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  • Author: Sadia Rafique, Khalid Manzoor Butt
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Social movements are considered by sociologists as agents of social change. They are not isolated entities but an outcome of prevailing circumstances and at, the same time, result from continuity with the historical roots. Moreover, the mobility of contemporary movements can only be shown in comparison with previous kind of collective actions. Two revolutionary movements within one century (Constitutional Revolution 1905-06 and Islamic Revolution1979), and eight years’ IranIraq war (1981-89) and globalization have significantly contributed to the evolution of distinctive nature of contemporary Iranian society. This makes it an interesting subject for research in general, and particularly the case of social movements and their transformation. The paper aims to give an overview of Iranian social movements from the constitutional movement to the recent Green movement of 2009. The intention is to find out, first, whether there was any continuity in social movements during this period; secondly, to investigate the differences of the recent Green movement from the previous social movements of modern-day Iran. An overview of social structure, the state-society relationship, causes of mobilization and the outcomes of each movement will be studied. Moreover, the complex relation between state and social movements that emerged overall will also be examined. The Touraine/Melucci model has been applied in Iranian milieu
  • Topic: Islam, Religion, Social Movement, State, Revolution, Society, Mobilization
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Ghulam Mustafa, Aamir Junaid, Rana Basam Khan, Imran Wakil
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The disastrous event of 9/11 changed the Political and Security dynamics of the world. The event of 9/11 provided a chance for India to enter into Afghanistan. Afghanistan attracts the world powers due to its strategic importance. Afghanistan is a gateway to the energy rich Central Asian Republics. India’s involvement in Afghanistan is quite realistic. India had never established cordial relations with the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The event of 9/11 gave India a chance to establish cordial relations with the Afghan political government. India participated in the Bonn Conference and announced its support for the people of Afghanistan in the reconstruction of the country. India enjoyed its best relations with the governments of Hamid Karzai and Ashraf Ghani in Kabul. India enhanced its ties with Iran to secure its interest in Afghanistan and to counter Pakistan. India and Iran have some common interests in Afghanistan. New Delhi has invested a big amount in various sectors in Afghanistan to enhance its influence in Afghan society. India has worked hard to facilitate Afghan Nationals to boost its soft power. India now influences the internal politics of Afghanistan. The world considers India a major market in South Asia. India’s presence in Afghanistan has always been a source of worry for Pakistan. Pakistan considers India’s presence in Afghanistan a threat to its National Security. Pakistan thinks India should work for the betterment of Afghan people but she should avoid using Afghan soil against Pakistan. Pakistan has already suffered a lot due to the disturbance in Afghanistan. Peaceful Afghanistan is in the favor of South Asia and for the Global Powers. This paper focuses on the Indian presence in Afghanistan and India’s role to bring peace in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Taliban, Negotiation, Peace
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, India
  • Author: Shahid Ahmed Afridi, Marium Fatima
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: US military intervention in Afghanistan was decisive and forceful, however, the Taliban’s insurgency inevitably transformed U.S. military doctrine and strategy from conventional military intervention into Counterinsurgency’s kinetic and non-kinetic operations. U.S. strategic and operational methodology despite exhausting all possibilities; troops’ surge, air dominance/surveillance, non-kinetic peace building operations, failed to dislodge the threat of Taliban violence. An effort is made to identify the underlying factors contributory to the failure of the U.S. strategy, tactics and other challenges faced despite having unparalleled military superiority. This paper further probes the U.S. military strategic repositioning, social structure with the warlords and critically examines how the conflict drifted from intervention into Counterinsurgency irregular warfare.
  • Topic: Counterinsurgency, Humanitarian Intervention, Military Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, South Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Sumeera Imran, Lubna Abid Ali
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Sino-Indian stand-off in Galwan has revived world attention to the dispute in Kashmir. Indian revocation of Article 370 and Article 35-A propped up diverse responses from the international community. China condemned Indian abrogation and the US offered to mediate on Kashmir. Trump’s offer of mediation opened up a pandora box of strong opposition in Indian Lok Sabha. Resolute criticism unleashed on Modi for compromising on Indian national security objectives and territorial integrity. Reflecting the urgency and complications involved in conflict resolution, the propensity of nuclear confrontation in South Asia remains high in Kashmir. US Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden has declared Human Rights in Kashmir as integral part of his electoral agenda. The US State Department has declared no change in its historic Kashmir policy, while China has resented Indian unilateral change in the region’s status. Great powers’ involvement in regional conflicts has been fluid, fluctuating with the change in their national security interests. Broad contours of national security objectives have shaped Sino-US Kashmir policy in the past. Employing qualitative research methodology and theoretical perspective of complex interdependence, the article reviews Sino-US traditional policy roles in conflict resolution on Kashmir. How has the US and Chinese Kashmir policy evolved over the years? What impact does the US and Chinese Kashmir policy has on regional stability? The article argues that great powers’ involvement has inflicted more injury than cure, exacerbating regional tensions. Great powers’ alignment along opposite poles has increased India-Pakistan bilateral hostilities on Kashmir. Sino-US insistence on Indo-Pakistan bilateral approach for conflict resolution rather than the UN framework has created the impasse on Kashmir.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Foreign Policy, Bilateral Relations, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: China, Kashmir, United States of America
  • Author: Ameer Ayaz, Abdul Wadood
  • Publication Date: 12-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In 2015, millions of refugees, mostly Syrians, knocked the door of Europe for protection against war and violence in their home countries. The number of refugees that entered Europe in 2015 made only 0.2 percent of total Europe’s population, considerably low number than other refugee hosting countries. In fact, for a continent as wealthy as Europe, the influx of refugees could be easily managed but European Union was unable to bring a common policy to cope with it. European Union already divided by the Eurozone crisis experienced further divisions due to refugee influx. The polarization in European politics and society reached the highest point since the Second World War. The failure of Social Democracy and center politics in solving the crisis created space for either right-wing or left-wing populist parties that won many seats in both European and national parliaments, while in some countries even managed to make governments.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Arab Spring, Syrian War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Riffat Mahmood, Rehana Saeed Hashmi
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Owing to the changing dynamics of state relations, scholarly attention has increased toward the domestic policy influence on foreign policy. In this regard, political parties are considered the main drivers in foreign policy formulation in parliamentary democracies. To comprehend the influence of the party on the agenda or formulation of governmental foreign policy, there is a need to examine the link between party manifesto and foreign policy priorities. The case of Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) would be under consideration during the period from 2008-2013. This is an attempt to explore the foreign policy priorities given in the manifesto of Pakistan People’s Party (2008) with its practical implementations. It is observed that dichotomy prevails between the manifesto and practical implementations of PPP’s performance. The government of PPP has remained unsuccessful to implement its foreign policy priorities in true letter and spirit as promised in the party manifesto.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, History , Political Parties
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Asia
  • Author: Mubeen Adnan, Fakhara Shahid
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South China Sea (SCS) is a part of Pacific Ocean and is the most strategic and important waterway in the world containing large deposits of hydrocarbons and fossil oil. Due to its unquestioned importance it has become bone of contention among many East Asian nations and China regarding its sovereignty and control of the territory. Two Islands Parcel and Spratly in the SCS are the flashpoints of the dispute because countries like, Philippine, China, Vietnam, Brunei and Malaysia are claiming their rights over some parts or sovereignty over all the above mentioned Islands. Primary concern of the dispute lies in U shaped nine- dashed demarcation line by China in the SCS. A decision of international court of Arbitration in “Philippines v. china arbitration case” showed that China U-shaped nine dash line demarcation is uneven with UNCLOS 1982. This verdict has been rejected by China on the grounds that it has no binding forces because China controls 90% area of the SCS through nine dashed line by having historical claim of the sea and this line was drawn in 1946 by the help of USA prior to the 1982 UNCLOS. China wants to solve the dispute bilaterally without any third party interference while due to the importance of the region many other actors are getting involved in to the dispute. A permanent and lasting solution of the dispute is a dire need of the time to solve the complex issue.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, International Law, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: China, Asia-Pacific, South China Sea
  • Author: Muhammad Usman Saeed, Mian Hanan Ahmad, Noshina Saleem
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the context of modern information and communication systems, present study was designed to examine the information and communication imbalances among the developed and under developed countries in tweets of international news agencies during 2010-16. Theoretically, the study takes roots from world system theory and structural imperialism theory. Methodologically, the triangulation of method is used. Firstly, the content analysis was performed on purposively selected tweets of four international news agencies; AFP, AP, Reuters and Xinhua about the 15 sample countries for the period of 7 year from 2010-2016. Further, the social network analysis technique was used to examine the network structures of international news determinants and world countries. This study revealed that core and semi-periphery countries are shared more and framed positively, while periphery countries are shared less and portrayal negatively not only by the international news agencies but also by their followers. Further, it was also found that Reuters’ tweets agenda about core, periphery and semi-periphery countries is different from other news agencies specifically from Xinhua. Moreover, study also found that in the tweets of international news agencies the core and semi-periphery countries are covered and shared in context of foreign relations, trade, economy, entertainment, and human interest, while periphery countries are covered and shared with reference to conflicts, disasters, and human rights violations.
  • Topic: Development, Human Rights, Communications, Media, Social Media, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Muhammad Najam Ud din Farani
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Afghan refugees in Pakistan are a classical example of refugee-war nexus. They have been historically conditioned by wars and internal conflicts inside Afghanistan. The conflict within Afghanistan which has historically conditioned Afghan refugees has spanned for more than four decades. This study is an attempt to contextualize history, demographics, institutes, national policy and different factors that have conditioned the identity of Pakistani Afghan refugee community. This study also attempt to explore different perspectives on the identity of Afghan refugee community inside Pakistan.
  • Topic: Refugees, Conflict, 9/11, Identity, Soviet Union
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia
  • Author: Dayyab Gillani
  • Publication Date: 07-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the ongoing democratization process in Iraq and Afghanistan. It examines the political institutions established in both countries by using the comparative method of analysis. The paper shows that both Iraq and Afghanistan are primarily plural societies and are divided along sectarian and ethnic lines. Drawing from the academic literature, the paper proposes that consociational democracy is the best democratic alternative for plural/divided societies. The paper mainly argues that even though Iraq and Afghanistan share somewhat similar demographic characteristics, their newly installed democratic institutions reveal a sharp contrast. It investigates the reasons for this dissimilar choice of political institutions and proposes that the democratic institutions in both the countries must be formulated in line with the principles of consociational democracy.
  • Topic: Democratization, Democracy, Constitution, Pluralism
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Fozia Naseem, Asma Shakir Khawaja, Ishtiaq Ahmad Choudhry
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Honour killing in Pakistan is a very critical issue which is being echoed throughout the world. Parallel to it are the governmental claims that this issue has been addressed, by enhancing the representation in the legislature assemblies and by the strict and hard laws in this regard. However, this problem is the deeply rooted in socio-economic and cultural values and traditions of the country. The supporters of such values are sitting in the lawmaking bodies and openly support such negative practices. They have kept the doors open in the legal and judicial system for the escape of the offenders. Overwhelming majority of the victims are women of the remote rural areas, while the offenders are, mainly, the husbands, fathers or brothers. The reasons of this cruel practice, as found in this study are related to the alleged extra marital relations of the women (which never proved) or exercise of the choice of marriage by the victims, and very rarely the disputes of the property. Majority of the crimes remained unregistered, hence no question of the trial or the punishment. Major hindrances in the improvement of lack of women education, poverty, poor implementation system of law, poor grip/writ of the government in the remote rural areas of the country.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Marriage, Honor Killing
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Fozia Naseem, Asma Shakir Khawaja, Ishtiaq Ahmad Choudhry
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Honour killing in Pakistan is a very critical issue which is being echoed throughout the world. Parallel to it are the governmental claims that this issue has been addressed, by enhancing the representation in the legislature assemblies and by the strict and hard laws in this regard. However, this problem is the deeply rooted in socio-economic and cultural values and traditions of the country. The supporters of such values are sitting in the lawmaking bodies and openly support such negative practices. They have kept the doors open in the legal and judicial system for the escape of the offenders. Overwhelming majority of the victims are women of the remote rural areas, while the offenders are, mainly, the husbands, fathers or brothers. The reasons of this cruel practice, as found in this study are related to the alleged extra marital relations of the women (which never proved) or exercise of the choice of marriage by the victims, and very rarely the disputes of the property. Majority of the crimes remained unregistered, hence no question of the trial or the punishment. Major hindrances in the improvement of lack of women education, poverty, poor implementation system of law, poor grip/writ of the government in the remote rural areas of the country.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Marriage, Honor Killing
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Faisal, Rana Eijaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the contemporary phase of international politics, national security strategy (NSC) is considered as a primary factor in the process of state-crafting. It addresses the key concerns; such as domestic, regional and global threats. It also focuses on the policy framework for the security of the state. In this age of uncertain geo-political environment, every nation-state has adopted a particular strategy in a certain strategic environment to minimize their strategic threats. Thus, the NSC is very important for enhancing the national security of the state. It also very helpful in maintaining the regional and global strategic balance. Contemporary formation of nation-state has defined some certain parameters for the formation of national security. These parameters are very important for achieving several particular objectives such as global strategic stability, regional hegemony and the survival of the political regime in the domestic political domain. The development of NSC has become more complex in the modern politico-strategic than the past ages. This research article finds the parameters of national security strategy which have been adopted by Iran and North Korea to maintain the strategic balance in the regional and global arena. The article concludes that Iran and North Korea must find an independent decision-making syndrome to accelerate the process of national security in the existing strategic domain.
  • Topic: National Security, Geopolitics, Strategic Stability
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East, Asia, North Korea
  • Author: Syed Shahbaz Hussain, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Imran, Adnan Nawaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Kashmir issue is a primary source of resentment between India and Pakistan. It is considered the oldest issue on the schedule of the Security Council yet to be resolved. This divisive issue remained unsolved and has become the nuclear flashpoint. The peace of the South Asian region is severely contingent upon the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute. It is not only the pivot of bitterness in the bilateral relation of India and Pakistan, it also a continuous threat to the regional peace in South Asia. This study critically assesses and evaluated the issue in the perspective of historical facts and current context regarding Kashmir. Chronological data presented and describe that the Kashmir issue has deteriorated the fragile security of South Asian region and remained a continuous threat of nuclear escalation in the region. Kashmir issue has severe implications for populace of Kashmir as well as for the region
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Security, Human Rights, Territorial Disputes
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Kashmir
  • Author: Rukhsana Iftikhar, Maqbool Ahmad Awan
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Women have always been treated as second grade citizen in Pakistan. Pakistan is considered the 3rd unsafe country for women to live. Pakistani women are facing problems in their private and public life. Violence is the most thriving issue for the women in Pakistan. The main reason of the wide spread violence is poverty and ignorance. Social structure is not supporting woman although gender ratio of population is more than half. This paper is an attempt to explore the causes and types of violence in Pakistan. It also deals with the effects of violence in society. State has introduced a number of legislations but the common woman in Pakistan is conscious about her rights. The state of Pakistan is not progressed without the help of other gender. State and women both have to take the task to eradicate the issue of violence.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Gender Based Violence , Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Asif
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The world observed the transformation process of Continent Africa from Colonialism to independence with hopes and fears. In Cold War Era, the African states have been engaged by the superpowers, on strategic and economic fronts, with certain limitations. On the other hand, in Post-Cold War phase, the Continent Africa had been addressed with laudable objectives. Now, the wave of religious extremism, in Continent Africa, has been perceived as a serious security threat, compelled to the international community to pay serious attention to deal the African states. There is no doubt that the entire region has multidimensional challenges and opportunities and its picture has to be drawn at larger canvass. The objective of the present research paper is to analyze those factors, which given space to Boko Haram, a religious extremist organization, in Nigeria. No exaggeration in saying Boko Haram extremely disturbed the internal and external dynamic of the state. Now, it has become a burden on the political and economic life of Nigeria. The qualitative research methodology has been used to argue the issue of religious militancy in Nigeria, in the context of Boko Haram. Secondary source of data has been used by keeping in mind the theoretical nature of the research paper. The study determines that the military operations are not sole solution to counter the religious extremism of Boko Haram until the economic, social and political issues of the Nigerian society are not addressed. There is a dire need to establish strong commitment level of the common Nigerian over the political system otherwise the issue of Boko Haram will remain intact.
  • Topic: Religion, Violent Extremism, Conflict, Boko Haram
  • Political Geography: Africa, Nigeria, Horn of Africa
  • Author: M. Ihsan Qadir, Saif Ur Rehman, S. M. A. Gardezi
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The distressing ethno-demographic conflict in Myanmar is a sordid reality of recent human history. The two ethnic groups; Buddhists and Rohingyas (mainly Muslims) living in North Westerly state (Rakhine State) are at daggers drawn with each other since last many decades. History of this intra-state conflict dates back to British colonization of Burma in 1824. The widespread state sponsored persecution of Rohingya community after Myanmar‟s independence in 1948 has created waves of ethnic and political instability one after the other. Few contributory causes of the conflict include; systematic denial of citizenship rights, restrictions on freedom of movement, absence of healthcare facilities and deprivation of education for Rohingya community. The most serious of all is denial of citizen rights which has rendered the community stateless. The prolonged sufferings at the hands of majority population (Buddhists) have forced this stateless community to contemplate carving out a separate autonomous state by seceding from Myanmar. This resulted in creating gulf of distrust between both the parties triggering a major intrastate conflict in South Asia. The conflict lifecycle has witnessed many rounds of violence resulting in huge destruction of life and property. This article examines regional repercussions of recent cycle of violence and suggests few conflict resolution strategies.
  • Topic: Demographics, Ethnic Conflict, Secession, Rohingya
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Arooj Khan
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In Pakistan, women are considered as a stigmatized community and beholden to different social and cultural norms. Though they are almost half of the population but it seems that they are restricted from having liberty, education, economic exposure and rights. As far as notion of working women is concerned, it is a general perception that in Pakistan, poverty stimulates poor women to work and support family otherwise Society does not accept the notion of working women. They are under male domination and very few women take part in economic activities. However, the women who work mostly work in informal sector which further exacerbate their problems. In urban areas like Lahore, domestic service sector is the major sector of employment for women. Due to toothless laws and lack of regulation of this work, these female workers confront numerous problems. This descriptive research will explore some crucial problems of domestic workers in Lahore; identify the underlying reasons that compel the women to join this sector.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Poverty, Labor Issues, Women, Exploitation, Abuse
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Iram Khalid, Muhammad Rashid
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The groups of people based on religion, language or ethnicity living in a state but in lesser numbers are called minorities. The minority groups have been living in Pakistan amicably since independence and have been playing their active role in the development of society especially in education and health sectors. Despite being living in conducive environment as good and responsible citizens, the minority groups have been facing inequality, discrimination and victimization by both the state and society. These minorities have been marginalized in almost every segment of life including employment, education, and top of all-the religious freedom. The minorities, especially the Christians have some serious issues about their security and often mention that they have been targeted especially under Blasphemy Law in which they have been prosecuted in the name of religion. Most of these blasphemy cases have been found out to be the result of personal enmity and religious vendettas. The government needs to address these issues of minorities on emergency footings for an inclusive and moderate Pakistani society.
  • Topic: Religion, Law, Minorities, Freedom of Religion
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Haroon Rafique
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The landmark United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) introduced „unique‟ provision of the right to child participation in its Article 12. This Convention, ratified by most states including Pakistan, gives right of participation to children in making decisions on matters related to them and makes it binding for the states to implement it in letter and spirit. The state is responsible for creating enabling environment which includes creation of necessary institutions, enacting or where necessary amending laws, formulating policies and strategies, allocating sufficient budgets, making congenial environment for NGOs and public consultations. This paper argues that state in Pakistan has not been able to sufficiently develop the enabling environment to fulfill the obligations that resulted in the aftermath of ratification UNCRC.
  • Topic: Government, Human Rights, United Nations, Children
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Global Focus
  • Author: Umbreen Javaid, Hassan Iqbal
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Availability of per capita water is decreasing in Pakistan very fast. No serious effort has been done after the commissioning of Mangla and Tarbela dams long ago. The efficacy of these dams is also falling fast due to sedimentation. The construction of Kalabagh dam has been made politically controversial and Sindh, KPK and Baluchistan provinces are not even ready to consider the proposal. Successive Governments are dragging their feet on Diamer Bhasha dam due to its cost, long time required for completion and other logistic challenges. India, as upper riparian, is continuing with its designs to impede water flow towards Pakistan by building hydroelectric projects, and at some places even diverting water against the Indus Water Treaty 1960. Pakistan has already entered water stressed zone and experts are since long warning about this fact. It is said that the scarcity of water could prove to be a bigger threat than even the terrorism which Pakistan faced for almost 20 years. If it is politically Kalabagh dam is not feasible Pakistan should find alternatives, as there is no short cut solution to this problem. It has already been delayed for long and further delay shall cause clausal damages to economy, agriculture, industry, environment, ecology and above all national integration, as shortage of water is turning into inter provincial dispute.
  • Topic: Natural Resources, Water
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Fazal Abbas Awan
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: South Asian region is now facing a new star because Space is an advantageous frontier for military uses. Space technology has two aspects on the name of security such as Militarization and Weaponization. These terms cannot properly differentiate the difference between security and threat for space. All current and previous super powers are working on space for more than five decades in the name of technology and security. Now these super powers are going to make grouping on space for getting hegemony not only on earth but also in space. As a result, the challenges in space have triggered and magnified the security dilemma for the South Asian rivals, interconnecting China, India, and Pakistan in the context of an international security complex. Indian foreign policy for other regional countries and applying strategy of Kautilya to defeat their enemy by using name of South Asian Satellite is new wave of race.
  • Topic: Security, Science and Technology, Space, Satellite
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, India
  • Author: Sarwat Rauf
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper aims to examine the role of youth in the promotion of good governance in Pakistan. It highlights the importance of youth for Pakistan‟s development. Almost 60% of the country‟s population is young and they have the potential to bring prosperity and good governance. The development of Pakistan is in the hands of the country's energetic and talented youth. However, fewer opportunities, the dearth of proper supervision and lack of capacity to absorb true/untrue information are misguiding them. Very few of our youngsters know the technique to utilize time and positive energies excellently. This paper focuses that psychologically vulnerable youth can be an easy prey of criminals. Today, the problem of our large number of youngsters is, they are with no work and their energies are turning into destruction and crimes. In this backdrop, this study endeavors to find the answer that how we can provide the right avenues to our youngsters to excel. The societal pressures and depression are causes of drug addiction in the teenagers. Thus, systemic involvement of youth is needed to build strong Pakistan; for this youth must be cognizant of national and international changes. In this regard, parenting plays important role. Moreover, for character building, educational institutions and media are effective tools. The formation of career counseling centers to guide our youth is indispensable. Without the training of today‟s youth, we cannot expect renowned scientists, engineers and future political leaders. Overall, it is focused that training/ counseling and employment opportunities must be prioritized so that intolerance and violence in the society can be curbed.
  • Topic: Development, Governance, Youth, Society
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Ayra Indrias Patras
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The UN Nairobi Forward Looking Strategy defined peace as not only the absence of war, violence and hostilities; it means the enjoyment of economic welfare, social justice, human rights and fundamental freedom within the society (United Nations, 1986). South Asia is plagued with conflicts and contradictions in its political, social and economic spheres and falls short of employing democratic ways by engaging different stakeholders of the society to cultivate peace. History is evident to the fact that women have been placed at the margins and excluded from the peace building initiatives; however, women still find spaces either within or outside religious and state institutions and pursue peace actively. Women Peace Activists and Peace Organizations employ creative ways to get their voices heard and contribute towards positive measures in the peace building processes both in inter or intra States discords and disputes. Employing 5 in-depth interviews of Women Peace Activists and analyzing the academic literature, the paper deliberates and discusses the human security discourse from a gendered perspective and bring into light the contribution of women peace builders in South Asia and their strategies used for upholding democratic values in order to make peace a lived experience and reality.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Peace, Human Security
  • Political Geography: South Asia
  • Author: Asifa Jahangir
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Pakistan‟s reactive foreign policy attitudes and actions negate (or seem contradictory to) the core principle of realist paradigm, which says that intentions may vary independently without having any influential peer-pressure. Holistically, the critical analysis of Pakistan‟s foreign policy history exhibits that this country always chooses to pursue a reactive policy rather than proactive one. The best and recent example is Pakistan‟s dealing with Afghanistan problem since 9/11. This study uses archival evidence of long-simmering tensions about the continuing Afghanistan War and its unexpected consequences of Pakistan‟s policy decision to examine hypotheses derived from Barry Buzan‟s Regional Security Complex Theory. This paper aims to make the following inquiries: (1) how did Pakistan react in the response to U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and its War on Terror? (2) What have been the factors implicating Pakistan in Afghanistan War? (3) Why has Pakistan been failed in designing a proactive policy to prevent the challenges surfaced from enduring Afghan conflict and pose the serious threats to its security? (4) What are the unintended consequences of Pakistan‟s reactionary policy towards Afghanistan and in which direction have these outcomes guided Pakistan towards? While foreseeing the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan and its spillover effect on region, this paper will provide Pakistan‟s proactive strategies in the form of National Action Plan and CPEC so as to overcome such possible effects in future over the internal security situation and economic condition of the country.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Conflict, War on Terror
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, United States of America
  • Author: Aleeza Ehsan
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The paper examines the theoretical framework of the concept of middle class and the notion behind the Karl Marx‟s concept of class struggle and how the Marxist traditions are still prevalent in the form of class politics and identity politics of Pakistan. By using secondary sources this paper attempts to assess the role of middle class in the politics of Pakistan by critically reviewing the class structure and the growth of new middle-class in post 2007 era and how this class has attained the political role after lawyers movement and after the PTI‟s (Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf )pop-politics . This paper also attempts to study the trend of protest politics in the developing world and conundrum that democracy faces in this developing part of the globe and how middle class has assumed driving role in it. The social, cultural and religious evolution of this class in Pakistan and in the globalized world, is also explored in the wake of cross-culturalism . The role of middle class in shaping last decade of democracy is also studied by analysing the results of the elections of 2013 and 2018. This paper also suggests incorporating consumerism and marketing based reforms to attract this class towards democratic process.
