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  • Author: Melanie Kesmaecker-Wissing, Lucy Knight, Ruth Mayne, Jola Miziniak
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Effective behaviour change strategies can play a vital role in combating poverty, injustice and environmental degradation. They can help prevent violence against women and girls; enable better health, hygiene and environmental behaviours; motivate and empower people to participate in campaigns or to become change makers; or influence people to make more equitable, ethical or sustainable purchasing and investment decisions. There is growing understanding among civil society organizations, governments and others about how to enable behaviour change, but many interventions still rely too much on information provision and awareness raising. This discussion paper draws on learning from theory and practice to provide practitioners with an understanding of the range of influences that shape different behaviours at individual, group, societal and system levels. It suggests a menu of possible interventions to address them, and highlights the need for resources and skill-building. It will be relevant for practitioners involved in programming, humanitarian, influencing and campaigning work, as well as for government officials and donors.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Inequality, Gender Based Violence , Behavior
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Luke Gibson
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The gap between the richest and the rest in Indonesia has grown faster in the past two decades than in any other country in South-East Asia. The four richest men in Indonesia now have more wealth than the poorest 100 million people. Inequality is slowing down poverty reduction, dampening economic growth and threatening social cohesion. President Jokowi has made fighting inequality his administration's top priority for 2017. This report shows how he could achieve this by enforcing a living wage for all workers, increasing spending on public services, and making big corporations and rich individuals pay their fair share of tax.
  • Topic: Inequality, Economic Inequality, Social Cohesion, Elites
  • Political Geography: Indonesia, Asia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Josephine Libel, Anna Musgrave
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This paper highlights how the UK government could do more to enable refugees with family members in the UK to travel here safely. The current rules leave families facing impossible decisions: bring some family members to safety but leave others behind, often at even greater risk as they may be isolated and alone in dangerous circumstances; or put their loved ones’ lives in the hands of smugglers in a desperate attempt to be together in the UK. By changing its restrictive policy, the UK government could help make families more resilient in the face of displacement, prevent men, women and children from embarking on dangerous journeys, and support the integration of refugees in the UK.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Migration, Refugees, Displacement, Conflict
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Mara Bolis, Isabelle Irani, Robert Nash, Erinch Sahan, Chris West
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Oxfam has several programmes that focus on poverty-reducing enterprises which engage marginalized populations through investment and investment-like approaches. These programmes recognize the need to structure finance differently so that it realizes the full potential of those enterprises to make a sustainable contribution to poverty reduction. The founders of Sumerian Partners have long histories of supporting start-up and growing businesses in both developed countries and emerging economies. This includes experience as entrepreneurs, as well as acting as asset managers and deploying philanthropic capital. This paper from Oxfam and Sumerian Partners questions some of the assumptions around impact investment and highlights the experience of enterprises contributing to poverty reduction so that they might be better served by the field. It argues that the sector risks being discredited due to rising, unrealistic expectations about financial returns.
  • Topic: Emerging Markets, Poverty, Investment, Marginalization
  • Political Geography: Global Markets
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At its core, the economic empowerment of women – to succeed and advance economically and to make and act on economic decisions – depends on the quantity and quality of paid employment, the provision or absence of public services, the amount of unpaid care work borne by women, as well as coverage or lack thereof under core social and labour protections. This paper discusses how macroeconomic policies are crucial enablers of gender equality, as they shape the overall economic environment for advancing women’s economic empowerment. It focuses on how macroeconomic policies support employment creation, the level of unpaid care required of women and the size of fiscal space, which determines the resources available for governments to promote gender equality.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Income Inequality, Macroeconomics, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Simone Lombardini, Kristen McCollum
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis examining the overall impact of women’s empowerment projects evaluated as part of Oxfam GB’s Effectiveness Reviews. Results show a positive and significant impact on the Women’s Empowerment Index and mixed results with its individual indicators. We found a statistically significant effect on opinions on women’s economic role and their ability to participate and have influence in the community. We did not find evidence of overall changes in power within the household nor with the share of household income. The meta-analysis also found statistically significant overall effects where the individual studies were too under-powered to detect impact. This paper provides an example of how using meta-analysis in the presence of a robust organizational global evaluation framework can enable evidence-based learning, organizational accountability and better programme implementation.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Economic Inequality, Content Analysis, Empowerment
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The IMF has significant influence on the tax policies of developing countries through advice and conditionality, technical assistance and by setting global standards and analyzing global trends. Its rhetoric has become more progressive in recent years. This paper assesses the IMF’s tax advice to developing countries based on five country case studies (Ghana, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Senegal) over the period 2010 to 2015 and supported by a desk study of public IMF documents. It finds that there is a gap between the IMF’s commitment to leveraging fiscal policy to fight inequality, and its actual tax advice to developing countries.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Inequality, Tax Systems, IMF, Progressivism
  • Political Geography: Africa, South America, Nicaragua, Mozambique, Senegal, Peru, Ghana