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  • Author: Benjamin E. Bagozzi, Ore Koren
  • Publication Date: 03-2020
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Political Violence @ A Glance
  • Abstract: At a time when global cooperation is needed more than ever, new research suggests that pandemics may weaken diplomatic connections between countries and lower the probability that nations will establish new diplomatic ties. Diplomacy is one of the most enduring forms of international political interaction. Administered through embassies, consulates, and their political and bureaucratic support staffs, on-the-ground diplomatic relations are a key tool for international political negotiation, cooperation, trade promotion, dispute settlement, foreign intelligence management, and cultural exchange.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Cooperation, Communications, Peacekeeping, Negotiation, COVID-19
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 05-2013
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Public International Law Policy Group
  • Abstract: The Public International Law & Policy Group’s (PILPG) Ceasefire Drafter’s Handbook is a guide intended to effectively supplement the activities of negotiators and drafters of ceasefire agreements. This Handbook draws from PILPG’s experience in ceasefire negotiations, as well as state practice and comparative analysis of over 200 ceasefire agreements from Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America. As part of the ceasefires practice area, PILPG also provides negotiation simulations, strategic memoranda, training modules, and negotiation and drafting assistance to pro bono clients. For more information about PILPG’s ceasefires work, please visit www.pilpg.org. This Handbook includes an Introduction to Ceasefires and an Annotated Ceasefire Template. The Introduction to Ceasefires provides information on the core elements of ceasefires, the effects of asymmetry on ceasefire agreements, the role of third parties, and the legality of ceasefire agreements. The Annotated Ceasefire Template describes core provisions and provides sample language for drafters to incorporate into ceasefire agreements. Although each template section offers drafters a guiding framework, it may be necessary to reshape the provisions to address the nuances of each situation. This Handbook’s comparative provisions and sample language are included to provide options from existing ceasefires to assist the drafter. A full-text database of all the agreements cited in the footnotes can be found on PILPG’s ceasefire database at www.pilpg.org/ceasefire-database/. There are three Annexes to the handbook. Annex A provides a map of geographic ceasefire elements, Annex B provides a sample chart of assembly areas, and Annex C provides a sample timeline of implementation activities.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Treaties and Agreements, Conflict, Negotiation, Peace, Ceasefire
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2012
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Public International Law Policy Group
  • Abstract: The Public International Law & Policy Group’s (PILPG) Post-Conflict Constitution Drafter’s Handbook is intended to assist drafters of constitutions in post-conflict situations. The Handbook draws from PILPG’s experience in facilitating post-conflict constitution drafting processes, as well as comparative state practice, and is based upon analysis of over 150 constitutions from post- conflict and stable states. The Handbook is divided into sixteen chapters, each of which covers a core section in post-conflict constitutions. The chapters include: the Preamble, State Structure and Devolution of Powers, the Executive, the Legislature, the Judiciary, International Legal Obligations, the Electoral System, Financial Matters and the Central Bank, Human Rights, Minority Rights, Women’s Rights, Defense and Security, the Role of Religion, Customary Law, Natural Resources, and Extraordinary Measures. Within each chapter, the Handbook describes core provisions and provides sample language that may be used as a basis for constitutional provisions. In some instances, the Handbook provides several options that the drafter may choose from. The sample language is identified as “Option One” and “Option Two.” In others, the Handbook provides optional language that drafters may include. In those instances the sample language is identified as “Optional.” The intent of this handbook is to provide the drafter with options in structuring constitutional provisions. Since every post-conflict situation is unique, the drafter may change certain elements to enhance the constitution’s relevance and applicability to a particular context. The purpose of the sample language is merely to provide options from ratified constitutions to assist the drafter. The Handbook also contains two annexes. Annex I provides a list all of the constitutions cited in the footnotes and a link to their location on the World Wide Web. Annex II provides a compilation of all the sample language. PILPG is committed to supporting constitution drafters in fulfilling their roles, and, upon request, can provide additional assistance in considering particular provisions and language.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Peacekeeping, Conflict, Negotiation, Peace
  • Political Geography: Global Focus