  • Topic: Politics, Culture, Class, Middle Class, Identity, Consumerism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Mominyar Khalid
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: In the wake of Donald Trump's assent to presidency, a congenial environment emerged for the rise of far-right groups in the United States of America. These farright groups - dormant earlier - are not only resurfaced but they seem to be occupying central position in the political milieu of the United States of America. Elements of Islamophobia, xenophobia and nativism seem prevalent in Trump's presidency. Such an environment is sharpening the cracks in the land of immigrants. Hence, this research intends to find the causes of the rise of far-right hate groups in America; what are the implications of this rise for American society; to avert further segregation and division of American society, how multiculturalism can be used as a tool to reconcile with the force of far-right hate groups; and to find out the institutional response to the hate crimes committed by affiliates of different hate groups. The research also intends to comprehend how to deal with these hate groups. Hence, in order to study the phenomenon, Qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been employed to semi-structured interviews of a purposive convenient sample suggesting some policy guidelines and solution to the problem.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism, Elections, Immigrants, Islamophobia, Xenophobia, Donald Trump, Radical Right, Hate Groups
  • Political Geography: United States of America
  • Author: Balwinder Singh
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: From the last three decades, the Indo-Pacific has been a central theme in the global geopolitical scenario. India, China, and several other rising powers have shifted the balance of power. Thus, Indo-Pacific region marks instability and uncertainty especially caused by consistent crises of the world economy. In the present globalized era, both India and China are paramount drivers of the global economy. They are simultaneously reacting to this shifted balance of power in Indo-Pacific region. The actions of China and India towards each other and especially in Indo-Pacific region have significantly changed in last decades. At present, the Indian government has started to focus on Indo-Pacific region. The Trump Administration has focused India to contain China in Indo-Pacific region. At that moment, the Indo-Pacific region has thus become more important region than ever before. The geo-strategic significance of the Indo-Pacific region has attracted the main global-powers to preserve their strategic interests in this region. So, the Indo-Pacific has got enormous significance in the present context. From the last few years, the region has got international acknowledgment. The US`s Asia-pivot policy and China’s ‘String of Pearl’ policy have been focusing on India. The geopolitical importance of the Indo-Pacific region has dragged the western powers to counterweight growing Chinese power. That’s why; Indo-Pacific has shaped the new subject of divergence between China and India. Yet, there is no need to undermine the enlarging economic relations between the two big nations of Asia. This study also examines that how US and Pakistan are affecting the bilateral India-China relations. The study observes that how India and China satisfying their strategic interests in the Indo-Pacific region. Thus, the study tries to find out the new issues of cooperation and conflict between the two nations. Thus, the study tries to find out the new issues of cooperation and conflict between the two nations.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Bilateral Relations, Conflict
  • Political Geography: China, India, Asia
  • Author: Nasser N. Alotaibi, Abida Eijaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Saudi e-press coverage and treatment of the Operation Decisive Storm is examined through an analysis of media frames for the type of coverage, paths of persuasion, lexical choices, referential frameworks, framing strategies, and policy patterns for the Operation Decisive Storm campaign. Through content analysis of the op-ed pages of Al-Riyadh, Al-Madina, and Al-Youm, for the period from 26/03/2015 to 22/04/2015, the study concludes the following: political aspects formed a large proportion (90.3%) of the editorials covered in the Saudi e-newspapers, followed by the military developments, and the support for the legitimate Yemeni government. The supportive coverage reached (93.5%), indicating that the editorial policies of Saudi e-newspapers are in line with the policy of the leadership of Saudi Arabia. The results also revealed that fear/danger is commonly used as a strategy and Iran is used to create danger/fear not only for Yemen but for the entire Gulf region.
  • Topic: Media, Leadership, Conflict, The Press
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Gulf Nations
  • Author: Mahboob Alam Nutkani
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: According to Human Rights Watch there are estimated to be over fourteen million child brides worldwide, many of whom are traded for debt, bondage, and in contexts where polygamy and sexual activities with children go hand in hand, justified by religion or custom.(United Nation, 2013:31) There occurs a victimization of a new rising class of feminists in countries like Pakistan, where Islamist extremism from 1977 to 1988 especially targets and instances even murders or attempts to murder women who challenge their patriarchal power base. The analysis that represents these forms of violence against women and women’s struggles for justice delivery in Pakistan by using their voices and their stories, from their frame of analysis have been failed miserably.
  • Topic: History, Women, Violence, Justice
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Rana Eijaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Afghanistan has been a battlefield for big powers for last four decades. In 1979, Russia invaded in Afghanistan and the U.S. fought a proxy war in the region with the help of Pakistan. Russian withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan under Geneva accord in 1988 caused disintegration of the former Soviet Union in 1991. The Taliban government emerged in Afghanistan in 1994 and a regime of contentious politics started in Afghanistan. It allegedly caused terrorism at local as well as international level. The U.S. alienated itself from the region after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. In September 2001, Osama Bin Laden purportedly attacked the U.S. security hub Pentagon and economic hub World Trade Centre. America retaliated with cruise missile and invaded in Afghanistan in 2001. After the U.S. claim for killing Osama in May 2011 in Abbotabad, Pakistan, decided to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan in 2014. The U.S. wishes to sustain peace in the region after its withdrawal. It intends to ensure all the conflicting parties that they should come on table for a peaceful bargaining. The U.S. is rehabilitating Afghanistan with her allies. Afghanistan was destructed during the war on terror. This paper is based on the theory of contentious politics introduced by three American sociologists, Sidney Tarrow, Charles Tilly, and Doug McAdam. The tipping point theory is also used in the backdrop of 9/11 incident. It is explained with primary as well as secondary sources.
  • Topic: Politics, History, Afghanistan, Peace
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, South Asia, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Lubna Haroon
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Globalization has played a crucial role in growing number of migrants across the world. These migrants have been seen as a significant diplomatic and development agent in both their origin and host countries. Kashmiri migrants across the world have assumed importance in diplomatic discourse and transformation of their long-standing dispute. However, efforts by Jammu & Kashmir governments to engage the diaspora in conflict have not been followed by formulation and implementation of appropriate policies and strategies. There appears to be an unspoken mistrust between the intentions of governments and the members of Kashmiri diaspora, which has resulted in their low utilization. Subsequently, there is a need to create an interpretative framework to advocate and effectively engage the diaspora. Therefore, the diaspora should be consulted in national action plans and diplomatic initiatives to integrate and to stimulate their sustainable role in the protracted conflict of Kashmir.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Diaspora, Territorial Disputes, Conflict
  • Political Geography: South Asia, Kashmir
  • Author: Khalid Manzoor Butt, Sarah Sajid
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Economic development aims at building a healthy community which in turn strengthens institutions of a state. Economic Development can also be reflected through soft power, which is not only a diplomatic tool but also a booster for a state's economy. Chinese economic development is a synthesis of two ideologies: attributed to Mao Zedong and the other to Deng Xiaoping. Mao and Deng have contributed to Chinese economic development by initiating compatible economic policies in their respective eras. Their economic policies are influenced by Karl Marx and Adam Smith respectively. Mao, a staunch supporter of centralization of economy, opted for the theory of Marxism; ic level. On the other hand, Deng Xiaoping is associated with liberalizing of Chinese economy. The ideas of free trade and facilitation of foreign investors is the mainstay of Deng’s economic policy. In the process of liberalizing the Chinese economy, Deng initiated a paradigm shift from curtailed to liberal approach; he followed the footsteps of Adam Smith, the pioneer of free market economy. Privatization, establishment of exclusive economic zones, introduction of new flexible economic policies are the reforms introduced by Deng under the theory of free market economy. Hence, the modern China we see today is a product of the economic policies envisioned by these two great Chinese leaders. This descriptive research looks into the contribution and implication of these economic policies on the Chinese economic system.
  • Topic: Development, Globalization, History, Famine, Economy, Mao Zedong
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Muhammad Iqbal Chawla
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper is an attempt to explore the regional significance and global dimensions of the Chinese President Xi Jin Ping’s vision and initiative regarding Belt and Road which can transform adjacent countries like Afghanistan, Central Asian Republican States (CARS), India, Iran, Nepal and Pakistan into a real economic hub in coming time. Belt and road initiative is a mega project which includes; massive road connectivity, geographical linkages, rail and road transportation system, people to people contacts, development of understanding through cultural, academic, business and professional exchanges for the progress and prosperity of this vast region. In fact, the initiative of China Pakistan Economic Corridor is one of the mega projects which focuses; the creation of new regional connectivity through Gwadar Sea Port, giving direct access to Chinese goods from Kashgar (China) towards Gwadar (Pakistan). Hence, this development of faster infrastructure of rail, roads, towards maritime transportation and communication is an important project which can connect the countries of the area like Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Central Asia as well as Iran. Thus, the Gwadar Port will connect China, Russia, Middle East, Central Asia and South East Asia. The OBOR and CPEC are a burning issue and much debated topic in today’s Pakistan and world at large. In Pakistan mostly people believe that the CPEC will be a major source of economic development, peace and prosperity. On the one hand, US and India nexus, is trying to develop negative image about the project of CPEC by creating the impression of another colonial domination on the Pakistan territory in the form of Chinese presence. India is making all efforts, to sabotage and to damage the credibility of the CPEC project. This paper by delving and investigating the OBOR and CPEC connections will try to encapsulate the regional importance, dimensions of the project of Belt and Road initiative.
  • Topic: Infrastructure, Soft Power, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Economic Development
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Central Asia, India, United States of America
  • Author: Ashfaq Ahmad Malik, Nazir Hussain
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: India-Pakistan conflict is one of the most complicated and protracted conflicts in modern time, clouded by historical, ideological, religious, and political sentimentality. Beyond these, the diplomatic uncertainty between the two countries has proven to be capable of being transnational and international. Following the Indo-US strategic alliance, there is a growing perception that New Delhi is increasingly demonstrating and deepening its hegemonic designs in South Asia and beyond. Under the BJP government, such hegemonic proclivity has exacerbated the mistrust and the gulf of understanding between New Delhi and Islamabad. With the blessing of Washington, the BJP government has changed the dynamic of the mistrust. To this end, the paper addresses the current dynamics twofold. The first part of the paper looks at Modi’s effort geared at isolating Pakistan, the second discusses the mutual effort of Modi and Trump to politically and diplomatically ostracise Pakistan within the comity of nations. The last part of the paper discusses the three ways Pakistan should respond to the individual and combine efforts of Modi and Trump.
  • Topic: Hegemony, Partnerships, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, United States of America
  • Author: Hassan Masood
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: At the time of independence Pakistan faced severe insecurity emanating from a fractured geography, non-existent constitutional framework, weak economy, and military capability in the face of an overwhelmingly powerful and hostile India. The paper explores Pakistan’s efforts for establishing a reliable balance of power with India first by joining the collective security later supplementing it by joining alliances. It argues that the secession of East Pakistan was the turning point establishing the unreliability of the erstwhile basis of balance of power, leading Pakistan to the development of nuclear weapons as a reliable basis for a Pakistan-India balance of power while retaining the earlier two bases.
  • Topic: Security, Nuclear Weapons, Geopolitics, Alliance
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Sohail Ahmad, Mahwish Bakht
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The Islamic State was hoping for a smooth establishment and extraordinary gains in the Khorasan region. The presence of US forces in Afghanistan and Operation Zarb-eAzb by the strong military of Pakistan did not allow it to happen. The Taliban could be a strong ally of IS in the region but clashes between the two had diminished the chances of its establishment and success in the Khorasan region. Both organizations have declared ‘Jihad’ against each other to enjoy monopoly status in the region, especially in Afghanistan. Afghan government even supported Taliban to fight against IS. Though IS has claimed many deadly attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan it has not gained the momentum and support it was expecting. The nature of this study is qualitative.
  • Topic: Violent Extremism, Islamic State, Conflict, Khorasan Group
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia
  • Author: Iram Khalid
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Food security has established as a concern of national security in terms of state development and progress.. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Concerns of food security and economic development act together reinforcing one another in the practice of development. A country which is not able to generate the required food and lacks resources and affordability of buying food from the international marketplace meeting the gap of supply and demand is not a state that is sufficient in food sovereignty. Food Security therefore is essential for national security.
  • Topic: Climate Change, National Security, Urbanization, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India
  • Author: Murad Ali, Reema Murad
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Extremism, though not a new phenomenon, has undergone complete metamorphosis in the South Asian context. While in Sri Lanka, the discriminatory policy of ruling Sinhalese towards Tamil minority was reason of latter’s taking up arms to assert their identity, India is inflicting war on the assertive Kashmiris who are struggling for the recognition of their right of self-determination. At the same time, the ultra-right government of the BJP is encouraging religious extremism. With his baggage of Gujarat pogrom, Prime Minister Modi is treading a dangerous path of fanning Hindu nationalism. Afghanistan was subjected to the communist elements under the Babrak Karmal regime which had the backing of the Soviet Union and the traditional Afghan society was not receptive to the foreign ideology. People stood up against the direct Soviet intervention which they took as heretic. They were supported in their armed struggle by the US and Pakistan. As Soviets withdrew ignominiously from Afghanistan, the warlords went into civil war to assert themselves which created a vacuum filled by the Taliban. The US attacked Afghanistan to remove Taliban who were thought to have be harbouring the perpetrators of September 11, 2001 attack. The Kabul government however couldn’t win the confidence of the people and Taliban resurgence has cost the country dearly with ramifications for Pakistan. The element of extremism and violence was introduced in Pakistan was in Afghanistan after the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 and got different and colossal dimensions post September 11, 2001 tragedy. In Pakistan, the Tehrik i Taliban Pakistan were formed after the Lal Masjid operation. There is hardly any parallel in history to match the devastating terrorist rampages costing huge loss of life and property. Unfortunately, the neighbouring India is fishing in the troubled waters to achieve some petty gains. While Afghanistan has its own circumstances and hence its responses to end the imbroglio, Pakistan has a long way to go end the menace of extremism as well as terrorism, of course in conjunction with Afghanistan, without which peace cannot return to the region.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Violent Extremism, Transnational Actors
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Sri Lanka
  • Author: Sarwat Rauf
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Regional cooperation can give power to the small states and in order to get economic development, states usually prefer to enter in political and economic alliances. This paper examines the efforts of Pakistan and China to upgrade their regional cooperation through connectivity. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is an important branch of Chinese mega project, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which intended to link South Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, Europe and Africa by using land and sea routes. The main argument is that CPEC will bring comprehensive changes in the economy of Pakistan and it would be beneficial for neighboring countries particularly CARs. CPEC has steered several other economic projects such as signing of Central Asia-South Asia (CASA-1000) envisages cooperation between two regions. Similarly, groundbreaking ceremony of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India Pipeline (TAPI) reflects revamping of relations between states. The paper is set out in the perspective of available harmonious grounds for Pakistan and CARs. It also examines the various facets of the utility of CPEC for China, Pakistan and CARs
  • Topic: Economics, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Regionalism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Asia
  • Author: Qamar Fatima
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Religious commonalities between Pakistan and Afghanistan are inevitable part of their relationships. So there is a need to understand the ramifications of dynamics of religious elite approach of Pakistan in order to comprehend the true nature of PakAfghan relations. Pakistan right after its creation faced a dilemma about that what role should Islam play in the Pakistani state. The Modernists were not ready to reconcile with the idea of theocracy. The conservatives with contrary position over role of religion believed that only Sharia Law should govern it. This debate stiffened with the passage of time and finally religion was followed as a consistent policy of state for defining Pakistan’s identity as Islamic state. Eventually the role of religion in Pakistan’s political system gave birth to a unique power pole, that is the priest class, the ‘Ulema’ in the capacity of leaders of religious political parties. Who, however, despite being in an ideological state, failed to secure a significant political representation in elected bodies and take an influential and meaningful share in the strata of ruling elite. However, these religious elite have always had relevance with Afghan affairs. Specifically, their role became more visible and relevancy increased owing to their proactive role during the Afghan Jihad against Soviet Union, and later during the Taliban Rule. The central question of research is why religious elite in Pakistan have always shown a proactive stance towards Afghan affairs. So this study would be analyzing the role and relevancy of Pakistan's religious elite with Pakistan – Afghanistan Relations. This research would also substantiate the current scenario of Pakistan Afghan Relations with special reference to religious elite approach.
  • Topic: Religion, Taliban, Jihad, Elites
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia
  • Author: Mushtaq Ahmed Abbasi, Nazir Hussain
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The US Exit Strategy 2014 from Afghanistan has now entered one of their final phase, which happens to be the Withdrawal from Afghanistan. The US has already lessened its troops, though there were certain changes after Trump came to power. But still there is a looming confusion which exists regarding the aftermath of the event. That is how this Withdrawal will come to play and what would the Afghanistan’s post-US withdrawal would look like. Moreover, Pakistan will also be affected in more than one ways. The US is going to be leaving quite a vacuum upon which many regional and foreign powers have set their eyes on. India, Iran, China and Russia are all going to be a part of the post-US Afghanistan but this might only produce more instability. Moreover, it will have drastic security, political and strategic implications for Pakistan. The picture which comes to the mind is going to be of an everlasting loop of security complexes and strategic undertones after the withdrawal.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Al Qaeda, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Mushtaq Ahmed Abbasi, Nazir Hussain
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The US Exit Strategy 2014 from Afghanistan has now entered one of their final phase, which happens to be the Withdrawal from Afghanistan. The US has already lessened its troops, though there were certain changes after Trump came to power. But still there is a looming confusion which exists regarding the aftermath of the event. That is how this Withdrawal will come to play and what would the Afghanistan’s post-US withdrawal would look like. Moreover, Pakistan will also be affected in more than one ways. The US is going to be leaving quite a vacuum upon which many regional and foreign powers have set their eyes on. India, Iran, China and Russia are all going to be a part of the post-US Afghanistan but this might only produce more instability. Moreover, it will have drastic security, political and strategic implications for Pakistan. The picture which comes to the mind is going to be of an everlasting loop of security complexes and strategic undertones after the withdrawal.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Al Qaeda, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, North America, United States of America
  • Author: Mushtaq Ahmed Abbasi, Ghulam Qumber, Ahmed Saeed Minhas
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This research paper is aimed at evaluating prevailing global scenario and the dynamics of shift of power from the West to the East. Efforts have been made to analyze the economic, political, and security trends to understand important aspects of the power transition process. Currently, there is an enough literature available, which proves the existing consensus among many experts that China is playing a central role in the process of shift of power from the West to the East. Therefore, while explaining this transition process, it is pertinent to focus on the leading role of China and its possible implications. So, this study further highlights the rising power of China covering an overall picture of China, particularly its economic development process, the political and cultural aspects, and the military modernization. Efforts have been made to give an analytical view that how the rise in economic power is gradually transforming itself into political, diplomatic, and military strength of China. Besides; this research effort also focuses on how China is adjusting its foreign policy posture in the regional and global affairs, which culminates or aims at adjusting itself to globalization process.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Power Politics
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Fatima Asim, Muhammad Bilal
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: On 16th December 2014, Army Public School and College (APSAC), Warsak road, Peshawar, located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, was attacked by more than six militants dressed as Pakistan Army Soldiers which resulted in killing of 149 people, mostly innocent children. After this attack, Government with the collaboration of Military took immediate steps for the eradication of terrorists from Pakistan and announced National Action Plan (NAP). Based on Master’s Fieldwork in Rawalpindi city, this study explores peoples’ reasoning to why such an attack took place? The paper further investigates whether the citizens of Rawalpindi are satisfied with the counter-terrorism steps taken immediately after the Peshawar incident. The locale of the study was Rawalpindi’s Union Council number 30. This qualitative study used purposive sampling techniques to draw a heterogeneous sample of 31 participants in order to conduct In-depth interviews.
  • Topic: Islam, Terrorism, Taliban, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: A. Z. Hilali
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: India’s immense diversity is unique with its pluralism based on myriad ethnic communities, cultures, religious identities and tribes. Since independence, the country failed to produce one single dominant nation’s concept because identities have not yet forged a common national outlook and its ethnic, religious, and cultural identities remains strong and quite distinctive. Moreover, the Indian federal structure seems to be failed to accommodate the expectations of diverse communities and socio-political cultures. Consequently, the federation is asymmetric with the separatist movements in many parts of the country specifically violent movements in Kashmir, Nagaland, Assam, Manipur and Mezoland which have severely challenged the country’s sovereignty. Furthermore, the insurgencies in Northeast of India and violent movements of Naxalites and Maoist have also challenged India’s territorial integrity. In the same manner the Dalits (Harijan) and minorities (Christians and Muslims), are the victims of superior Hindu caste and Hindu chauvinism. Hence it is perceived that India has lost sight of vital constitutional spirit of secularism and federalism. Further, the worst internal security situation lies on India’s unfair, unbalanced and discriminatory policies with the communities and especially with its judicial system. Nonetheless, it has proved that various socio-economic and political imperatives are not fulfilled by the ruling elites or society. Thus, ethno-religiousideological fault lines, which exist in India, have to be managed with a sense of fairness and transparent federal policies and there is no need to use forces to suppress people. In this context, India requires peaceful and development manual at the national level in order to stabilize all section of society. Without a coordinate approach, the domestic security threats will lead the country to the worst situation.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Violent Extremism, Separatism, Justice, Secularism, Federalism
  • Political Geography: South Asia, India
  • Author: Manzoor Khan Afridi, Mansoor Akbar Kundi
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The paper attempts to analyze China’s role in various regional organizations and potential cooperation between China and Pakistan within these forums. SAARC, SCO, OIC, Heart of Asia-Istanbul Peace Process, APEC, CICA and Boao Forum have been selected here for analysis. Pakistan is one of the founding members of SAARC and China has an observer status. Pakistan supports Chinese membership in SAARC to reduce Indian role and hegemony. China wants to have easy access to Indian Ocean, Middle East and influence in South Asia, for which India is the biggest hurdle. In SCO, China is the founding member while Pakistan joined it as observer in 2005 and as a member in 2015. Combating terrorism, extremism and separatism and to enhance the trade opportunities, stability in neighborhood and energy security are the common objectives of the two states in SCO. Pakistan, being a founding member in OIC, has always played an active and dynamic role for the cause of Muslims. Pakistan wants China to have greater role in OIC where the later showed interest for observer status in 2012. Chinese interest in Muslim states, particularly in Middle East and Central Asia, is triggered by the energy hunt and growing posture of these regions in contemporary world politics. Pakistan can play a bridge role, not only geographically, but also ideologically and culturally, to bring these states closer to China. China and Pakistan are increasing their cooperation in the Heart of AsiaIstanbul Process on Afghanistan, APEC, CICA and Boao Forum for Asia, as well. The paper concludes that both states share similar views on all bilateral and multilateral issues, support each other’s position, and enhancing their cooperation in regional organizations and multilateral forums.
  • Topic: International Relations, Regional Cooperation, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, China, South Asia, Asia
  • Author: Manzoor Ahmad, Tahir Ali, Zahir Shah
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Pakistan-Iran relations have been complex and uncertain due to United States tremendous influence since 9/11. National interest remains a dominant factor to form the core of bilateral ties between the states. The change of governments in these states resulted in to reassess the foreign policy which gave a new dimension to the suspected and hostile relations between both the Muslim States which successfully undermined the United States hegemonic pressure. This paper is an attempt to explore Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Iran after Musharraf Presidency till now and the factors due to which it deterred and challenged the US influence.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Treaties and Agreements, Bilateral Relations, Nuclear Power, Afghanistan
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Iran, United States of America
  • Author: Warda Ajaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Despite having minimal contribution to the global carbon emissions, Pakistan is considered to be one of the most vulnerable countries to the catastrophes of climate change. The country experienced back-to-back super floods in 2010 and 2011. In 2010 alone, the floods inundated 20 percent of the country and displaced some 20 million people, making it the biggest human displacement caused by a single climate-induced event in the history(Ministry of Climate Change, 2012). In the wake of these disasters, the Government of Pakistan established the world’s first full-fledged National Ministry of Climate Change and approved a National Policy on Climate Change in 2012. In this context, this paper applies a Multiple Streams lens to understand the agenda-setting process that prompted the development and approval of this policy. The paper will first discuss Pakistan’s vulnerability to climate change and the relevant literature on climate change agenda setting, and will then explore how various facts and events fit into the three streams of Multiple Streams Framework to account for the agenda-setting process that led to development and approval of the national climate change policy.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Natural Disasters, Governance, Flood
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Najam-ud-din Muhammad Farani, Iram Khalid, Muhammad Rizwan Abbassi
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: United Kingdom’s (UK) foreign policy towards the Syrian crisis is quite significant with reference to the entry of Syrian refugees into Europe and the strategic balance of power in the Middle East. UK being a major power in the European continent understands the importance of sharing the humanitarian responsibility for protecting, aiding and accommodating the Syrian refugees. The British Government is aware of the fact that it is not only providing humanitarian assistance to the Syrian refugees but also going to host their hostilities and affiliations in the ongoing conflict inside Syria. The arrival of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in UK presents a complex case of national versus humanitarian concerns in foreign policy analysis. This research paper is an attempt to focus on the convergence and divergence of interests between UK’s Humanitarian assistance policy directed towards Syrian refugees and the British national security interests with reference to the strategic balance of power in the Middle East.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Humanitarian Aid, Refugees, Syrian War, Asylum
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Muhammad Nadeem Mirza, Lubna Abid Ali, Irfan Hasnain Qaisrani
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This study focuses on the growth of transnational forces and increased global interdependence in the Post-Cold War period, posing serious challenges to conservative regimes in the Middle East – manifested by popular uprisings for economic and political change, beginning 2010 in Tunisia. Since then the Arab states of Middle East are in turmoil. The situation has become complex due to the presence of Al-Qaeda network and ISIS (‘Islamic’ State of Iraq and Syria) radicals in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. Such non state extremists groups are a collective threat to future Europe also. On the other hand various countries of the Middle East and gulf region, have been engaged in waging the proxy wars against each other in order to achieve their specific objectives. Geographically, historically and politically Turkey has been a bridge between Middle East and Europe. The underlying assumption of this study establishes Turkey’s matured foreign policy not only as a model for struggling states of the Muslim World but holds keys to emerging threats to Europe. The study explores possibilities of Turkey to be central player not only for the resolution of regional issues but also as an active player at the global level.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, European Union, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Mediterranean
  • Author: Noshina Saleem, Mian Ahmad Hanan, Arooj Arshad
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Political Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: This paper focuses on the media impact on the discourse of women, children and minority rights within the context of Pakistan while also studying the difference in response generated by Males and females consumers with a sample of 455 adults taken from different private and public institutes of Pakistan. Correlational research design was employed for this research and data was collected through indigenous questionnaire. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to find out the relationship between the study variables. Moreover, Multiple Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to study whether the promotion of women, children and minority rights was predicted by Media. Also moderating effect of gender was studied by conducted a SEM using path analysis through AMOS. The findings of the study revealed that awareness about women, children and minority rights was significantly predicted by mass media, controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Moreover, the results of the moderation analysis revealed the significant interaction effect of gender and media with minority. The findings highlighted that Pakistani media effectively performs its responsibilities by better providing factual information for citizens and empowerment for the disenfranchised among other roles. So, that the media consumers in Pakistan have to platforms that enable various segments of society to voice their political concerns and demands.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Mass Media, Public Opinion, Minorities, Children, Women
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia