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  • Author: Srini Sitaraman
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Human Rights and Human Welfare - Review Essays
  • Institution: Josef Korbel Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver
  • Abstract: The global supply of freshwater is finite and current estimates put freshwater availability at less than one-half of one percent of the total water stock. Intensive agriculture practices, rapid industrialization, and expanding population and urbanization are reducing freshwater supplies that are further stressed by climate change, placing enormous pressures on the already fragile environmental landscape. The World Wildlife Federation's (WWF) Dam Initiative report identifies twenty-one river basins around the world at severe risk of ecological degradation: topping the list is the Yangtze in China, La Plata in South America, Tigris and Euphrates in Turkey, and the Ganges and Brahmaputra in India (WWF 2004). Although dams have proved to be a boon for irrigation and generating hydroelectric power, they have also severely disrupted ecosystems by interrupting the flow of major rivers, destroying freshwater habitats and leading to the disappearance of unique species, such as the freshwater river dolphins; dams have uprooted the livelihood of millions of people who rely on the unaltered flow of river water, and they have also disrupted the structure of floodplain agriculture. India and China are two of the starkest examples of human dislocation, conflict, and environmental denudation caused by dams (Economy 2004). According to the World Bank, India's growing water crisis is resulting in “little civil wars”: (a) between states, (b) between different users in a river basin, (c) between communities and the state, (d) between farmers and the environment, and (e) between farmers and the city consumers (World Bank 2005). India's former Minister of Water Resources, Priyaranjan Das Munshi was quoted as saying, “I am not the Minister of Water Resources, but the Minister of Water Conflicts” (UNESCO 2006). The World Bank (2005: 5) report on India's Water Economy describes India's water situation, which is heavily dependent on unpredictable and seasonal monsoons, as turbulent and unsustainable in the long run.
  • Topic: Development, Health
  • Political Geography: China, Turkey, India, South America
  • Author: Munir Hussain
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations
  • Institution: Center for International Conflict Resolution at Yalova University
  • Abstract: After a decade of stagnant relations, Pakistan-Turkey relations seem to be improving in the right direction. Both countries have traditionally enjoyed close and cordial relations. The manifold commonalties between the two countries have been reinforced by the firm resolve of their leadership to further deepen mutual cooperation in all fields.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs, History
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Turkey, Middle East, Asia
  • Author: Nilgun Onder
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations
  • Institution: Center for International Conflict Resolution at Yalova University
  • Abstract: The world is simultaneously globalizing and regionalizing. The double processes of globalization and regionalization appear to be paradoxical. This seemingly paradoxical phenomenon has raised the question of whether regionalism contradicts or complements globalization and whether it obstructs or reinforces globalization. The paradox of the resurgence of regionalism amidst globalization has attracted considerable scholarly attention.
  • Topic: Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 09-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Affairs
  • Institution: The European Institute
  • Abstract: All this year the EU has been grappling with challenges coming from its periphery: Kosovo's fate, Turkey's evolution, and immigration flows north across the Mediterranean. The idea of closer ties among all the countries around the Med was an ambitious attempt to come to grips with the southern problems. The war in Georgia demonstrated that there are hotter issues for the EU to the east.
  • Topic: International Relations, Cold War
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Kosovo, Georgia
  • Author: Ali Resul Usul
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is possible to argue that there exists a push-pull balance in the EU's democratic conditionality that the EU has been applying since the South European states applied for membership and/or association agreement. This article arguee that this push-pull balance in conditionality has created the Dynamics that could transform candidate states; and the best example that demonstrates the succesful impact of the EU conditionality is the relation between the EU's Eastern enlargement, the EU's democratic conditionality and the successful transformation of political regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe. However, this study puts forward that the push-pull balance of conditionality has started to deteriorate because in particular of the enlargement fatigue in the EU. This change might diminish the impact of the EU's political conditionality in the ongoing enlargement process (Turkey, Croatia and othet Western Balkan states).
