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  • Author: Yusuf Yazar, Hasan Hüseyin Erkaya
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey is an energy importer. It has a growing economy demanding about 7 % more energy each year. It has about 41,000 MW electric power generation capacity, and this capacity must be doubled in the next 10 year to meet the demand. Natural gas has a significant share in electricity production, which should be reduced. Domestic energy supplies and renewable energies should be employed in meeting increasing energy demand. Turkey has taken major steps toward liberalization of its energy market. Private enterprises are expected to invest in the energy market in a timely manner. The country also has the potential to be an "energy corridor" between the gas and oil producing countries and the importing European countries.
  • Topic: Oil
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: İbrahim S. Arınç
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The EU depends highly on Russian gas and this dependency is expected to increase in the following decades. Conversely, natural gas export revenues significantly contribute to the Russian budget, making it dependent on gas sales to Europe. The relationship between the EU and Russia is therefore one of interdependence. Turkey's impact on this relationship has the potential to benefit all parties, as its strong ties with both the EU and Russia give it a unique position in the region. For the EU, Turkey could contribute to the diversification of supply, and secure transit pipelines connecting Middle Eastern and Caspian reserves to the EU. For Russia, Turkey could provide an export outlet for Russian gas to the Mediterranean and an alternative transit route to Europe.
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Orhan Yılmaz
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey's geographical location on the trade routes, adjacent to energy resources, and its emergence as an energy transit corridor, have made Turkey an attractive center for the investment of international capital. Turkey contains 72% of the world's boron reserves, which are concentrated in eight countries in the world; the USA and Russia have the next largest deposits. Boron, with its various applications and diverse product range, is an essential raw material in most industries. 85% of it is consumed in glass, fiberglass, insulating glass, detergent, ceramics and agriculture, with a total consumption of 3,500,000 metric tons (1,800,000 ton B2O3) per annum around the world. Turkey, with the Eti Maden, a wholly state-owned company, has become the leader in the boron business not only in terms of its reserves but also in production, sales and profitability since 2005. The primary target now is to make Turkey, the leader of world boron business, and an emerging terminal where energy lines intersect, a production base in the sectors identified in growth strategies.
  • Topic: Agriculture
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey
  • Author: Phar Kim Beng
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: To fulfill Turkey's mission as a "civilizational connector" between Europe and Asia, Turkey must be a full member of the East Asian Summit. The path towards this goal, among others, requires Turkey to be a Dialogue Partner of ASEAN. Once ASEAN sponsors Turkey's membership in East Asian Summit, Turkey would then be strategically positioned to be a key member with some of the world's most monumental economic and political powers in its midst. Indeed, if Turkey is a member of East Asian Summit, ideally by 2010, Turkey would be in a better position to realize its strategic, civilizational, and historical depth.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, East Asia
  • Author: Talip Küçükcan
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Migrant and diaspora communities are increasingly getting engaged in transnational politics and trans-border communication across cultures and nations in the global world. Such communities are empowered by their considerable social and cultural capital that is mobilised to consolidate national interests. The Turkish diaspora in Europe which emerged after a wave of labour migration and their settlement since the late 1950s has a large network, civil capital and political capacity to bridge European Union and Turkey. Turks whose hearts and minds are divided between Europe and Turkey are not only willing to act as a bridge but also equipped with the instruments to do so if acknowledged and mobilised by both sides.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Yusuf Devran
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze how Turkey is portrayed by the British media. This study uses discourse analysis to examine Turkey's portrayal in two British daily newspapers, namely the Guardian and Daily Telegraph, and takes a detailed look at news items published between September 2004 and December 2005. The portrayal of Turkey in the western media helps us comprehend the stereotypes and images at work in the types of cognition European countries have about Turkey. Understanding this portrayal contributes to the development of new projects, strategies and tactics to remove negative images and mental obstacles in the minds of Europeans who remain less than enthusiastic about accepting Turkey's inclusion in the European Union. The deeply rooted conceptions and historical concerns held by European societies regarding Turkey – a country which has been trying to join the EU since 1963 – will be the main emphasis of our examination in this paper.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Mehmet Bardakçı
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Since 2004 there has been a dramatic drop in the support expressed by the Turkish public for the EU and the Turkish membership. Many factors were at work for this downward trend of Turkish people's perceptions of the EU including the Cyprus policy, the Armenian genocide claims, the EU's treatment of Turkey as a special case, vocal objections raised by the EU leaders as well as the public to Turkey's EU membership, the economic costs of the accession process, nationalist backlash as a result of the resumption of PKK terrorism, mutual rise in negative perceptions of the Muslim and Western world at large in the post-September 11 process. Therefore, amid growing anti-European sentiments in domestic politics it became increasingly difficult for the ruling AKP to sustain the EU reform agenda.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Armenia
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Salwa Ismail, Political Life in Cairo's New Urban Quarters: Encountering the Everyday State University of Minnesota Press, 2006, 264 p, $22,50, ISBN 0-8166-4912-X by Joanna Odencrantz   M. Hakan Yavuz (ed.), The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the AK Party University of Utah Press, 2006, 368 pp., $25, ISBN 978-0-87480-863-6 by Barış Kesgin   Guenter Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide The University of Utah Press, 2005, 370 p., $23, ISBN 978-0-87480-890-2 by Fatih Balcı and Arif Akgül   Jillian Schwedler, Faith in Moderation: Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen  Cambridge University Press, 2006, 276 p., $29.99, ISBN 0-521-85113-0 by Hüseyin Alptekin
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Armenia
  • Author: James Ker-Lindsay
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: New Democracy's victory in the March 2004 Greek elections immediately raised questions about the continued development of the process of rapprochement between Greece and Turkey, which had started five years earlier in 1999. However, concerns were misplaced. The incoming administration made it clear that it intended to maintain the policy of détente. Like the previous PASOK government, it sought to minimise the role of Cyprus as a factor in bilateral relations and continued to support Turkey's membership of the European Union. Where differences did arise between New Democracy and PASOK, they appeared to be more a result of the differing styles of George Papandreou and Petros Molyviatis, the two foreign ministers, than as a result of any significant disparity in basic foreign policy principles.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Jayapura
  • Author: Cemal Karakas
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: With the beginning of negotiations, Turkey has, froom the legal perspective according Article 49 EUV, the right to join the EU, but the EU does not have the obligation to take Turkey in. The European Council's Turkey resolution at its December 2004 Summit foresees a guarantee clause: If accesion of Turkey is not accomplished, yet both sides still have an interest in deeper cooperation and integration, then "it must be ensured that the candidate state concerned is fully anchored in the European structures through the strongest possible bond". The key question is which model would then work best for Turkey: supranational integration (accession) or intergovernmental cooperation (Privileged Partnership, Extenden Associated Membership, European Economic Area Plus). The model of Gradual Integration shows a new, a third way of integration this model proposes a new dynamic method of intergovernmental integration, including decisiom-making rights for Turkey, from which a new sui generis form of membership could result.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Bahar Rumelili
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study argues that the forms of identity relations that the European Union (EU) establishes with outsider states shapes the Union's ability to postively influence conflicts involving those states. The European identitiy promoted by the EU embodies both inclusive and explosive aspects. While the EU has invoked the inclusive aspects of its identity in relation to the states in Central and Eastern Europe, it has constructed Morocco to be inherently different, and fluctuated between inclusion and exclusion in the case of Turkey. These various identity relations have shaped the EU's impact on Polish-German, Spanish-Moroccan, and Greek-Turkish relations show how an inclusive EU can contribute to the resolution of conflicts on its borders, the cases of Spanish-Moroccan and pre-1999 Greek-Turkish relations demonstrate how an exclusionary EU can end up aggravating the conflicts.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Kemal Kirisci
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In this paper, it is argued that Turkey's geographical location, accompanied by the extensive commercial, cultural and social relations that have developed since the end of the Cold War between Turkey and its immediate neighbourhood, provides an opportunity for the EU to consider formulating a more flexible Schengen visa policy that can also be in harmony with efforts to develop the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Such a policy can also ease the economic and political costs of Turkey's integration into the EU. This need not necessarily lead to compromising security and border control. The advocates of Turkish membership often stress the potential of Turkey in assisting a process of bridge building between Europe and the world beyond Europe. A modified and better calibrated Turkish visa regime and a Schengen visa system that is able to adjust itself to the lessons of the Turkish experience could become a pillar of that bridge building effort and hence of the ENP too.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Birgül Demirtas-Coskun
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study analyses the foreign policies of Turkey and Germany toward the Bosnian War, that took place between 1992-1995, in a comparative perspective. Both states had to face an identity crisis in the wake of the phasing out of the bipolar system. Whilst Turkey, all of a sudden, lost its former status within the Western Bloc, Germany could be reunified in a relatively short period of time. The war in Bosnia took place at the very time when an important discussion was continuing about the new position of these aforementioned countries. In view of traditional International Relations theories Turkey, on the one hand, was expected to focus on its internal problems; Germany, on the other hand, was foreseen to pursue an active foreign policy thanks to the new dynamism acquired by reunification. However, what happened in the case of Bosnia was, in fact, the reverse. The main argument of this study is that one of the main factors shaping the foreign policies of Ankara and Berlin toward Bosnia was the ultimate intention to maintain their former state identities in the new era.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, War
  • Political Geography: Bosnia, Turkey, Germany
  • Author: Armağan Öztürk
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Makale sendikal çözümleme üzerine daha çok altyapı ilişkilerine atıfta bulunan tarihsel-ekonomik perspektifi, toplumsal yapı ve siyasal kültüre değinen alternatif bir okumayla zenginleştirmeyi hedeflemektedir. Temel iddia Türkiye'de siyasi kültürün örgütlü toplumun gelişmesini yapısal özelikleri nedeniyle geciktirdiği yönünde olduğudur. Dayanışmacı, paternalist, popülist, elitist, cemaatçi, solidarist ve patrimonyal kültürel öğeler çatışma karşıtı bir eylem-söylem zemini yaratmaktadır. Bu zemin, seçkinci pratiğin kendini sivil toplum içinde yeniden üretmesine olanak sağlayan meşrulaştırıcı bir dizi politik enstrümanı mümkün kılar. Sendikalar da sağcı popülizmin ve cemaatçiliğin koşullanması altında patronajcı mantığı içselleştirmişlerdir. Kamusal imkânların patronajcı kullanımı hükümet ile sivil toplumu bir çıkar ağı sistemi ile birbirine bağlayan yozlaşmış siyaset örgütlenme biçimine yol açmıştır. Sendikaların araçsal siyasete tabi olması ya da sendikanın patronajcı bilince teslim olması olgusu örgüt özelinde temsil sorununu ve birçok noktada bu sorunu kesen bir sendikal demokrasi-sendikal bürokrasi karşıtlığını beraberinde getirmektedir.
  • Topic: Trade
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Latin America
  • Author: Serdar Gülener
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmanın amacı, Amerikalı sosyolog Edward Shils tarafından ortaya konmuş olan ve Şerif Mardin tarafından Türk siyaseti'ne uyarlanan merkez-çevre ikiliğini açıklamak ve bu ikiliği 27 Mayıs 1960 Darbesi'nde kullanmaktır. Öncelikli olarak Edward Shils'in merkez ve çevre kavramları ile ne anlatmak istediğine değinilmiş, daha sonra, bu kavramlar ile Türk siyaseti'ne tarihsel bir bakış açısı sunan Şerif Mardin'in merkez ve çevre kavramları anlatılmıştır. Son olarak ise 27 Mayıs 1960 Darbesi'ne giden süreç, darbe ve bu darbenin bir ürünü olan 1961 Anayasası merkez-çevre ikiliği açısından değerlendirilmiştir.
  • Topic: Politics, History
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Serpil Döm
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada Türkiye'de finansal serbestleşme uygulamaları ve ekonomik büyümeye olan etkileri incelenmektedir. Yaygın görüşe göre finansal sistemin serbestleşmesi; yabancı portföy akımlarına sınırlamaların kalkması ve yabancı fon girişleri, ekonomik büyümenin motoru olarak kabul edilmektedir. Karşıt görüşe göre ise, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde yabancı kaynaklı büyük fon hareketleri ve sistemden ani çıkışlar finansal krizlerin baş aktörleri olarak görülmektedir. Genel anlamda finansal serbestleşmenin faydaları ve olumsuz etkileri gelişmekte olan ülkeler açısından; özelde ise, Türkiye açısından ele alınmaktadır.
  • Topic: Trade Liberalization
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Hamza Al
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Son yıllarda kamu yönetiminde parçalı fakat kendi içersinde tutarlı birtakım değişimler meydana gelmektedir. Dikkat çeken en önemli değişimlerden birisi kamu kesimi ile piyasa arasındaki ilişkidir. Geleneksel yaklaşımdan farklı olarak yeni yaklaşım, piyasa değerlerinden beslenmektedir. Bununla ilişkili diğer bir gelişme de, yönetimde süreçlerden çok sonuçlara odaklanılmasıdır. Kamu kesimi yönetiminin piyasa tutkusu ve sonuçlara odaklanması, yönetim anlayışı gibi denetim anlayışını da etkilemektedir. Artık denetimin de piyasa değerleriyle performans kriterleriyle yapılması zorunlu hale gelmektedir.
  • Topic: Markets
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Ali Balcı
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Çalışma, “bölgesel, sosyal ve dini kültürel temelleri bakımından yeni bir Türk elitinin ortaya çıktığı” [15] tespitinden hareketle Türkiye'yi analiz etmeye girişmektedir. Editör M. Hakan Yavuz'a göre, bu yeni elit 1980'li yıllardan itibaren yaşanan gelişmelerin ortaya çıkardığı bir olgu olduğu için, AK Parti “Türkiye'de yaşanan sessiz devrimin bir nedeni değil aksine soncudur.” [1] Bu yeni [İslamcı] elitle birlikte, hem-Oryantalistlerin iddia ettiği gibiİslam, demokrasi ve kapitalizm arasında bir gerilim olmadığı görülmüş, hem de öteden beri Türk toplumuna hâkim olan devletin yarı kutsal anlamı değişime uğramış ve insanların devlete değil devletin insanlara hizmet etmesi gerektiği anlayışı yaygınlaşmıştır [4]. Nihayetinde bu bakış açılarının AK Parti'de bir yansıma bulmuş olması da bir tesadüf olarak görülemez. Kısacası, Türkiye AK Parti ile somutlaştığı üzere “muhafazakâr” ve “normatif” bir devrim [7] geçirmiş ve tam da bu nedenle bugünkü Türkiye için “yeni” sıfatı [15] bir gereklilik olmuştur.
  • Topic: Book Review
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Gökhan Koçer
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In the post Cold War era, a number of crises and armed conflicts threatening the international security have accrued, and most of them are needed to be intervened by international community and international organizations. International peace support operations are realizing not only by UN-led, but also in other international and regional organizations (such as NATO, OSCE etc.) or coalitions of the willing. The number of activities or operations in which Turkey has participated has significantly risen in recent years. In the post Cold War era, Turkey's contribution to international peace support operations has remarkably expanded. In this meaning, Turkey has been actively contributing to several peace support operations with different formations from Kosovo to Afghanistan, from Palestine to East Timor, from Bosnia-Herzegovina to Georgia. The aim of the first section of this paper is to trace Turkey's record in peace support operations that she has participated so far. In the second section, Turkey's contribution and role in peace support operations will be analyzed.
  • Topic: Cold War, United Nations, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Turkey, Palestine, Georgia
  • Author: Joseph Soeters, Erhan Tanercan, Kadir Varoglu, Ünsal Sigri
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article examines cooperation between the Dutch and the Turkish armed forces during two peacekeeping missions, respectively in Kosovo (KFOR, 1999-2000) and Kabul (ISAF, 2002-2003). It is based on a literature survey and interviews with officers and NCOs of both sides. The article deals with the collaboration between the two armed forces as well as the interaction with the local populations in both areas of operation. Differences in style and modes of operation are analysed, leading to some thoughts for reflection with respect to intercultural military cooperation and peacekeeping in Muslim countries. It is argued that commanders at all levels should be prepared for the intercultural dimension of working with military from other nations, especially if they are deployed in areas that are culturally distant from their own. In addition, it is stressed that the scope of CIMIC-activities may be expanded in order to win the hearts and minds of the local population.
  • Topic: Islam, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Kosovo, Dutch