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  • Publication Date: 08-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Shortly after Mozambique gained independence in 1975, civil war erupted and continued to rage for the next 16 years. In 1992 a peace agreement was negotiated, and in 1994 the country's first multiparty elections were held under U.N. auspices. President Joaquim Chissano and the ruling Frelimo party won the presidency and a majority in Parliament. Renamo, the former guerilla movement headed by Afonso Dhlakama, received nearly 34 percent of the presidential ballots and won 112 of the 250 seats in parliament.
  • Topic: Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Africa, United Nations, Mozambique
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: At the invitation of the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA), People's Republic of China, The Carter Center sent a delegation to observe villager committee (VC) elections in Hebei Province from January 4 to 13, 2000. The delegation was led by Ambassador Gordon L. Streeb, Associate Executive Director of the Center, and made up of nine Center staff members, election experts and China scholars from various universities in the United States and Denmark. This was the fourth time since 1997 that the Center has observed village elections in China and the first time that an international organization has been invited to observe a primary VC election.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, International Organization
  • Political Geography: United States, China, Denmark
  • Publication Date: 06-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The May 1998 departure of Indonesian President Suharto, following a 32-year dictatorship, raised hopes of independence for East Timor, where some 200,000 people had died since Indonesia's 1975 invasion of the Portuguese colony. In January 1999, Suharto's successor, Bucharuddin Jusuf (B.J.) Habibie, in an effort to appease the East Timorese and international community, suggested that a vote would be held on autonomy with or in- dependence from Indonesia. Details of this referendum were set forward in the May 5 Agreement, signed by Indonesia, Portugal, and the United Nations.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, International Organization, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Indonesia, Portugal, Timor
  • Author: Catriona Gourlay, Sibylle Bauer, Sharon Riggle, Thomas Sköld, Jensen Frederik
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: At the Nice Summit on 8 December, EU member states agreed that it is time for the EU to 'play...its role fully on the international stage' by cementing a new military dimension to its structures. The 60-page 'Presidency Report' (doc#14056), attached at the end of the Presidency Conclusions, exhaustively describes the modalities of the new common European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), and describes how the new structures will enable the EU to carry out the so-called Petersberg Tasks. [This article includes excerpts from a longer paper, available soon at www.cesd.org].
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Catriona Gourlay, Sibylle Bauer, Jensen Frederik
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: On 26 July 2000 EU Ambassadors voted to introduce new rules denying the public access to classified, secret or top-secret documents containing information on military or non-military crisis management. The decision was adopted in August without further consultation of other EU institutions or any parliamentary or public debate. The Council has since been accused by some member states and the European Parliament (EP) of bringing secrecy into the EU by bypassing normal decision-making procedures and excluding an entire category of documents from the public — challenges which will ultimately be resolved in the European Court of Justice.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Catriona Gourlay, Sibylle Bauer, Christopher Bollinghaus, Hiroko Kosaka, Russell Pickard
  • Publication Date: 07-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: One of the shortcomings of European Union (EU) crisis management is the inability, as a direct result of the rigidities imposed by the pillar structure, to mobilise resources to support properly co-ordinated, coherent and timely nonmilitary interventions. The report on Non-Military Crisis Management of the EU, prepared for the European Council in Helsinki in December 1999, called for the establishment of a Rapid Reaction Facility (RRF) to overcome these structural obstacles. The Commission has since developed a proposal for a Council Regulation to establish such a Facility but outstanding questions about its legal basis and its sources of funding may delay its adoption.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Philip Wilkinson, Stefan Lehne, Catriona Gourlay
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: Quoting the words of Alva Myrdal in her 1982 Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech, Mrs Theorin noted that we are living in an age of “instrumentalised, de - personalized violence.” In the post - cold war era the battlefield has moved to the village, the street and the home. Most recent and ongoing wars occur within a state rather than between states, with civilians being the prime targets and victims of violent conflict. The international community too often avoids its responsibilities, failing to commit peacekeepers, while others sidestep the United Nations (UN) in pursuit of their own interests. Faced with such inconsistencies in the international community's willingness to intervene, non - violent methods must be given priority. The most important part of the EU's new Rapid Reaction Force is not the missiles, tanks and soldiers, but rather the advantage in civilian crisis management that it presents. The central part must be a civilian peace service based on voluntary civilian organisations trained and competent to serve in crisis management scenarios. We need to incorporate civil society unless we want it to become a shadow of NATO. Two thousand years ago Cicero remarked that there are two ways of resolving conflict: through negotiation or through violence. The first is for human beings, the other for wild beasts. We should have a clear vision of conflict prevention that recognises that there are two ways of solving conflicts: through negotiations and through violence. We are not beasts, but humans. And we must seek to solve conflicts through negotiation, not killing.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 05-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: This project sought to refocus the attention of North and Latin America and the Caribbean towards the idea of common hemispheric objectives. The first two phases dealt with U.S. interests in the region and the final two phases incorporated Latin American and Caribbean participants to discuss issues of democratization and economic integration.
  • Publication Date: 04-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: In recent years American's political system has not performed as well as its economic system. While the strong economy of the past decade should provide policy makers with the opportunity to move forward on long-term social and economic goals, they seem stuck in the mindset of short-term fixes and shrill oratory common to leaner times. Focusing on three issues--productivity growth, income inequality and the aging of the baby-boom generation--this concise volume describes a "radically moderate" agenda that captures or political moment. The distinguished authors begin by acknowledging the difficult tradeoffs required for revamping programs for the aged and poor while keeping the economy growing. They then untangle the complexities of the policy debate and propose sensible ways to move American into the new century.
  • Publication Date: 04-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: Drawing on the 2001 Uniting America Assembly on racial equality, this report argues that racial equality is contingent on wider progress in reforming criminal justice and increasing economic opportunity for all Americans.