  • Topic: Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Croatia
  • Author: Dirk Hoerder
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: German Politics and Society
  • Institution: German Politics and Society Journal
  • Abstract: Once upon a time, German studies seemed to be an easy field to define. Like fairytales, the resulting stories were addressed to a faithful audience—but here, an audience of adults, true believers in the nation and nation state. Today, by contrast, we understand that defining area studies is, in fact, a highly complex task involving overlapping regions and social spaces, and analyses of borderlands, interpenetrations, and métissage, as well as of processual structures and structured processes. Even geographies have become “processual.” The origins of area studies are often traced to the U.S., the hegemon in the Atlantic world's academe, and the emergence of American studies in the 1930s. Nevertheless, something like area studies also emerged in Europe in the late nineteenth century, juxtaposing 1) a country and its colonies; and 2) a country and its neighbors. The former were inferior societies, the latter competitors in world markets and, repeatedly, enemies in war. Area studies—after a preceding period of knowledge acquisition as reflected in early mapmaking— became colonial studies, competitor state studies, enemy state studies—in each case transnational, transterritorial, and transcultural. Unable to deal with the concept of “trans,” i.e., with fuzzy borders and shifting categories and geographies, scholars in each bordered country set their own society, their Self, as the “yardstick.” The Other, the delimited opposite, was meant as a background foil before which their respective own nation was to appear as the most advanced and to which—knowledge and interest are inextricably linked—the profits from worldwide trade and the spoils from colonial acquisitions were naturally due (Folien- or Spiegeltheorie). Since then, motivations for country studies have become more complex but they basically are framed still by bordered territories, “national culture,” national consciousness or identity, nation-state policies, and international relations. Once the ideology of “nation” is abandoned, the blindfold removed so to say, it appears that German-language people may be studied in America or Russia—or Africans, Poles, and Turks in the German-language societies (plural!).
  • Topic: Sovereignty
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, America, Europe, Turkey, Germany
  • Author: Aysegul Kibaroglu
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of International Affairs
  • Institution: School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
  • Abstract: The Euphrates-Tigris region has faced significant political changes since the late 1990s. These changes can be attributed to improvements in bilateral relations, mainly in the security domain, between two of its major riparians, Turkey and Syria. In the meantime, another major riparian, Iraq, has lived through devastating war and occupation, which has had implications for regional water issues. These changes have brought new actors, involved or interested in the hydropolitics of the two-river basin, to the region.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey, Syria
  • Author: Ömer Karaoğlu
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Musa Akyiğitzade korumacı düşünceler taşıyan Kazanlı bir Türk'tür. En fazla bilinen kitabı İlm-i Servet veyahut İlm-i İktisat'ın ilk bölümünde, Antik Yunan ve Roma düşüncesinden kaynaklanmış olan Batı ekonomi düşüncesinin tarihsel evriminden İslam geleneğiyle karşılaştırılmıştır. Kitapta, ekonomik düşünce ve politikalarda 18. yüzyılda ortaya çıkan kırılmanın önemi belirtilmektedir. Akyiğitzade, List ve Paul Cauwes'den esinlenerek, devletin devamı ve huzuru için korumacı prensiplere başvurmanın önemini vurgulamaktadır. Akyiğitzade aynı zamanda ilk Türk milliyetçisi gruplardan biri olan Türk Derneği adlı grubun içinde yer almıştır. Milliyetçilik düşüncesinin bir takipçisi olarak modern düşünce adamıdır. Osmanlı'nın son döneminde modern ekonomi kavramlarının dikkate değer bir karakteridir. O bir milliyetçi ve aydınlanmanın sadık bir bağlısıdır.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Sefer Şener, Cüneyt Kılıç
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada yabancı sermaye kavramı genel anlamıyla her türlü yabancı getiriyi kapsayacak şekilde ele alınmıştır. Tanım ve ayrıntılardan ziyade Türkiye'de yabancı sermayenin hangi aşamalardan geçtiği belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Eskiden olduğu gibi bugünde önemli bir yere sahip olan yabancı sermaye tarihsel bakış açısı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Amaç yabancı sermayenin bugün karşımıza çıkan bir olgu olmaktan öte her dönemde önem arz ettiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bu açıdan 1840'lı yıllardan günümüze uzanan bir süreç kapsanmıştır. Eldeki istatistikî rakamlar değişik kaynaklardan derlenerek bir sistematik oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca bu rakamlar dönemlere ait iktisat politikaları çerçevesinde yorumlanmıştır. Bu çalışma Türkiye'de yabancı sermayenin uzun bir geçmişe sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye'de de ilk zamanlar dışarıdan alınan borçlarla ülkeye gelen yabancı sermaye daha sonraki dönemlerde kabuk değiştirmiştir. Küreselleşmeyle de paralel olarak bugün gelinen süreçte dünyada sermaye hareketleri ülkeler üzerinde büyük etkiler yaratmaktadır. Bu açıdan çalışmada Türkiye'ye gelen yabancı sermayenin etkileri de ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.
  • Topic: History, Investment
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Hamza Al
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Türk siyasal hayatı krizlerle doludur. Belirli aralıklarla siyasal sistem krize girmekte ve krizden çıkış için çeşitli yöntemler uygulanmaktadır. Sürekli tekrarladığı dikkate alındığında, krizlerin iyi analiz edilmediği ortaya çıkmaktadır. İktidarlar, genellikle krizden kaçınma ve krizi aşma politikası uygulamaktadırlar. Bu politika, sistemin belirli bir süre yürümesine yardımcı olsa da, krizlerin tekrarlamasına engel olamamaktadır. Asıl yapılması gereken ise, krizin kalıcı olarak çözülmesidir. Krizin çözülmesi de krize yol açan aktörlerin iyi analiz edilmesiyle mümkündür. Çalışmada kriz yönetimine değinildikten sonra, Türk siyasal krizinde rol oynayan aktörler ve faktörler incelenmiştir. Bu çerçevede sorunların kaynağını insandan çok sistemde aramanın yararlı olacağı tezi işlenmiştir.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Mustafa Kemal Şan
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: İkinci Dünya savaşından sonra dünya toplumlarının bulundukları eşitsiz düzlemden kurtulmaları adına bir dizi kalkınma kuramları üretildi. Bu kuramların en önemlisi modernleşme kuramıdır. Bu yaklaşıma göre toplumlar Batılı bir gelişme çizgisini takip etmedeki becerilerine göre gelişmiş, gelişmekte olan ve az gelişmiş olarak tasnif edilerek bu gelişme altına düşen toplumların top yekûn bir kalkınma hamlesi içine girmeleri gereğinden söz açılmaktaydı. Ancak bir süre sonra toplumların aynı gelişme çizgilerini izlemek zorunda olup olmadıklarından tutun da bu gelişmenin salt ekonomik etmenlerle olup olmayacağına ilişkin önemli itirazlar yükseldi. Bu süreçlerin sonunda yeni bir toplumsal kalkınma modeli olarak sosyal sermaye kavramının yükselişe geçtiğini görüyoruz. Sosyal sermeye toplumun güven çapının yüksekliği kriterine dayanan ve buna göre toplumların maddi ve manevi yönden kalkınmalarını sağlayan en temel unsurlardan birisi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Sosyal sermaye her şeyi olduğu halde hala istenilen düzeyde bir ilerlemeye ulaşmayan ulusların sahip olmadıkları şeye işaret ederken, gelişme ve kalkınma için öyle elle tutulur fazlaca elverişli bir yapıya sahip olmadıkları halde dünyanın en müreffeh ülkeleri arasına girmeyi başarmış kimi ulusların da kalkınma durumlarının ardında yatan motive edici unsurları anlamamıza izin vermektedir. Bu yazıda kalkınma modelleri içinde çoğu kez hesaba katılmayan ancak çok yakın zamanlarda toplusal gelişmişliğin bir unsuru olarak kabul edilmeye başlamış olan sosyal sermaye kavramı ve bu kavramın Türkiye açısından taşıdığı önem ele alınacaktır. Bu yazı çerçevesinde biz özellikle Türk toplumunun modernleşme süreci içine din ekseninde yaşanan tartışmaların sosyal sermaye kaynaklarını nasıl heba ettiğini tartışma konusu yapılmaya çalışacağız.
  • Topic: Social Capital
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Koray Gürpınar, Mehmet Barca
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Sakarya University (SAU)
  • Abstract: Bu çalışma, Türk mobilya sektörünün uluslararası pazarlardaki reka-bet gücünün kaynağına ilişkin sektörde yer alan işletme yöneticilerinin gö-rüşlerini ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla, sektörel rekabet gücü iki aşamalı olarak araştırmaya konu edilmiştir: Önce ikincil verilerden hareket ile Türk mobilya sektörünün uluslararası pazarlarda göreceli rekabetçi konumu belirlenmiş, daha sonra da, anket aracılığı ile üretilen birincil veriler ışığında bu rekabet avantajı ve sektörün geleceğine ilişkin beklentileri konusunda sektörde yer alan işletme yöneticilerinin düşünceleri değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ışığında, mobilya sektörünün son yıllarda uluslararası pazarlarda rekabet avantajı elde ettiği ve bu rekabet avantajının kaynağının da sektörde yaşanan maliyet stratejilerinden farklılaşmaya kayan stratejik değişiklik olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Bu sonuç daha önce yapılan çalışmaların maliyetlere dayalı avantajı açıklamaları ile paralellik arz etmemektedir. Çalışma, bu farklı sonuç ile sektörün rekabet avantajı kaynağı konusunda yeni bir açıklama sunmaktadır.
  • Topic: Industry
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Thomas Diez
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: Carnegie Council
  • Abstract: The possible future EU membership of Turkey has become one of the most hotly debated topics both in the EU and within Turkey itself. Underlying this debate are competing principles of international ethics.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Leonard Stone
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Within the context of political narratives, this paper surveys the major contours of research on the Republic of Turkey. It looks at research spaces and research directions, or trajectories and at particular contentious spaces – e.g. the concept of national interest. The article further highlights the difference between realist accounts and multidisciplinary models of understanding and interpretation, the interconnectivity of academia and bureaucracy and then proceeds to reconfigure (remap) the Middle East within a Greater Eurasia. Throughout there is an emphasis on shifting context(s). Turkey's own relations with the Middle East are referenced, as are a number of selected research obstacles. The conclusion focuses on key markers in socio-political research into the Republic.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Melissa Maxey
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey and the United States are close historic allies. Turkish-American relations have, of course, not been perfect. Two main issues have caused small problems throughout the duration of the partnership. Yet the relationship did begin to change under the administration of American President George W. Bush. The United States must shift its policy toward Turkey to stop the downward direction of relations. It must respond to Turkish internal and external pressures. To succeed it needs to work towards resolutions of current and past problems and allow Turkey to fully develop its own leadership role and position as a prominent member of the Europe and the Middle East.
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Ole Frahm
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Northern Iraq has seen ethnic mobilization and violent political conflict since the creation of the current state system in the interwar period. Throughout this period, Iraq's Kurds have rejected attempts of various governments to assimilate and absorb them into their pan-Arab ideologies. The underlying fear on behalf of Turkey's government is that an independent Kurdistan would have an osmotic effect and automatically strengthen irredentist and pan-Kurdish segments and sentiments among Turkish Kurds and in a worst case scenario lead to a renewed intra-state conflict between separatists and the state on the scale of the early 1990s.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey
  • Author: Rebecca Bryant
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: More than three years after the opening of the ceasefire line that divides Cyprus, the island is closer than ever to rupture. When the Green Line first opened in April 2003, there was an initial period of euphoria, as Cypriots flooded in both directions to visit homes and neighbors left unwillingly behind almost three decades before. But a year later, when a UN plan to reunite the island came to referendum, new divisions emerged. While Turkish Cypriots voted in favor of the plan, their Greek Cypriot compatriots rejected it in overwhelming numbers. Visits stalled, and today social relations are mired in an increasingly divisive politics.
  • Topic: Politics, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Cyprus
  • Author: Seckin Baris Gulmez
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This work will discuss the views of the current main opposition party in Turkey on Cyprus problem focusing on the three main areas of criticisms raised by the party officials. Accordingly, in comparison with the policies adopted by its predecessors, the article will try to find an answer to the question whether the Cyprus policy of today's CHP constitute a change from or continuation of those of the CHP in the past.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Melkulangara Kumaran Bhadrakumar
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The 85-year-old Turkish state finds itself at a crossroads. But the implications of Erdoğan's final choice go far beyond Turkey's borders. Turkey's standing as a regional powerhouse, its strategic location as a bridge between Europe and the Middle East, its historical and cultural heritage in the Muslim world – all these are bound to come into play in the coming months. The crucial importance of what is unfolding in Turkey lies in that, to quote former Israeli foreign minister Shlomo Ben-Ami in a recent article, "Engaging political Islam will need to be the central part of any successful strategy for the Middle East. Instead of sticking to doomsday prophecies of categorical perspectives that prevent an understanding of the complex fabric of Islamic movements, the West needs to keep the pressure on the incumbent regimes to stop circumventing political reform."
  • Topic: Islam, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Fuat Canan
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This paper focuses on examining what sort of costs and benefits are involved in Turkey's accession process into the European Union (EU) by addressing related discussions in Turkey and aims at reflecting a general Turkish costbenefit motivation perspective. From European perspective, Turkey-EU debates are to a large extent based on costs of Turkish accession, whereas in Turkey, EU-Turkey discourse is to a large extent dominated by benefits of accession. Secondly, as can be observed from public opinion polls held in Turkey, Turkish people do not really know how the EU would affect their lives. They lack a cost-benefit analysis of EU accession even in its simplest form and are not well informed about possible consequences of accession. A more open debate would be helpful in addressing the real costs and benefits of EU membership.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey