirilmesi önem arz etmektedir. Çalışmada ekonomi üzerinde artan baskının ölçülmesi ve politika uygulayıcılarına yön vermek amacıyla krizleri öngörmek için yapılan çalışmalarda başarılı tahmin gücüne sahip olan Kaminsky, Lizondo ve Reinhart tarafından geliştirilen KLR sinyal yaklaşımı ile reel göstergeler değerlendirilmeye alınmıştır. Türkiye ekonomisinin 1999:01- 2017:12 dönemine ait aylık ve üç aylık verilerden yararlanarak uygulanan analiz sonucunda; kriz dönemi için sinyal verme başarısı açısından cari denge / ulusal rezerv, ithalat ve kapasite kullanım oranı göstergeleri başarılı olmuş ve aynı zamanda kriz olduğunda sinyal verme olasılıkları oldukça iyi değerler almıştır. Sinyal yaklaşımı neticesinde anlamlı sinyal veren göstergeler kullanılarak 2016:01-2017:12 dönemi değerlendirilmesi sonucunda cari denge / ulusal rezerv ve ithalat göstergeleri birer sinyal vererek ekonominin kötüleşme eğilimi içinde olduğunu göstermiştir.
  • Topic: Economics, History, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Ekrem Gül, Ahmet Gökçe Akpolat, Recep Kaya
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: 2008 Küresel finans krizi, kriz literatüründe ölçeğinin büyüklüğü ve küresel boyutta yaptığı etkiden dolayı önemli bir yer arz etmektedir. ABD’de 2008 yılında konut piyasalarında geri dönmeyen kredilerden kaynaklı başlayan finansal kriz başta Avrupa ülkeleri olmak üzere küresel çapta büyük bir yayılım göstermiştir. Bu doğrultuda krizin etkilerini gidermek amacıyla para ve maliye politikaları ülkeler tarafından önemle uygulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada 2008 Küresel finans krizi sonrasında Türkiye’de hükümet tarafından uygulanan maliye politikalarının önemli bir aracı olan kamu gelirleri ile istihdam oranları arasındaki ilişki öncelikle teorik olarak açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Teoriye ilaveten 2006Q1-2016Q4 dönemleri arasında kamu geliri politikalarıyla istihdam oranları arasındaki ilişki Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik testine göre analiz edilmiş ve kriz sonrası uygulanan kamu geliri politikalarından istihdam oranlarına doğru tek yönlü Toda-Yamamoto (1995) Granger nedenselliği tespit edilmiştir.
  • Topic: Financial Crisis, Employment, Economy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Ayla Akdoğan
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Most of the research on one-sided violence focused on factors that have an effect on the targeting of civilians, which were selected on account of the clarity of their definitions, characteristics that can be differentiated from the other factors, the ease with which they can be studied, as well as their recognizability. Some of the factors researched will be briefly discussed and the most important ones, which are central to this study, examined in detail.
  • Topic: Civil War, Conflict, Violence, Civilians
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Ali Evler, Mehmet Topli
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: AUSTRAL: Brazilian Journal of Strategy International Relations
  • Institution: Postgraduate Program in International Strategic Studies, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Abstract: Throughout history there have been opposing forces, one of which is the conflict between ‘West and East’ as Huntington claims. One of the earliest, major competitions, in this matter, has been the one with Ottoman Empire, representing Islam and European countries, followers of Christianity. These forces have been clashing in the form of several means and for reasons to predominate each other if they can achieve it at all. How has such a ‘clash’ begun between civilizations and what is the present status of it between Turkey and Western countries? This study aims at highlighting the background from a historical point of view beginning with the capture of Jerusalem by Ottoman Turks and how Turkish Image is created and portrayed in Early English Plays in relation to the rise and fall of Ottoman Empire as depicted in The Sultan Speaks by Linda McJannet. Since the core of the Ottoman Empire is modern Turkey today, the recent changes in their image on the way to full membership to the EU as well as to ‘interreligious/intercultural dialog’ in an attempt to bring peace to both parties in question for a sustainable and amicable future. It is concluded that there are still concerns between the global signatories. It will take some more time and effort to mature the thinking that they could live harmoniously developing their countries economically and their democracies for a mutual understanding.
  • Topic: Religion, European Union, Conflict, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia, Ottoman Empire
  • Author: Aydan Er
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Warsaw East European Review (WEER)
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: his paper examines the evolution of Iran’s foreign policy towards the three South Caucasian republics since the agreement of the Iran Nuclear Deal on 14 July 2015 be- tween Iran, P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and the European Union (EU) until today. This paper presents a number of key issues – energy, transportation and trade – related to Iran’s policy towards Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Furthermore, it provides consideration of the effects of other international actors such as Rus- sia, Turkey and Israel. The aim of this study is to show the complexity of bilateral relations be- tween the states surrounding the South Caucasus and the impact of their multiple overlapping interests on the whole area.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Diplomacy, Military Strategy, Denuclearization, JCPOA
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, South Caucasus
  • Author: Konrad Zasztowt
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Warsaw East European Review (WEER)
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: urkey is focused on Russia in its policy vis-à-vis the Black Sea region, Cauca- sus, Ukraine, Balkan countries as well as, at least to some extent, Central European countries, including Poland. This priority has its impact on Ankara’s relationship with Eastern and Central European countries, which remain in the shadow of Turkish policy towards Russia. However that negative impact is not powerful enough to spoil Turkey’s cooperation with Eastern and Central European countries. It certainly limits the scope of such partnerships or alliances. Turkey contin- ues to cooperate with the region’s countries, but often rejects their Euro-Atlanticism. In Turkish perception the EU’s enlargement in Central Europe was unjust (as Turkey has been applying much longer for the EU’s membership without any significant progress, whereas post-commu- nist countries were accepted relatively quickly). NATO enlargement in the East in Turkey’s view was always a ‘risky adventure’. At the same time, from Ankara’s point of view the Middle East is strategically more important than Turkish northern neighbourhood. Moreover, Turkey wants to be an equal interlocutor in dialogue with Russia, the U.S. and the EU, whereas it often conceives post-communist and post-Soviet countries merely as a zone of influence for the Kremlin and Washington or their battleground in Cold War 2.0.
  • Topic: NATO, Cold War, Diplomacy, Regional Cooperation, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey, Poland, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Dimitris Keridis
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The migration and refugee crisis that erupted in 2015 landed recession riven Greece with a series of humanitarian, political, social, and financial as well as foreign policy and security challenges. Following a near disastrous open-borders policy steeped in leftist ideological parochialism, Athens aligned itself closely with Germany in support of the EU-Turkey deal that drastically reduced the human flows from Turkey into the EU and invited NATO naval forces to help monitor the implementation of the agreement. This paper is structured around two parts: the first part describes the immigration and refugee crisis itself, from a global, European and national-Greek perspective; the second part analyzes the risks to and policy responses of Greece and how they relate to the country’s overall geostrategic position, at a time when Europe is being redefined as it struggles to respond to a multitude of challenges.
  • Topic: NATO, Economics, Migration, Refugees
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece
  • Author: Burak Özçetin, Banu Baybars-Hawks
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article analyzes the way in which the downing of a Russian aircraft by a Turkish F-16 jet on 24 November 2015 was framed by pro-government (Türkiye, Yeni Akit, Yeni Şafak) and anti-government (Cumhuriyet) newspapers. Framing means selecting some aspects of a perceived reality and making them more salient in a communicating text. News frames give us definitions and identify those responsible for an event; make moral judgements; and propose solutions to problems. The analysis of the news frames utilized by four newspapers underlines the fact that in a polarized media environment news frames are highly politicized and the distinction between news frames and official discourse is frequently blurred.
  • Topic: Media, Syrian War, Crisis Management, Polarization
  • Political Geography: Russia, Eurasia, Turkey, Mediterranean
  • Author: Gencer Özcan
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Justice and Development Party [JDP] governments’ policies towards Israel were informed by the priorities that the party’s power strategies entailed. In a stark contrast to the friendly policies in its first term in power, the JDP began to employ different discursive strategies based on an anti-Israeli rhetoric since 2009. Geared to bolster the party’s prestige at home and abroad, the new rhetoric seemed to have addressed to the changing priorities of the party leadership. However, the new strategies led to the emergence of a widening gap between the anti-Israeli rhetoric and subtle efforts that the JDP paid to maintain its relations with Israel. Revisiting the last 15 years, the article tries to answer the question as to how Turkey’s relations with Israel were adjusted to meet necessities of miscellaneous power strategies that the JDP leadership pursued.
  • Topic: International Relations, Politics, Arab Spring, Political Parties
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Özlem Kayhan Pusane
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Since the 1960s, Turkish policymakers have developed a distant attitude towards the Kurdish movement in Iraq and they have been concerned about the possibility of similar developments taking place in Turkey. However, in the early 1990s, and then from 2007/2008 onwards, Turkey left its distant attitude towards northern Iraq and pursued an active policy developing close relations with the Iraqi Kurds. This paper explores to what extent Turkey’s foreign policy change towards northern Iraq in these two periods constituted leader-driven change and to what extent these changes resulted from structural/environmental factors.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Politics, Kurds, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Turgut Özal
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Galip L. Yalman, Asuman Göksel
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article aims to provide an alternative critical reading of Turkey-European Union (EU) relations, by contending that Turkey’s EU accession process has been instrumental in changing the contours of the transformation of Turkish economy and its governance as part of its neoliberal restructuring. However, the “transformative power” attributed to the EU’s enlargement strategy by the EU Commission has been somewhat debatable since the 2008 global financial crisis as reflected in the slowdown of the accession process. With the rising authoritarian tendencies in its domestic governance, the protracted saga of Turkey’s quest for the EU membership is back to square one, as the proposal for the modernisation of the Customs Union underlines “respect for democracy and fundamental rights” as an indispensable basis for the future of the relations.
  • Topic: Government, History, Bilateral Relations, Authoritarianism, European Union, Neoliberalism, Global Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Mediterranean
  • Author: Zeynep Gonca GİRGİN
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: The category of world music is a new genre-title created by that latest embodiment of globalization, the glocal (global-local) market in the music industry. The increase in the power of the world music market in late 1980's and the popularization of the Romani musician as an identity in that regard plays an important role in the popularization of the 9/8 Romani dance tune both in Turkey and in the Balkans sound. The Gypsy-Romani themed films in the last quarter century by Emir Kusturica and Tony Gatlif, the Gypsy-Romani music festivals held in Europe and North America, and the increase in the Romani instrumentalist and performer productions in the Balkans popular music market; also, the rise in the scientific and artistic interest in the academia show the emphasis on both the distinctive and the European identity of the Gypsies, while supporting the new political economic conditions. This article critically reviews the popularization process of Turkish Roma musicians and musics in the world music industry via correlation with Balkan territories.
  • Topic: Globalization, Culture, Music
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia, Balkans
  • Author: Rakibe Külcür
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: This paper analyses the gendered organisational practices of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) in the United Kingdom (UK) and Turkey and the possible outcomes of these practices on gender compositions in senior roles. Since gender is an important element in organisations, it is expected to have implications for policies of ENGOs. The research on which this paper is based was undertaken as part of a Ph.D. which examined the gendered nature of ENGOs in Turkey and the UK. The research revealed how and why ENGOs are gendered especially in positions of power and influence. This is an important question because of pressure groups’ influence on environmental decision-making, and yet it has largely been neglected until now. This research revealed that while the ENGO sector is dominated by young single middle-class female employees, white, middle class men are in charge of the decision-making. It showed that the ENGOs reflect the rest of the society and its dominant patriarchal values. The research concluded that gender-biased working practices such as culture of long working hours, lack of formal recruitment and promotion procedures and short-term contract work relations limit career progression of women. This is due to the gendered roles and the traditional division of work in society (the gender division of labour), where triple workload of women remains invisible as a result of patriarchal and capitalist relations existing in both societies.
  • Topic: Environment, Gender Issues, Women, Feminism, NGOs
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: H. Işıl Alkan
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternative Politics
  • Institution: Department of International Relations, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
  • Abstract: In line with the recognition of the significance of women in the path to development, various countries have sought to increase female labor market participation over the past decades. While many European countries have been successful, numerous Asian countries have failed. The purpose of this study is to compare the patterns of female employment in three Asian countries since the 1990s including India, South Korea, and Turkey and to discover the main determinants of the issue. Female employment is a multidimensional concept that should be evaluated from cultural, economic and political perspectives. The study thus adopts a broad perspective containing cultural, economic and political factors in different nations.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Culture, Women, Employment, Economic structure, Feminism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, India, Asia, South Korea
  • Publication Date: 08-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Hiperboreea
  • Institution: Balkan History Association
  • Abstract: The representation of emotions in Early Byzantine historical texts is still a field rich in potential for further investigations and interpretations. In this article, we aim to approach just a small section of this, looking at how some specific emotions: fear, love, anger, sorrow and joy, and their particular expressions, appear in Procopius' History of Wars. We look particularly at manifestations of emotions depicted in military and political contexts and ask how and why these fitted with societal norms and expectations, what were the gender specificities, real or imagined, of expressing emotions.
  • Topic: War, History
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Eastern Europe, Greece, Rome
  • Author: W. Robert Pearson
  • Publication Date: 03-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: American Diplomacy
  • Institution: American Diplomacy
  • Abstract: Russia and Turkey are dancing a complicated pas de deux—for separate and common reasons. The happy couple has captivated global attention. There are reasons today to anticipate greater collaboration between Turkey and Russia in Syria and against Europe and the United States. However, there are also significant contradictions that could weaken the prospects of cooperation between the two countries. For gains against Syrian Kurds and to fan nationalist flames domestically, Turkey may be ignoring longer term needs. Russia is the major partner in the arrangement and sees little reason to sacrifice its interests to please Turkey. One day this unequal relationship may cause Turkey to question its value.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, History, Bilateral Relations, Military Intervention
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Dogachan Dagi
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Liberty and International Affairs
  • Institution: Institute for Research and European Studies (IRES)
  • Abstract: The refugee crisis of 2015-2016 revealed the strength of the idea of “national sovereignty” within the Member States of the European Union indicating that not only supra-nationalism is still nascent thinking in the Union but also inter-govermentalism readily transforms into a “self-help” mechanism to opt-out from “common European” destiny in times of crisis. As such it seems that the recent refugee crisis has awakened nationalistic populism in Europe with a disintegrative impact on the Union. Despite the controversial EU-Turkey joint action plan of March 2016 that effectively served to reduce the number of refugees crossing into the EU area the intergovernmental and supranational division on how to reconcile national concerns with that of the EU rules and regulations as well as humanitarian responsibility still persist.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Treaties and Agreements, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Populism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey