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  • Author: Mason Hill
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: This is the third in a three part series on Turkish constitutionalism one year after the 2017 constitutional referendum. the 2017 Constitutional Referendum have only entrenched that reality. Erdogan’s dominance in Turkish politics should not obscure the fact that the individual office holder rather than an ideologically-grounded bloc is now the fulcrum upon which Turkish politics shifts. The Justice and Development Party (AKP) that came to power promising reform, religious pluralism and market-friendly economic policies has become a vehicle for Erdoğan’s personal ambition. After the Gezi Park protests and amid allegations of his son’s corruption, Erdogan became an increasingly polarizing personality in Turkish politics who weighed down the AKP brand in the 2015 parliamentary elections. Yet Erdoğan’s popularity returned during the pivotal moment of the 2016 coup attempt, when he appeared in a live interview with a reporter via Facetime. By the time 2017 referendum campaign, Erdoğan personally rather than AKP parliamentarians was the medium around which responses were polarized. The extension of Erdoğan’s personal control over the levers of power was particularly apparent in the referendum’s changes to the structure of the legislative and judicial branches of the Turkish government, granting legal justification to Erdoğan’s de facto force of personality regime. Developments over the past year have made clear that Turks are increasingly casting votes for and against candidates rather than parties.
  • Topic: Politics, Elections, Constitution, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Coup
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Arega Hovsepyan
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: After the attempted coup d’état of 15 July 2016, discussion inside expert circles about the construction of a “new” Turkey took on a new urgency. The result of the 2017 constitutional referendum remade Turkey’s political institutions, but the events of the 2016 coup attempt also catalyzed changes to the symbolism of the state. The ruling Justice and Development Party, whose slogans had long promised “a new Turkey,” was at the forefront of the surge in hardened messaging. The cornerstone of this “new Turkey” is а classical concentration of political power in the hands of one person, specifically President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Kemalism, Turkey’s founding ideology, is in the process of being replaced by the new ideology of the new president. Although it is still early to characterise this new ideology in Turkey as “Erdoğanism”, the similarities and contradictions of Kemalism and Erdoğanism lend insight on the structure of Turkish politics. The era of Erdoğan has been unleashed in Turkey, and moreover, its eponym is eager to not only replace the personality cult of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, but also to surpass the historic founder’s titanic image.
  • Topic: Politics, History, Authoritarianism, Ideology, Coup
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Deniz Çıtak
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: On January 20, 2018 at 17:00 local time, the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) entered Afrin, a city in northern Syria. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan named the military operation “Operation Olive Branch” (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) for the region’s many olive trees. According to Turkey, the operation does not violate international law because the operation was against the PYD and YPG as an act of self-defense, aiming to guarantee the security of Turkey’s borders. For Turkey, the links between the PKK and Syrian Kurdish groups classify Kurdish activity in northern Syria as a threat to Turkey’s domestic security.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Military Intervention, Conflict, Syrian War, Kurds
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Adham Sahloul
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: The murder of Saudi Arabian columnist Jamal Khashoggi on October 2nd in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul has been a clarion call for the Washington foreign policy community, one that is redefining the United States’ relations with the Saudi Kingdom and, by extension, US strategy in the Middle East. The Khashoggi affair will outlive President Donald Trump; the reputation of Saudi’s leadership is beyond repair, and with Global Magnitsky sanctions and the newly proposed bipartisan Saudi Arabia Accountability and Yemen Act, the US Congress appears ready to act where the executive has fallen short. The CIA has concluded that Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) ordered Khashoggi’s murder. Trump, who has threatened “severe consequences” for whomever is found responsible, seemed over the past month to be looking for a way out of naming, shaming, and punishing MbS himself. In his statement on November 20th, Trump confirmed many observers’ worst fears about this president’s worst instincts, saying that US security, economic, and political interests transcend this incident. For a sitting US president to balk at the notion of holding an ally accountable and making even a symbolic effort to address such a gruesome crime with clear chains of responsibility constitutes a new low in US foreign policy
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Crime, Human Rights, Politics, Trump, Journalism, Crisis Management
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, North America, United States of America, Gulf Nations
  • Author: Nicholas Norberg
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy
  • Institution: The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
  • Abstract: In the backdrop of negotiations over drafting Syria’s new constitution and a transition in UN representation on Syria, the conflict in Idlib continues to simmer. Unrest in Idlib and dissatisfaction there with the internationally-recognized opposition, the High Negotiations Committee (HNC), leaves residents of Syria’s northwest excluded from constitutional committee. This is significant because the constitutional convention is increasingly viewed as a precondition for advancing the larger peace process. The constitutional committee is no place to hammer out granular differences between warring factions in Idlib, but the course of events there hold significant implications for the future of the broader peace process.
  • Topic: Peace Studies, Conflict, Syrian War, Negotiation
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey, Middle East, United Nations, Syria, Idlib
  • Author: Michael M. Gunter
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations
  • Institution: School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University
  • Abstract: Kurdish nationalism is challenged not only by the more developed counternationalisms of the states in which the Kurds live (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria) but also by the problem of Kurdish disunity and infighting.
  • Topic: History, Conflict, Kurds, Referendum, Infighting
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria, Kurdistan
  • Author: Rahman Dag
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Rest: Journal of Politics and Development
  • Institution: Centre for Strategic Research and Analysis (CESRAN)
  • Abstract: Current politics in Turkey proves that the roots of the Kurdish question have to be taken under strict examination in order to diagnose the problem so that a permanent solution might be found. With this in mind, this paper tries to explain the emergence of the pro-Kurdish nationalist movement, the PKK, via social movement theories. What makes this paper significant is that it examines the process of emergence in three phases via three different social movement theories. For Turkey’s single party era (1923-1950), relative deprivation theory is applied. In the second phase, political opportunity theory is matched with the onset of the multi-party system under the rule of the Democrat Party (1950-1960). Finally resource mobilization theory is applied to the time period between 1960 and 1980. In general, the theoretical approaches chosen are selected in accordance with certain socio-political realities of Turkey. This helps to explain how an ethnic minority ended up with a socially – but not legally – representative organization when they are relatively deprived and obstructed politically. If not all, a certain amount of mobilization of the Kurdish people could result in a social movement, be it is legal or illegal.
  • Topic: Nationalism, Social Movement, Minorities, Community
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Murat Ulgul
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Turkish Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: During the period between his election as the Turkish president in August 2014 and the constitutional referendum that introduced a presidential system in Turkey in April 2017, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan tried to demonstrate that he would not be a symbolic political figure in Turkish politics as many former Turkish presidents had been. Instead, he would keep shaping the domestic and foreign agenda of the country, as it would happen in a presidential system. One of the main ways he did this was through a series of mukhtars’ meetings, which began in January 2015. From that point, until the desired changes to the constitution were approved through public referendum, Erdoğan held thirty-seven mukhtars’ meetings. In these meetings he gave speeches about Turkish domestic and foreign policy directly to a group of mukhtars but, more importantly, indirectly to the Turkish public and foreign actors. This article will analyze Erdoğan’s foreign policy messages through his discourse in the mukhtars’ meetings and try to answer two controversial questions regarding his foreign policy ideology: Whether he is an Islamist and whether he is shifting the foreign policy axis of Turkey.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy, Leadership, Ideology
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Aziz Kutlar, Murat Sarikaya, Ali Kabasakal
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: This study examines the relationship between the course of divorce and women’s labor force participation in Turkey during 2004-2013 Period. While Trabzon has the highest rate, Mardin has the lowest rate of women participation in the labor force. A significant correlation between the participation of women in the labor force and per capita income, crude divorce rate, and added value exists. There is a significant relationship between the participation of women in the labor force and the crude divorce rate. Bi-directional causal relationships between the participation of women in the labor force and the crude divorce also exists.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Women, Employment
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Rumeysa Köktaş
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada uluslararası ilişkilerde bölgesel örgütlerin giderek artan rolü göz önünde bulundurularak Türkiye’nin Ortadoğu’daki bölgesel örgütlerle ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı Türkiye dış siyasetinde Ortadoğu’daki bölgesel örgütlerin rolünü ve ikili ilişkileri tarihsel olarak analiz etmek ve böylelikle Türk dış politikasındaki paradigmatik değişimleri ortaya koyabilmektir. Bu çerçevede bu çalışmada Türkiye’nin Ortadoğu’da öne çıkan beş örgüt (İslam İşbirliği Teşkilatı, Körfez İşbirliği Konseyi, Gelişen Sekiz Ülke, Arap Ligi ve Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı) ile kurumsal ilişkileri tarihsel olarak ele alınarak Türk dış politikasının geçirdiği değişimler analiz edilmiştir.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Gulf Cooperation Council, Arab League
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Ferihan Ayaz, Hatice K. Adıyaman
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Antidepresan kullanımının yararları ya da zararları kamuoyunda tartışıla gelmektedir. Gazetelerdeki antidepresan konulu içeriklerin nasıl sunulduğu, antidepresanlara yönelik tutumlar, antidepresanların neden olduğu ya da tedavi ettiği hastalıklar merak konusudur. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmanın genel amacı antidepresan içerikli yayınların gazetelerde nasıl sunulduğunu ortaya koymaktır. Bu genel amaç doğrultusunda Prnet MSuite Programı aracılığı ile yapılan tarama sonucunda Aralık 2017 itibariyle Türkiye’nin tirajı en yüksek ilk 5 gazetesi olan Sabah, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Posta ve Habertürk gazetelerinde 2015, 2016 ve 2017 yılları arasında içinde “antidepresan” kelimesi geçen toplam 180 içerik, içerik analizi yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda gazetelerin antidepresanlara yönelik tutumunun çoğunlukla nötr ve olumsuz olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. “Antidepresanların başka hasta lıklara neden olması”, antidepresanlara ilişkin risk faktörlerinin ilk sırasında yer almaktadır. Antidepresanlara ilişkin yan etkiler arasında ilk sırada “cinsel problemler” ve “sersemlik / baş dönmesi / uyku hali” gelmektedir. Antidepresan kullanmaya alternatif olarak ilk sırada “toplumsal / ekonomik / siyasi yapının düzelmesi” önerilmiştir. Antidepresanların tedavi ettiği hastalık olarak çoğunlukla depresyona / mutsuzluğa işaret edilmiştir. Ancak kimi zaman antidepresanların tedavi ettiği ve neden olduğu hastalık aynı olabilmektedir. Sonuç olarak gazetelerin genel olarak antidepresanlara olumlu bakış açısının olmadığı, çoğu zaman kafa karıştırıcı bilgilerin verildiği, antidepresanlara ön yargı geliştirebilecek nitelikte içeriklerin var olduğu söylenebilir.
  • Topic: Media, News Analysis, Mental Health, Antidepressants
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Bilge Durutürk
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada feminizmin ve çokkültürlülük ilişkisi üzerine bir inceleme yapılması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu paralelde 1980’li yıllardan beri ortaya konmuş olan ikinci dalga feminizmin parametreleri ve 1990’lar itibari ile toplumsal cinsiyet kavramsallaştırması ve kimlik politikaları paralelinde ele alınan üçüncü dalga feminizmin parametreleri değerlendirilecektir. Bu temel unsurlar üzerinden çokkültürlülük kuramı içerisindeki liberal ve eleştirel yaklaşımların ikinci ve üçüncü dalga feminizm ile kesiştiği problemli durumlar ataerkillik ve kadının özgürleşmesi bağlamında kültürel farklılıkların ortaya koyduğu ırk, cinsiyet ve sınıf temelindeki tartışmalar üzerinden değerlendirilecektir.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, Feminism, Intersectionality, Identity Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Global Focus
  • Author: Erdem Cam, Murat Atan
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Küreselleşen dünyada istihdam, hem ülkeler hem de OECD, Avrupa Birliği gibi ülkeler üstü kurumlar için gündem oluşturan ve önemli hale gelen bir politika alanıdır. Ülkelerin istihdam politikalarının pek çok amacı olabilir. Ancak bunların içinde en temel hedef ülke içinde işsizliği ortadan kaldırmak ya da en düşük oranlarda tutabilmektir. Özellikle işsizlik sorunu, ülke içinde sosyal çöküntüye ve ekonomik açıdan kayıpların oluşmasına neden olmaktadır. Benzer şekilde işsizlik sosyal politika yönünden incelendiğinde toplumda kişilerin yaşam kalitesini azalttığı, toplumsal sorunların arttığı, mutsuzluğun yaygınlaştığı, toplum için telafisi zor olan pek çok toplumsal soruna neden olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Aynı şekilde işsizlik toplumsal zararlarının yanı sıra ekonomik açıdan durgunluğa, işgücünün ve üretimin azalmasına yol açacaktır. Bu nedenle il bazında istihdama yönelik politikalar uygulanması ve işsizlik probleminin çözümüne yönelik politikalar oluşturulması önemlidir. Bu çalışmada 2013 - 2016 yılları arasında il bazında işgücüne katılım oranı, ortalama günlük kazanç ve istihdam oranı değişkenleri çıktı olarak işsizlik oranı ve sosyal güvenlik kapsamındaki aktif çalışanların toplam nüfusa oranı değişkenleri de girdi olarak kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada il bazında uygulanan istihdam politikalarının etkinliği ölçülmüştür. Tüm veriler TÜİK ve SGK veri tabanlarından alınmıştır. Malmquist toplam faktör verimliliği indeksi modelinin çözümünde DEAP 2.1 paket programı ve il bazında sonuçların haritalarının çizilmesi için ArcGIS 10.5 paket programı kullanılmıştır. Bu makalede il ve bölgesel farklılıkların azaltılması için genel politikalar yerine il bazlı politikaların uygulanmasının daha yararlı çıktılar yaratacağı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
  • Topic: Globalization, European Union, Employment, Data
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Şükrü Cicioğlu, Atilla Yıldız
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Ülkelerin gelişmiş veya gelişmekte olmasına bakılmaksızın karşılaştığı sorunların başında ekonomik krizler gelir. Dünya ekonomisinin değişimi ile birlikte ekonomilerin kırılganlıklarının artması sonucu yaşanan krizlerin açıklanması daha da önem kazanmış ve krizlerin tahmin edilebilmesi, politikaların belirlenmesi açısından katkılar sağlar olmuştur. Dünya ekonomisi içinde yakalamış olduğu yüksek büyüme oranları ile önemli bir yeri olan Türkiye ekonomisinde iç ve dış kaynaklı birçok kriz yaşamıştır. Bunun yanında son dönemde faiz ve döviz kurundaki artışlar ekonomide kriz ortamının oluşmaya başladığı yönündeki düşünceleri artırmıştır. Kriz ortamının oluşup oluşmadığının değerlendirilebilmesi ve öngörüde bulunabilmek amacıyla reel göstergelerin değerlendirilmesi önem arz etmektedir. Çalışmada ekonomi üzerinde artan baskının ölçülmesi ve politika uygulayıcılarına yön vermek amacıyla krizleri öngörmek için yapılan çalışmalarda başarılı tahmin gücüne sahip olan Kaminsky, Lizondo ve Reinhart tarafından geliştirilen KLR sinyal yaklaşımı ile reel göstergeler değerlendirilmeye alınmıştır. Türkiye ekonomisinin 1999:01- 2017:12 dönemine ait aylık ve üç aylık verilerden yararlanarak uygulanan analiz sonucunda; kriz dönemi için sinyal verme başarısı açısından cari denge / ulusal rezerv, ithalat ve kapasite kullanım oranı göstergeleri başarılı olmuş ve aynı zamanda kriz olduğunda sinyal verme olasılıkları oldukça iyi değerler almıştır. Sinyal yaklaşımı neticesinde anlamlı sinyal veren göstergeler kullanılarak 2016:01-2017:12 dönemi değerlendirilmesi sonucunda cari denge / ulusal rezerv ve ithalat göstergeleri birer sinyal vererek ekonominin kötüleşme eğilimi içinde olduğunu göstermiştir.
  • Topic: Economics, History, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Ekrem Gül, Ahmet Gökçe Akpolat, Recep Kaya
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: 2008 Küresel finans krizi, kriz literatüründe ölçeğinin büyüklüğü ve küresel boyutta yaptığı etkiden dolayı önemli bir yer arz etmektedir. ABD’de 2008 yılında konut piyasalarında geri dönmeyen kredilerden kaynaklı başlayan finansal kriz başta Avrupa ülkeleri olmak üzere küresel çapta büyük bir yayılım göstermiştir. Bu doğrultuda krizin etkilerini gidermek amacıyla para ve maliye politikaları ülkeler tarafından önemle uygulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada 2008 Küresel finans krizi sonrasında Türkiye’de hükümet tarafından uygulanan maliye politikalarının önemli bir aracı olan kamu gelirleri ile istihdam oranları arasındaki ilişki öncelikle teorik olarak açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Teoriye ilaveten 2006Q1-2016Q4 dönemleri arasında kamu geliri politikalarıyla istihdam oranları arasındaki ilişki Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik testine göre analiz edilmiş ve kriz sonrası uygulanan kamu geliri politikalarından istihdam oranlarına doğru tek yönlü Toda-Yamamoto (1995) Granger nedenselliği tespit edilmiştir.
  • Topic: Financial Crisis, Employment, Economy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Ayla Akdoğan
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Most of the research on one-sided violence focused on factors that have an effect on the targeting of civilians, which were selected on account of the clarity of their definitions, characteristics that can be differentiated from the other factors, the ease with which they can be studied, as well as their recognizability. Some of the factors researched will be briefly discussed and the most important ones, which are central to this study, examined in detail.
  • Topic: Civil War, Conflict, Violence, Civilians
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Global Focus
  • Author: Ali Evler, Mehmet Topli
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: AUSTRAL: Brazilian Journal of Strategy International Relations
  • Institution: Postgraduate Program in International Strategic Studies, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Abstract: Throughout history there have been opposing forces, one of which is the conflict between ‘West and East’ as Huntington claims. One of the earliest, major competitions, in this matter, has been the one with Ottoman Empire, representing Islam and European countries, followers of Christianity. These forces have been clashing in the form of several means and for reasons to predominate each other if they can achieve it at all. How has such a ‘clash’ begun between civilizations and what is the present status of it between Turkey and Western countries? This study aims at highlighting the background from a historical point of view beginning with the capture of Jerusalem by Ottoman Turks and how Turkish Image is created and portrayed in Early English Plays in relation to the rise and fall of Ottoman Empire as depicted in The Sultan Speaks by Linda McJannet. Since the core of the Ottoman Empire is modern Turkey today, the recent changes in their image on the way to full membership to the EU as well as to ‘interreligious/intercultural dialog’ in an attempt to bring peace to both parties in question for a sustainable and amicable future. It is concluded that there are still concerns between the global signatories. It will take some more time and effort to mature the thinking that they could live harmoniously developing their countries economically and their democracies for a mutual understanding.
  • Topic: Religion, European Union, Conflict, Sustainability
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Asia, Ottoman Empire
  • Author: Aydan Er
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Warsaw East European Review (WEER)
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: his paper examines the evolution of Iran’s foreign policy towards the three South Caucasian republics since the agreement of the Iran Nuclear Deal on 14 July 2015 be- tween Iran, P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and the European Union (EU) until today. This paper presents a number of key issues – energy, transportation and trade – related to Iran’s policy towards Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Furthermore, it provides consideration of the effects of other international actors such as Rus- sia, Turkey and Israel. The aim of this study is to show the complexity of bilateral relations be- tween the states surrounding the South Caucasus and the impact of their multiple overlapping interests on the whole area.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Diplomacy, Military Strategy, Denuclearization, JCPOA
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Israel, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, South Caucasus
  • Author: Konrad Zasztowt
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Warsaw East European Review (WEER)
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: urkey is focused on Russia in its policy vis-à-vis the Black Sea region, Cauca- sus, Ukraine, Balkan countries as well as, at least to some extent, Central European countries, including Poland. This priority has its impact on Ankara’s relationship with Eastern and Central European countries, which remain in the shadow of Turkish policy towards Russia. However that negative impact is not powerful enough to spoil Turkey’s cooperation with Eastern and Central European countries. It certainly limits the scope of such partnerships or alliances. Turkey contin- ues to cooperate with the region’s countries, but often rejects their Euro-Atlanticism. In Turkish perception the EU’s enlargement in Central Europe was unjust (as Turkey has been applying much longer for the EU’s membership without any significant progress, whereas post-commu- nist countries were accepted relatively quickly). NATO enlargement in the East in Turkey’s view was always a ‘risky adventure’. At the same time, from Ankara’s point of view the Middle East is strategically more important than Turkish northern neighbourhood. Moreover, Turkey wants to be an equal interlocutor in dialogue with Russia, the U.S. and the EU, whereas it often conceives post-communist and post-Soviet countries merely as a zone of influence for the Kremlin and Washington or their battleground in Cold War 2.0.
  • Topic: NATO, Cold War, Diplomacy, Regional Cooperation, Military Strategy, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey, Poland, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Dimitris Keridis
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The migration and refugee crisis that erupted in 2015 landed recession riven Greece with a series of humanitarian, political, social, and financial as well as foreign policy and security challenges. Following a near disastrous open-borders policy steeped in leftist ideological parochialism, Athens aligned itself closely with Germany in support of the EU-Turkey deal that drastically reduced the human flows from Turkey into the EU and invited NATO naval forces to help monitor the implementation of the agreement. This paper is structured around two parts: the first part describes the immigration and refugee crisis itself, from a global, European and national-Greek perspective; the second part analyzes the risks to and policy responses of Greece and how they relate to the country’s overall geostrategic position, at a time when Europe is being redefined as it struggles to respond to a multitude of challenges.
  • Topic: NATO, Economics, Migration, Refugees
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece