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  • Author: Sari Hanafi
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Taraki: Living Palestine: Family Survival, Resistance, and Mobility under Occupation Reviewed by Sari Hanafi Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 9 (Winter 2009), p. 98Recent Books Living Palestine: Family Survival, Resistance, and Mobility under Occupation, edited by Lisa Taraki. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2006. xxx + 274 pages. Works cited top. 291. Index top. 296. $24.95 paper.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Elia Zureik
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Gordon: Israel's Occupation Reviewed by Elia Zureik Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 9 (Winter 2009), p. 99 Recent Books Israel's Occupation, by Neve Gordon. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2008. xix + 225 pages. Appendices to p. 231. Notes to p. 290. Index to p. 318. $55.00 cloth; $21.95 paper.
  • Political Geography: Israel, London, California, Palestine, Los Angeles
  • Author: Simona Sharoni
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Kuriansky: Terror in the Holy Land: Inside the Anguish of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Reviewed by Simona Sharoni Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 9 (Winter 2009), p. 101 Recent Books Terror in the Holy Land: Inside the Anguish of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, edited by Judy Kuriansky. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006. Contemporary Psychology Series. xvi +261 pages. Index to p. 269. About the series to p. 272. About the editor to p. 274. About the contributors to p. 280. $49.95 cloth.
  • Topic: Environment
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Shelagh Weir
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Skinner: Palestinian Embroidery Motifs: A Treasury of Stitches Reviewed by Shelagh Weir Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 9 (Winter 2009), p. 102 Recent Books Palestinian Embroidery Motifs: A Treasury of Stitches 1850-1950, by Margarita Skinner. London: Melisande Publishing, 2006. 196 pages. Selected bibliography top. 199. Index of motif names top. 203. £14.95 paper.
  • Author: Ida Audeh
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Corrie: Let Me Stand Alone: The Journals of Rachel Corrie Reviewed by Ida Audeh Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 9 (Winter 2009), p. 103 Recent Books Let Me Stand Alone: The Journals of Rachel Corrie, edited and with an introduction by the Corrie family. NewYork:W.W. Norton and Company, 2008. xx+295 pages. Notes to page 310. Acknowledgements to page 313. $23.95 cloth.
  • Political Geography: New York
  • Author: Michele K. Esposito
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section is part 100 of a chronology begun in JPS 13, no. 3 (Spring 1984). For a more comprehensive overview of events related to the al-Aqsa intifada and of regional and international developments related to the peace process, see the Quarterly Update on Conflict and Diplomacy in this issue.
  • Author: Norbert Scholz
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section lists articles and reviews of books relevant to Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Entries are classified under the following headings: Reference and General; History (through 1948) and Geography; Palestinian Politics and Society; Jerusalem; Israeli Politics, Society, and Zionism; Arab and Middle Eastern Politics; International Relations; Law; Military; Economy, Society, and Education; Literature, Arts, and Culture; Book Reviews; and Reports Received.
  • Topic: International Relations, Law
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Palestine, Arabia, Jerusalem
  • Author: Hisham Naffa'
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: A Few Hours After Israel launched its assault on the occupied Gaza Strip on Saturday, 27 December 2008, two large crowds of angry demonstrators set out from different points of the Galilee town of Nazareth, the “Capital of the Arabs in Israel.” Supporters of the Communist party and affiliated coalitions carried red banners along with Palestinian flags, while the Islamist demonstrators carried green banners interspersed with the national flag. Both loudly proclaimed their identification with Gaza and their rejection of Israel's military crimes against the Palestinian people of Gaza. Eventually the two demonstrations converged on Nazareth's main street at the very spot where, a few years earlier, a bitter controversy with sectarian overtones had raged over the Muslim shrine of Shihab al-Din, adjacent to the Basilica of the Annunciation. But on this evening in late December, when the two groups commingled, memories of ideological difference and controversy were swept aside by feelings of solidarity and common purpose. Leaders from the various parties took turns addressing the demonstration, and their message was the same as the shouts that went up from the crowd: “Stop the massacre against our people in Gaza!”
  • Political Geography: Israel, Arabia
  • Author: Robert Blecher
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Palestinians Were Glued to al-Jazeera during the three weeks of Operation Cast Lead, which had killed 1,430 Gazans and wounded another 5,300 by the time Israel and Hamas declared cease-fires on 18 January 2009. The television screen was about as close as most West Bankers got to entering the fray. Despite the ferocity of the assault, the Jewish state's eastern flank remained largely quiet, if tensely so. The West Bank saw a single daylong strike (a second followed in East Jerusalem), a series of demonstrations in the larger cities, and a few scattered clashes with Israeli troops, which resulted in a handful of deaths. But security coordination between the Ramallah-based Palestinian Authority (PA) and Israel continued apace, and while diplomatic negotiations formally were suspended “in light of the circumstances,” as a senior PA official put it, they were not severed.
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Frida Berrigan
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Enforcement of U.S. law concerning weapons exports and the disbursement of military aid are subject to highly politicized interpretations of concepts like "legitimate self-defense" and "safeguarding internal security." As illustrated by Israel's July 2006 war in Lebanon and its 2008-2009 Operation Cast Lead in Gaza, Washington has essentially allowed Israel to define "self-defense" however it chooses. This overview of U.S. military aid to Israel, including weapons sales and related support of its domestic military industrial complex, examines in detail the mechanisms through which aid is funneled, the restrictions on aid that do exist, and the uses to which U.S. military aid has been put-particularly in terms of Israel's military operations and its exports abroad. Frida Berrigan is senior program associate of the Arms and Security Initiative at the New America Foundation in Washington, DC.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Washington, Israel, Gaza
  • Author: Ilana Feldman
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay explores the possible negative consequences of identifying the current situation in Gaza primarily as a humanitarian problem. Scholarship on the complicated effects of humanitarian action in general, the early history of humanitarian intervention in the lives of Palestinians, and the current politics of aid in Gaza all underscore these problems. The essay reflects on several aspects of what can be called the "humanitarianism problem" in Gaza by considering both how humanitarianism is sometimes deployed as a strategy for frustrating Palestinian aspirations and the often unintended political effects of the most well-intentioned humanitarian interventions.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Mouin Rabbani
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Azmi Bishara (b. 1956 in Nazareth), an Israeli Arab politician and academic, earned a doctorate in philosophy from Humboldt University in Berlin in 1986 and for the next ten years was professor of philosophy at Birzeit University; he was also associated with the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem as a senior researcher. Politics, however, occupied him from an early age. In 1974, while still in high school, he established the first National Committee of Arab High School Students; two years later he was instrumental in founding the first National Arab Student Union, which he represented in the Committee for the Defense of Arab Lands when it declared Land Day in 1976. Bishara has been a dominant force in Israeli Arab politics since 1995, when he was a principal founder of the National Democratic Assembly (Tajamu` in Arabic, Balad in Hebrew), a "democratic progressive national party for the Palestinian citizens of Israel." He was elected to the Israeli Knesset for the first time in 1996-and in all subsequent elections through 2006-under the banner of the National Democratic Assembly, which soon became the spearhead of the national movement for the Palestinian community in Israel with its demands for cultural autonomy, recognition as a national minority, and equal rights. Within a few years, the slogan Bishara coined, "Israel as a state for all its citizens," had become a mainstream demand and the rallying cry of Israel's Palestinian community. A self-described Arab nationalist, Bishara has long been a thorn in the side of the Israeli establishment. Attempts to rein him in began in earnest in November 2001, when, following a visit to Syria and speeches supporting the right of people under occupation to resist, the Knesset revoked his immunity as a member of the Knesset, opening the way for a criminal indictment against him. The Israeli High Court dismissed the indictment in April 2003 and Bishara's parliamentary immunity was restored, but other actions followed. The National Democratic Assembly, was twice banned (in 2003 and 2006) from participating in parliamentary elections by Israel's Central Elections Committee. (The ban was lifted both times by the High Court, and both times the party won three seats.) Following Israel's 2006 Lebanon war, Bishara became the subject of a high-level security probe. Although he vigorously rejected allegations of "passing information to the enemy at time of war" as politically motivated fabrications, he resigned his Knesset seat and went into exile in April 2007. In spring 2009, a bill was introduced in the Knesset that, if passed, will allow the state to strip him of his citizenship. Since leaving Israel, Bishara divides his time between Amman, Jordan, and Doha, Qatar. In addition to writing (he has published three books in recent years), he is a prominent commentator on regional and international affairs in the Arab media and satellite TV and holds the Gamal Abdel Nasser Chair for Arab Thought at the Center for Arab Unity Studies in Beirut. He was interviewed in English in Doha on 17 February 2009 by Mouin Rabbani, an Amman-based independent analyst and a senior fellow of the Institute for Palestine Studies.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Oren Yiftachel
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Focusing primarily on Israeli voter attitudes with respect to the Zionist-Palestinian conflict, this paper argues that the results of the 2009 elections highlight the structural entanglement of Israeli politics within a colonialist process of "creeping apartheid" not only in the West Bank but in Israel proper. The elections also demonstrated the continuing relevance of identity and class politics among Israeli voters and the trend among culturally and economically marginalized groups to support the colonialist agendas set mainly by the settlers, the military, and parts of the globalizing economic elites. In parallel, election results among Palestinians in Israel reflect their growing alienation from a political system that structurally excludes them from political influence. Oren Yiftachel is professor of political geography, urban planning, and public policy at Ben-Gurion University, Beersheba, and the author of a number of books, including Ethnocracy: Land and Identity Politics in Israel/Palestine (Penn Press, 2006).
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Peter Lagerquist
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Barred entry to Gaza during Operation Cast Lead, Western photojournalists and TV crews found themselves confined to the Israeli side of the border during the assault, peering along the barrels of IDF artillery. The following essay reflects on what was said and heard among them on a sunny day in January 2009, how they and local Israeli spectators related to the violence, and how these two perspectives were tacitly elided in photographs of the war.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, Gaza
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Inhabited from the 4th millennium B.C., and later a strategic and commercial crossroads linking Egypt and Mesopotamia (and Africa and the Arabian Peninsula), Gaza became the center of one of the 16 districts of Mandate Palestine under British rule in 1922. The Gaza Strip constitutes that part of Palestine held by the Egyptian forces at the end of the 1948 Palestine war and then administered by Egypt from the signing of the 1949 Egyptian-Israeli Armistice Agreement to the June 1967 war. The Strip comprised 1.3% of Mandate Palestine, 27% of the Mandate's Gaza district. Israel occupied the Gaza Strip during the June 1967 war. In 1994, the Palestinian Authority assumed territorial and civilian jurisdiction over the Gaza Strip (except for the settlements and military areas) under the Gaza-Jericho agreement, signed that year by Israel and the PLO. Israel unilaterally withdrew all military installations and settlements from the Gaza Strip in August–September 2005, but retained control of airspace, territorial waters, and entry and exit points; consequently, it remains the occupying power.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Egypt
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 98
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Gaza
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 122
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
368. Photos
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 172
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The gross disparity between the military resources available to Israel and the Palestinian factions during Operation Cast Lead (OCL) could make a comparison between their two “arsenals” seem absurd. Yet this and the following document devoted to Palestinian weaponry not only highlight the imbalance but help the reader better appreciate the dynamics at play in the broader conflict.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The data below were compiled by IPS Senior Research Associate Michele K. Esposito based on a survey of available sources. Sources for each day are listed in the Chronology section in this issue of JPS and in the notes below, which explain in detail how the figures were derived.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 207
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Nur Masalha
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The Nakba—a mini-holocaust for the Palestinians—is a key point in the history of Palestine and Israel: In 1948, a country and its people disappeared from international maps and dictionaries. The Nakba resulted in the destruction of much of Palestinian society, and much of the Arab and Islamic landscape was obliterated by the Israeli state—a state created by a an settler-colonial community that immigrated into Palestine in the period between 1882 and 1948. About 90 percent of the Palestinians were ethnically cleansed from the territory occupied by Israel in 1948–49—many by psychological warfare, a large number at gunpoint. After 1948, the historic Arabic names of geographical sites were replaced by newly coined Hebrew names, some of which resembled biblical names.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Marcy Jane Knopf-Newman
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Occupied lands for Israel without incorporating the people on the land—the Palestinians. This set in motion a set of practices—expropriation of land, expansion of settlements (all of them illegal), and erection of walls to prevent Palestinians from reaching their lands—that collectively constitute occupation. Palestinians in the territories thus have become outsiders who are denied access to the “inside.” Walls and Israeli roads should be understood “as an effect rather than a cause” (p. 30); the real problem is the occupation itself, which demands such practices. This has led to the division of the West Bank into “three or four large pieces, plus East Jerusalem” (p. 57). These divisions, of both Palestinians and their lands, have been codified by the Oslo negotiations, which also produced a compliant Palestinian leadership incapable of advancing the national rights of Palestinians.
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Jerusalem
  • Author: Ghada Al-Madbouh
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Hamas in Politics: Democracy, Religion, Violence is a daring attempt to analyze the thinking of Hamas as a social movement and not simply as a terrorist organization. Using a combination of political theory and empirical research, Jeroen Gunning, a lecturer in international politics at the University of Wales (and deputy director of the university's Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Contemporary Political Violence), contextualizes issues of democracy, religion, and violence as they relate to Hamas. Methodologically, Gunning offers an extensive discussion of his interpretive ethnographic fieldwork in the Gaza Strip (conducted 1997–2004), taking his analysis beyond the straightforward causality or correlation of mainstream political science. The main merit of the book, however, rests in Gunning's attempt to wed the study of Hamas's discourse to the study of its actual practices regarding religion, democracy, and violence.
  • Topic: Political Violence, Religion
  • Political Geography: Gaza
  • Author: Mark Chmiel
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 267
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Diana Buttu
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3, p. 268
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section aims to give readers a glimpse of how the Arab world views current events that affect Palestinians and the Arab-Israeli conflict by presenting a selection of cartoons from al-Hayat, the most widely distributed mainstream daily in the Arab world. JPS is grateful to al-Hayat for permission to reprint its material.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section includes articles by Israeli journalists and commentators that have been selected for their frank reporting, insightful analyses, or interesting perspectives on events, developments, or trends in Israel and the occupied territories.
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Michele K. Esposito
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The Quarterly Update is a summary of bilateral, multilateral, regional, and international events affecting the Palestinians and the future of the peace process.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Geoffrey Aronson
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section covers items-reprinted articles, statistics, and maps-pertaining to Israeli settlement activities in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East , and the Golan Heights. Unless otherwise stated, the items have been written by Geoffrey Aronson for this section or drawn from material written by him for Report on Israeli Settlement in the Occupied Territories (hereinafter Settlement Report), a Washington-based bimonthly newsletter published by the Foundation for Middle East Peace. JPS is grateful to the foundation for permission to draw on its material.
  • Political Geography: Washington, Middle East, Gaza
  • Author: Michele K. Esposito
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section is part 101 of a chronology begun in JPS 13, no. 3 (Spring 1984). Chronology dates reflect Eastern Standard Time (EST). For a more comprehensive overview of events related to the al-Aqsa intifada and of regional and international developments related to the peace process, see the Quarterly Update on Conflict and Diplomacy in this issue. 16 NOVEMBER As the quarter opens, Israel maintains its strict siege of Gaza, imposed following Hamas's 6/07 takeover of Gaza and tightened dramatically in 1/08 to allow no exports and only the bare minimum of humanitarian imports. A 6-mo. Gaza cease-fire, in place since 6/19, technically remains in effect, although significant cross-border exchanges resumed on 11/4. Israel has sealed Gaza borders completely since 11/5, allowing in an average of 5 containers/day of humanitarian aid, whereas the UN estimates that 500/day are needed to sustain the basic human needs of the 1.5 m. population. Today, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) makes an air strike on Gaza City targeting a group of Popular Resistance Comm. (PRC) mbrs. preparing to fire a rocket into Israel, killing 4 PRC mbrs. (The IDF reports that in the past 48 hrs., Palestinians have fired 20 rockets and mortars, including 2 Grad-type rockets, into Israel, causing no damage or injuries.) In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Hebron and Nablus, and nr. Bethlehem, Jenin. Israel's High Court orders Jewish settlers to evacuate the illegal outpost of Beit Shalom, in the al-Rajabi building in the Wadi al-Nassara area of Hebron, or face eviction, also declaring the State of Israel the temporary custodian of the building until ownership disputes are resolved; settlers ignored a 10/29 High Court order demanding they vacate the building within 24 hrs. (NYT 11/17; OCHA 11/19; PCHR 11/20; OCHA 11/27) 17 NOVEMBER Israel allows into Gaza 30 trucks carrying food and medicine for UNRWA, a limited amount of diesel fuel for Gaza's electricity plant. The IDF fires on a group of armed Palestinians nr. Bayt Lahiya, wounding 2. Palestinians fire 11 rockets, 1 mortar fr. Gaza into Israel, causing some damage but no injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus, in Bayt Umar and al-Fawar refugee camp (r.c.) nr. Hebron. (JP, WP 11/18; OCHA 11/19; PCHR 11/20; JP 1/22; HA 11/23) 18 NOVEMBER Israel reseals crossings into Gaza, citing continued Palestinian mortar and rocket fire. Palestinian rocket fire immediately falls to near zero. The IDF sends tanks into s. Gaza to disable roadside bombs planted along the border, trading fire with Palestinian gunmen, causing no reported injuries. The Israeli navy intercepts and confiscates 3 Palestinian fishing boats carrying fishermen and international peace activists, detaining passengers and crew (all are released on 11/19). Egyptian security forces demolish 20 smuggling tunnels on the Rafah border. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home in Issawiyya nr. East Jerusalem; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus, in Ramallah, and nr. Bethlehem and Salfit. Jewish settlers fr. Yitzhar bar Palestinian access to a nearby road, stone Palestinian vehicles. (WP, WT 11/19; OCHA 11/19; PCHR 11/20) 19 NOVEMBER In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Tulkarm, nr. Tubas. Jewish settlers fr. Beit Shalom vandalize a nearby Palestinian home. Jewish settlers close a road nr. Ramallah to Palestinian traffic, stone Palestinian vehicles. (PCHR 11/20; OCHA 11/26; PCHR 11/27) 20 NOVEMBER In Gaza, UNRWA suspends its program of cash distributions to the 100,000 poorest refugees (intended to enable them to supplement their basic food ration with fresh vegetables and other vital household supplies) because there were no Israeli shekels circulating in Gaza due to Israel's 8/08 ban on exporting currency to Gaza's banks and hoarding by Gazans. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night house searches in and around Balata r.c. and Nablus, nr. Qalqilya; occupies 4 Palestinian homes in the Wadi al-Nassara area of Hebron, restricts Palestinian movement in the neighborhood while Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba hold a celebration. (OCHA, PCHR 11/20; PCHR 11/27) 21 NOVEMBER In the West Bank, the IDF fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, percussion grenades at Palestinians holding a nonviolent protest against settlements at the evacuated settlement site of Homesh nr. Jenin (wounding 5); conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus, and nr. Bethlehem, Hebron; fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, percussion grenades at Palestinian, Israeli, international peace activists taking part in nonviolent demonstrations against the separation wall in Bil`in (10s suffer tear gas inhalation), Jayyus nr. Qalqilya (10s suffer tear gas inhalation; a Palestinian Council mbr. and PLO Exec. Comm. mbr. are detained for questioning), and Ni`lin (injuring 1). In East Jerusalem, Israeli police raid and halt a cultural event at a theater in the city organized by the Jerusalemite Youth Parliament and several local NGOs and schools, stating that it was a political event connected to the Palestinian Authority (PA), which the organizers deny. (PCHR 11/27) 22 NOVEMBER The IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem, Jenin. Jewish settlers dress in Magen David Adom (Israeli Red Cross) uniforms and, guarded by Israeli security forces, raid, seize a Palestinian home in the Aqabat al-Saraya quarter of the Old Town of East Jerusalem; the Palestinian family has lived in the home since 1931. A Palestinian who suffered a severe heart attack during an 11/9 IDF raid on his East Jerusalem home dies. (PCHR 11/27) 23 NOVEMBER The IDF conducts a late-night arrest raid in Bethlehem. An Israeli court orders settlers to evacuate the East Jerusalem home seized on 11/22; Israeli police remove the settlers but seal the second floor of the home pending a 12/2 court date to hear the settlers' case. Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba vandalize Palestinian homes nr. the al-Ibrahimi Mosque/Tomb of the Patriarchs. (PCHR 11/27) 24 NOVEMBER Israel allows 32 truckloads of humanitarian aid, limited fuel imports, and some currency imports into Gaza but maintains a ban on foreign journalists (ban now in place for more than 2 wks.). The Foreign Press Association appeals to Israel's High Court to overturn the ban. Despite receiving fuel, Gaza's power plant cannot resume operation, because its turbine batteries have died from prolonged lack of use and Israel continues to bar the import of maintenance equipment. Palestinians fire 1 rocket fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home in Azariyya; patrols in, fires on residential areas of Jenin town and r.c., causing no injuries; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches, ID checks in Qalandia r.c. nr. Ramallah. Jewish settlers fr. Beit Shalom vandalize, heavily damage at least 5 Palestinian cars. The Israeli government reaches a deal with the 45 Jewish settler families in the unauthorized outpost of Migron (among the largest unauthorized outposts) near Hebron to relocate closer to the existing authorized Jewish settlement of Adam; the families will be permitted to stay in Migron until new housing is constructed, a process expected to take years. (WP 11/25; OCHA 11/26; PCHR 11/27) 25 NOVEMBER Israel reseals Gaza's borders a day after reopening them, citing 1 Palestinian rocket fired into Israel today, causing no damage or injuries. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) estimates that Palestinians have fired 20 rockets, mortars toward Israel since 11/19, with 5 exploding at the launch site, most landing in Sederot, none causing injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Hebron and Qalandia r.c., nr. Bethlehem. (WP 11/26; OCHA 11/26; PCHR 11/27) 26 NOVEMBER In Gaza, Palestinian workers replace the Gaza power plant's damaged batteries with modified car batteries, allowing the plant to resume operation (see 11/24). In the West Bank, the IDF fires on Palestinians protesting outside Qalandia r.c. against recent IDF arrests there, seriously wounding 1 teenager; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Nablus and Balata r.c., in and around Tulkarm r.c., and in villages around Hebron, Nablus, and Ramallah (raids within each area are synchronized). Jewish settlers vandalize a Palestinian ambulance nr. Salfit. Jewish settlers fr. Beit Shalom and Kiryat Arba attack a 61-yr.-old Palestinian woman, vandalize several homes; the IDF observes but does not intervene. (OCHA 11/26; PCHR, WT 11/27; PCHR 12/4) 27 NOVEMBER Israel allows entry to Gaza of 18 tons of chlorine to disinfect drinking water, an amount sufficient to purify Gaza's water supply for 8 days; Gaza's water authority had requested 220 tons. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts synchronized, late-night house searches on several villages nr. Jenin (no arrests are reported). As rumors spread that the IDF is preparing to evict settlers fr. Beit Shalom, Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba and Beit Shalom carry out a series of attacks on nearby Palestinian neighborhoods, vandalizing homes, attacking 2 funeral processions, moderately injuring 2 Palestinians; the IDF observes but does not intervene. (OCHA 11/27; OCHA 12/3; PCHR 12/4) 28 NOVEMBER IDF troops along the s. Gaza border e. of Khan Yunis fire on a group of armed Palestinians inside Gaza, causing no injuries; troops then cross into Gaza, exchange fire with armed Palestinians, wounding 4. PRC mbrs. then fire 11 mortars fr. Gaza toward the IDF military post at Nahal Oz crossing; 3 mortars hit the base, wounding 6 IDF soldiers, 1 critically. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts an evening raid on an Internet café nr. Jenin, checking IDs and searching the premises but making no arrests; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Hebron, Jerusalem, Qalqilya, Tulkarm; conducts synchronized, late-night house searches in Tubas and neighboring al-Fara` r.c., and in 8 villages s. of Jenin, making no arrests; fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, percussion grenades at Palestinian, Israeli, international peace activists taking part in nonviolent demonstrations against the separation wall in Bil`in (injuring 1 Japanese activist), Jayyus nr. Qalqilya (injuring 2 Palestinians), and Ni`lin (injuring 2 Danish activists, 1 Palestinian teenager). Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba and Beit Shalom attack Palestinians, vandalize property in nearby Palestinian areas, seriously injuring 4 Palestinians, including a 6-yr.-old boy. Later, IDF troops close the area, take up positions on surrounding rooftops, escort 5 busloads of settlers from other parts of the West Bank into the area to "defend" the illegal Beit Shalom outpost. In the evening, the settlers rampage through Palestinian areas, burning cars, slashing tires, breaking windows of cars and homes, destroying water tanks; the IDF does not intervene. (NYT 11/29; OCHA 12/3; PCHR 12/4)
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Norbert Scholz
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Spring 2009 Compiled by Norbert Scholz Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 3 (Spring 2009), p. 395 Bibliography of Periodical Literature Bibliography of Periodical Literature This section lists articles and reviews of books relevant to Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Entries are classified under the following headings: Reference and General; History (to 1948) and Geography; Palestinian Politics and Society; Jerusalem; Israeli Politics, Society, and Zionism; Arab and Middle Eastern Politics; International Relations; Law; Military; Economy, Society, and Education; Literature and Art; Book Reviews; and Reports Received. REFERENCE AND GENERAL Aasam, `Abd al-Amir. "The Ambiguity of Freedom: The Philosophy of Freedom and the Freedom of Philosophy in Contemporary Thought" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 103-26. Abu `Arfa, `Abd al-Qadir. "The Arabs and the Question of Freedom" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 160-77. Fadlallah, Muhammad H. (interview). "The Islamic Situation: Challenges and Issues" [in Arabic]. SA, no. 129 (Sum. 08): 117-28. Ghannushi, Rashid. "Islam and Secularism" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 178-82. Hammana, Bukhari. "On Philosophy and Freedom in the Twenty-First Century" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 127-38. Hanafi, Hasan. "The Mind and Freedom: The Debate between Farah Antun and Muhammad 'Abdu" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 139-47. Jamal, Ahmad M. "The Contemporary Political Dictionary (Part 7)" [in Arabic]. ShA, no. 136 (Win. 08): 88-96. Mula, `Ali S. "Islamic Fundamentalism: Origin and Evolution" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 358 (Dec. 08): 117-34. Zarukhi, Isma`il. "Freedom in Modern Arabic Thought" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 359 (Jan. 09): 148-59. Zawi, Omar. "The Critical Intellectual Discourse on Islam: A Methodical Approach to the Thought of Muhammad Arkoun." MA 31, no. 358 (Dec. 08): 67-75. HISTORY (THROUGH 1948) AND GEOGRAPHY Ayalon, Ami. "Private Publishing in the Nahda." IJMES 40, no. 4 (Nov. 08): 561-77. Azaryahu, Maoz. "The Formation of the 'Hebrew Sea' in Pre-State Israel." JMJS 7, no. 3 (Nov. 08): 251-67. Feldestein, Ariel L. "One Meeting, Many Descriptions: The Resolution on the Establishment of the State of Israel." ISF 23, no. 2 (Win. 08): 99-114. Fine, Jonathan. "Establishing a New Governmental System: The Israeli Emergency Committee, October 1947-April 1948." MES 44, no. 6 (Nov. 08): 977-91. Green, Abigail. "Sir Moses Montefiore and the Making of the 'Jewish International'." JMJS 7, no. 3 (Nov. 08): 287-307. Greenberg, Ela. "Between Hardships and Respect: A Collective Biography of Arab Women Teachers in British-ruled Palestine." Hawwa 6, no. 3 (08): 284-314. Harte, John. "Scouting in Mandate Palestine." BCBRL 3, no. 1 (Nov. 08): 47-51. Hatuka, Tali. "Negotiating Space: Analyzing Jaffa Protest Form, Intention, and Violence, October 27th, 1933." JQ, no. 35 (Aut. 08): 93-106. Ricks, Thomas M. "Khalil Totah: The Unknown Years." JQ, no. 34 (Spr. 08): 51-77. Rood, Judith M. "Intercommunal Relations in Egyptian Jerusalem (1834-1841), Part 2." JQ, no. 34 (Spr. 08): 78-88. Tamari, Salim. "With God's Camel in Siberia: The Russian Exile of an Ottoman Officer from Jerusalem." JQ, no. 35 (Aut. 08): 31-50. ---. "With Naqat Allah in Siberia: 'Arif al-`Arif in Russian Captivity during World War I" [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 76 (Aut. 08): 109-27. Wagner, Steven. "British Intelligence and the Jewish Resistance Movement in the Palestine Mandate, 1945-46." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 5 (Oct. 08): 629-57. Weiss, Max. "Institutionalizing Sectarianism: The Lebanese Ja`fari Court and Shi`i Society under the French Mandate." Islamic Law and Society 15, no. 3 (08): 371-407. PALESTINIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY Abu Hadba, Ahmad. "The Palestinian Report, 15 May-15 August 2008" [in Arabic]. SA, no. 129 (Sum. 08): 169-210. Enders, David. "No Roads Out, No Roads Home: Palestinian Refugees in Iraq." Virginia Quarterly Review 84, no. 3 (Jul. 08): 192-207. Al-Fayyad, Salam. "The Courage to Persist, the Will to Build." PIJPEC 15, no. 3 (08): 86-91. Giacaman, George. "The Three Dilemmas of the Palestinians" [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 76 (Aut. 08): 26-30. Heacock, Roger. "Palestine, 2008: Ma zilna huna; 'Nous sommes toujours là'." CM, no. 67 (Fall 08): 21-30. Hirschfield, Robert. "Gandhi of the West Bank." Progressive 72, no. 3 (Mar. 08): 24-27. Hroub, Khaled. "Salafi Formations in Palestine and the Limits of a De-Palestinised Milieu." HLS 7, no. 2 (Nov. 08): 157-81. Jarbawi, Ali. "The Palestinian Deadlock" [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 76 (Aut. 08): 7-17. Khatib, Ghassan. "The Palestinian Crisis: A Current Crisis or the End of a Historical Role?" [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 76 (Aut. 08): 43-51. Latif, Nadia. "Making Refugees." CR 8, no. 2 (Fall 08): 253-72. Masalha, Nur. "Remembering the Palestinian Nakba: Commemoration, Oral History, and Narratives of Memory." HLS 7, no. 2 (Nov. 08): 123-56. Milton-Edwards, Beverley. "The Ascendance of Political Islam: Hamas and Consolidation in the Gaza Strip." TWQ 29, no. 8 (Dec. 08): 1585-99. Muhammad, Jibril. "The Archives' and Family Memoirs' Conference: An Attempt to Read the History of Palestinian Society" [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 76 (Aut. 08): 174-78. Nasr, Diab. "A Palestinian View on the Oxford Strategic Group Report." PIJPEC 15, no. 3 (08): 103-9. Obenzinger, Hilton. "Palestine Solidarity, Political Discourse, and the Peace Movement, 1982-1988." CR 8, no. 2 (Fall 08): 233-52. Qasim, Hashim. "An Interview with `Azmi Bishara" [in Arabic]. MA 31, no. 357 (Nov. 08): 6-20.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Ilan Pappe
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Arguing that history writing is a dialectical process fusing ideological agenda and political developments with historical evidence, the author analyzes the two major transitions experienced by the Israeli historiography of the 1948 war: from the classical Zionist narrative to the “New History” of the late 1980s, and from the latter to the emergence of a “neo-Zionist” trend as of 2000. While describing the characteristics of these trends, the author shows how they are linked to concurrent political developments. Most of the article is devoted to an examination of the neo-Zionist historians who have emerged in recent years, based on their previously untranslated Hebrew works.
  • Topic: Development, History
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Diana Abouali
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Spiritual Wayfarers, Leaders in Piety: Sufis and the Dissemination of Islam in Medieval Palestine, by Daphna Ephrat. Cambridge, MA: Center for Middle Eastern Studies of Harvard University, Harvard University Press, 2008. xi + 201 pages. Bibliography to p. 218. Index to p. 223. $19.95 paper. Diana Abouali is assistant professor in the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures at Dartmouth College.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Asia, Palestine
  • Author: Craig Larkin
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: City of Collision: Jerusalem and the Principles of Conflict Urbanism is an anthology of essays, maps, and photographs tackling the complexities and dynamism of Jerusalem's contested urban spaces. This ambitious but engaging edited volume offers a trilateral perspective (Israeli, Palestinian, and international) and a multidisciplinary approach (architecture, urbanism, geography, art, and anthropology) probing the city's fault lines, fissures, and urban connections. Visually impressive and graphically innovative, the thirty essays deal with relevant spatial and social themes, yet without offering the depth of critical analysis that might have been expected from its experienced contributors. The essays serve as mere snapshots, case studies, or brief theoretical outlines, which require further exploration, development, and, in some places, greater cogency. Despite well-organized chapters based on spatial dialectic themes (enclave/exclaves, barriers/links, etc.), it is the illuminating maps and diagrams that lend the book cohesion and distinction.
  • Topic: International Relations, Development
  • Author: Nahla Abdo
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: In Surrounded: Palestinian Soldiers in the Israeli Military , Rhoda Ann Kanaaneh, a visiting scholar at New York University's Department of Social and Cultural Analysis, discusses a contested area in the lives of Palestinians in Israel: Arabs—albeit a minority—joining the Israeli military. Considering the preexisting rigid national/ ethnic conflict and contradictions between Palestinian and Jewish citizens within a state that defines itself as Jewish, the author skillfully asks why some Palestinian Arabs voluntarily join the Israeli military. Although the phenomenon of Arab soldiering in Israel represents only a minority of this group, it remains worth exploring and this is what Kanaaneh undertakes in this book.
  • Topic: Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: New York, Israel, Arabia
  • Author: Michael Warschawski
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Israel's Vicious Circle: Ten Years of Writings on Israel and Palestine, by Uri Avnery. London: Pluto Press, 2009. x + 215 pages. Notes to p. 224. Index to p. 230. $29.95 cloth. Michael Warschawski is an author, journalist, and cofounder of the Alternative Information Center, a joint Palestinian-Israeli activist organization.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Simona Sharoni
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The Holocaust Is Over: We Must Rise from Its Ashes, by Avraham Burg. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. vii + 242 pages. Notes to p. 246. Index to p. 253. $26.95 hard; $16.00 paper. Israeli Culture between the Two Intifadas: A Brief Romance, by Yaron Peleg. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008. 148 pages. Bibliography to p. 151. Index to p. 156. $60.00 hard. Simona Sharoni, associate professor of gender and women's studies and chair of the Gender and Women's Studies Department at the State University of New York, is the author of Gender and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: The Politics of Women's Resistance (Syracuse University Press, 1995)
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: New York, Israel
  • Author: Tom Selwyn
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Itineraries in Conflict: Israelis, Palestinians, and the Political Lives of Tourism, by Rebecca L. Stein. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2008. x + 152 pages. Notes to p. 178. Bibliography to p. 204. Index to p. 219. $79.95 cloth; $22.95 paper. Tom Selwyn is professorial research associate in the Department of Anthropology, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, where he teaches the anthropology of tourism.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Israel, London, Palestine
  • Author: Amer Mohsen
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Following the 2005 assassination of Rafik Hariri, a mythology was instantly created around his person and legacy. Used extensively in the political campaign that became known as the “Cedar Revolution,” television programs, documentaries, and songs idolizing the ex-prime minister also started to fill the Lebanese airwaves and canonize Hariri as an unadulterated symbol of Lebanese nationalism, independence, and modernity. Nicholas Blanford's Killing Mr. Lebanon: The Assassination of Rafik Hariri and Its Impact on the Middle East , far from casting a critical eye on this mode of history-writing, reproduces elements of this mythology.
  • Political Geography: New York, Middle East
  • Author: Kathleen Hood
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Palestinian Arab Music: A Maqam Tradition in Practice, by Dalia Cohen and Ruth Katz. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2006. xi + 334 pages. Appendices to p. 484. Notes to p. 500. Bibliography to p. 508. Index to p. 518. $134.00 cloth; $65.00 paper. Kathleen Hood received her PhD in ethnomusicology from the University of California, Los Angeles, specializing in the music of the Near East, and is the author of Music in Druze Life: Ritual, Values, and Performance Practice (Druze Heritage Foundation, 2007).
  • Political Geography: California, Arabia, Chicago
  • Author: Walid Khalidi
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Challenging the widely accepted premise that the 1948 war was a war of Jewish self-defense, the author demonstrates that the 1947 United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) partition resolution was fundamentally a green light for the Yishuv's fully mobilized paramilitary organizations (supported by the resources of the World Zionist Organization) to effect the long-planned establishment of a Jewish state by force of arms. He further argues that as a national movement, Zionism was inherently conquest-oriented from the moment of its birth in Basel in 1897 and that it most closely resembles—in the alchemy of its religious and secular motivation and its insatiable land hunger, irredentism, and indifference to the fate of the “natives”—the Iberian Reconquista of the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries.
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Author: Rashid Khalidi
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Shafiq al-Hout was one of the original founders of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964, a member of its Executive Committee in 1966–68 and 1991–93, the long-time PLO representative in Lebanon, a prolific and talented writer and journalist, and an orator with rare gifts. He was born in Jaffa to a Palestinian family that originated in Lebanon, but lived most of his life in Beirut. Shafiq al-Hout never returned to Palestine after his family was forced to flee Jaffa for Beirut by boat in April 1948, but he always yearned for a return with dignity. He was deeply marked by the cosmopolitanism for which those two seaside cities are known.
  • Political Geography: Lebanon
  • Author: Ahmad Khalifeh, Mahmoud Soueid
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Shafiq al-Hout, founding member of the PLO and the Palestine National Council, former PLO spokesman, and longtime (1965–93) Palestinian representative in Lebanon known in recent years as an outspoken critic of Oslo and a passionate defender of the Palestinian right of return, died in Beirut on 2 August 2009 at the age of seventy-seven. To mark the passing of a figure known for his integrity and adherence to principle, JPS decided to translate a long interview al-Hout gave to our sister publication, Majallat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya (MDF), a month after the death of Yasir Arafat. While the interview focuses on Arafat and his leadership, it also illuminates, through specific incidents witnessed over a long and complicated relationship, the roots of problems that continue to plague the Palestinian national movement to this day, including the fatal confusion/overlap between Fatah and the PLO and Arafat's progressive monopolization of power. It also gives a sense of al-Hout's personality, his characteristic honesty, clear-sightedness, and fairness, his humor and passion, and goes a long way toward explaining why this inveterate “independent,” who never belonged to any Palestinian organization, remained respected and admired by Palestinian leaders across the political spectrum. The interview was conducted in Beirut on 12 December 2004 by Mahmoud Soueid, director of the Institute for Palestine Studies in Beirut, and Ahmad Khalifeh, managing editor of MDF. The full interview was published in issues 60–61 (Autumn 2004–Winter 2005) of MDF.
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Salim Tamari, Khalid Farraj, Camille Mansour
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Salam Fayyad was appointed prime minister of the Palestinian Authority (PA) on a “national emergency” basis following the Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, inaugurating the de facto system of parallel governments still in place—one headed by Fayyad in the PA-dominated West Bank, the other by Ismail Haniyeh in Gaza. Born in a village near Tulkarm in the West Bank, Fayyad received his MBA and doctorate in economics in the United States. He worked for many years with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including as the Palestine representative from 1995 until 2002, when Yasir Arafat appointed him finance minister. In that capacity, he earned the respect and trust of the international community for the leading role he played in PA financial and other reforms, gaining a reputation for straight dealing and getting things done. A political independent with an aversion to factional politics, he served as finance minister in the short-lived Hamas-dominated national unity government formed in March 2007.
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section aims to give readers a glimpse of how the Arab world views current events that affect Palestinians and the Arab-Israeli conflict by presenting a selection of cartoons from al-Hayat, the most widely distributed mainstream daily in the Arab world. JPS is grateful to al-Hayat for permission to reprint its material.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Arabia
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section includes articles by Israeli journalists and commentators that have been selected for their frank reporting, insightful analyses, or interesting perspectives on events, developments, or trends in Israel and the occupied territories.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This small sample of photos, selected from hundreds viewed by JPS, aims to convey a sense of the situation on the ground in the occupied territories during the quarter.
  • Author: Michele K. Esposito
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This quarter marked the rocky opening of a new chapter in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process as the freshly elected Israeli and U.S. administrations set to work, laying out approaches toward the peace process that were markedly different from their predecessors' and nearly diametrically opposed to each other. A major policy clash between U.S. pres. Barack Obama and Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu over settlements overshadowed most of the quarter. The other striking feature of the quarter overall was the extremely low level of Israeli-Palestinian violence. Though Israel's siege of Gaza (in place since 6/07) continued, the Gaza cease-fire held without major violations. In the West Bank, Israel scaled back routine military operations and facilitated Palestinian movement between major population centers, particularly in the north, improving trade and quality of life. At the opening of the quarter, however, Israeli-Palestinian cross-border violence in Gaza was moderate and rising while in the West Bank violence remained low. Israel's siege of Gaza, intended to pressure the Hamas government there, entered its 24th month, hampering efforts to maintain basic services and repair infrastructure and other damages from Israel's Operation Cast Lead (OCL) offensive targeting the Strip, which ended on 1/18/09 (see JPS 151 for background). Israel allowed an average of 106 truckloads/day of humanitarian goods and commodities into Gaza through Kerem Shalom crossing 6 days/week (far less that the 500 truckloads/day the UN estimated were necessary to meet Gazans' basic needs); limited fodder and seed through Qarni crossing; enough fuel through the Nahal Oz crossing to maintain emergency services and run Gaza's electricity plant at 69% capacity, as well as some cooking gas. Only a very limited number of medical cases, employees of international organizations, and VIPs were allow to transit through the Rafah and Erez crossings. Restrictions on Palestinian movement and access in the West Bank remained tight, with more than 630 Israel Defense Forces (IDF) checkpoints and roadblocks dividing the territory into 3 cantons, and Palestinian access to Jerusalem and the Jordan Valley strictly limited. As of 5/15, at least 7,516 Palestinians (including 50 Israeli Arabs and 19 unidentified Arab cross-border infiltrators), 1,090 Israelis (including 348 IDF soldiers and security personnel, 214 settlers, 528 civilians), and 64 foreign nationals (including 2 British suicide bombers) had been killed since the start of the al-Aqsa intifada on 9/28/00. Netanyahu and Obama Face Fundamental Differences As the quarter opened, the newly elected Obama and Netanyahu administrations were fully staffed and briefed, and Obama was ready to move forward with campaign pledges to take early action to revive the peace process. His hope was to meet personally with the main players in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to discuss his developing policy initiatives, as well as regional and bilateral issues, before making a major address to the Muslim world on 6/4 in fulfillment of another campaign promise. Late last quarter, he had met with Jordan's King Abdallah, tapping him as his intermediary with the Arab states (see Quarterly Update in JPS 152). Scheduled next were White House meetings with PM Netanyahu, Palestinian Authority (PA) pres. Mahmud Abbas, and Egyptian pres. Husni Mubarak (whose envoys were mediating Palestinian national unity talks, and cease-fire and prisoner release negotiations between Israel and Hamas). Netanyahu was scheduled to visit first, 5/18–19. Since its 3/31/09 inauguration, his government had been engaged in a comprehensive review of Israeli policy, with the intention of issuing its formal government platform timed with the Washington visit (see Quarterly Update in JPS 152). Even while the review was underway, however, Netanyahu had laid out a number of strong base-line positions including: (1) stating that containing the threat from Iran was more important than achieving peace with the Palestinians and Arab states; (2) demanding a halt to Iran's nuclear program and Palestinian recognition of Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state as preconditions for resuming final status talks with the Palestinians; (3) refusing to express support for a 2-state solution, preferring an “economic peace” aimed at improving Palestinian quality of life and allowing a greater measure of self-rule, while maintaining ultimate Israeli security control; (4) vowing continued Israeli settlement construction in the West Bank and East Jerusalem; and (5) pledging that a united Jerusalem would remain under sole Israeli control. The Obama administration, meanwhile, had repeatedly expressed (1) “vigorous” support for a 2-state solution and implementation of the 2003 road map plan, including an immediate and complete halt to Israeli settlement construction in East Jerusalem and the West Bank; and (2) the strong belief that progress toward Israeli-Palestinian peace would put added pressure on Iran to halt its nuclear program, meaning these 2 goals should be pursued in parallel. The U.S. had also strongly urged the Arab states (via King Abdallah) to make gestures to Israel, ideally dropping demands for the Palestinian refugees' right of return and taking preliminary steps toward normalization, to encourage Israel to come to quick final status agreements on all tracks (see Quarterly Update in JPS 152). The strong and conflicting positions of the 2 administrations raised concerns that the Obama-Netanyahu meeting would be tense and could mark the opening of a serious diplomatic dispute. As Netanyahu prepared to depart for Washington, Israeli DM Ehud Barak (5/16) and Pres. Shimon Peres (5/17) gave public assurances that Netanyahu would abide by Israel's previous agreements with the Palestinians, including the 2003 road map—which they each described as calling for “2 peoples living side by side in peace and security.” Peres also stated that progress toward this end would ultimately depend on the outcome of Palestinian national unity talks (i.e., the PA's ability to curb Hamas) and “greater Palestinian efforts to ensure Israel's security.” In fact, the 2003 agreement had not called for 2 peoples but 2 states living side by side. While the U.S. did not publicly challenge Israel's new formulation, the lack of official acknowledgement (much less welcoming) of Israel's “assurances” indicated the administration's awareness of Israel's attempt to reinterpret the road map's goal and its unwillingness to paper over core differences with an ambiguous formulation. Ultimately, Israel did not issue a formal government platform, which allowed Netanyahu a greater margin to avoid public clashes on sensitive issues. The 5/18 talks went forward as planned, with visible policy gaps but no outward tension. Statements issued afterward by Obama and Netanyahu were bland, stressing shared goals of preventing Iran from developing nuclear weapons (see Iran section below) and pursing peace between Israel and the Palestinians. Netanyahu stated that he was ready to reopen talks with the Palestinians “immediately” regarding limited self-rule, provided the Palestinians first recognized Israel as a Jewish state and agreed to “allow Israel the means to defend itself” (i.e., to retain parts of the West Bank as buffer zones). Obama publicly restated support for the creation of a Palestinian state; reiterated outstanding Israeli responsibilities under existing treaties, including stopping settlement expansion and removing restrictions on Palestinian movement and access; called on Israel to improve the humanitarian situation in Gaza; and said that Arab states had “to be more supportive and be bolder in seeking potential normalization with Israel.” The U.S. and Israel agreed to set up 3 working groups that would meet periodically to discuss progress toward: (1) peace with the Palestinians, (2) normalization with Arabs states, and (3) curbing Iran. Netanyahu went on to hold talks with Secy. of State Hilary Clinton (5/18), Defense Secy. Robert Gates (5/19), and leaders of Congress (5/19) that outwardly seemed unremarkable. Only after Netanyahu returned home did details emerge of the heated nature of the Washington talks (e.g., Washington Post [WP] 5/24, New York Times [NYT] 5/29, Ha'Aretz [HA] 6/11). In the 2-hour closed-door meeting, Obama reportedly pressed Netanyahu to support the creation of a Palestinian state. Netanyahu nuanced his position, stating that Palestinian statehood was still the ultimate goal but far in the future because Palestinian institutions and the Palestinian economy needed to develop, and Palestinian education and discourse needed time to evolve to the point of promoting coexistence. Obama pressed Netanyahu to fulfill 2003 road map obligations to halt settlement construction and remove all unauthorized settlement outposts. Netanyahu agreed to consult with his government on taking steps to remove outposts, but said he must allow expansion of authorized West Bank settlements to accommodate natural growth. He agreed to send DM Barak to Washington on 6/1 with a formal Israeli counterproposal on settlements. Netanyahu aides later revealed (HA 6/11) that the PM was “'stunned' . . . to hear what seemed like a well-coordinated attack against his stand on settlements . . . from congressional leaders, key lawmakers dealing with foreign relations, and even from a group of Jewish members” of Congress, describing their statements against settlement expansion as “harsh and unequivocal.” Historically strongly pro-Israel rep. Robert Wexler (D-FL) confirmed (5/23) that he had told Netanyahu that the mood on settlements in Washington had changed, stating that for Obama to secure “a substantive down payment on the normalization of relations with Israel” from the Arab states, Israel would have to address settlements “in a serious manner.” Another congressional aide, speaking anonymously, said Jewish lawmakers had felt “it was their responsibility to make [Netanyahu] very, very aware of the concerns of the administration and Congress.” Adding to Israel's unease, Secy. of State Clinton stated in an interview with al-Jazeera on 5/19, immediately after Netanyahu's departure: “We want to see a stop to settlement construction, additions, natural growth—any kind of settlement activity. That is what the president has called for.” Her statements reportedly (NYT 5/29) surprised Israeli officials who thought Obama would keep the settlement dispute private until Netanyahu consulted with his government. By contrast, Abbas's first meeting with Obama in Washington on 5/28, just when U.S-Israel relations were particularly tense over the settlement issue (see below), was described by U.S. officials privy to the talks as much more amicable. Obama praised the PA's stand against forming a unity government with Hamas until it renounced violence and recognized Israel's right to exist; reiterated strong U.S. support for a 2-state solution as being in the interests of the Palestinians, Israel, and the U.S.; and applauded the PA's “great progress” improving security in coordination with U.S. security envoy Lt. Gen. Keith Dayton, though he stressed that Palestinians still had much more to do to meet their requirements of improving security as laid out under the 2003 road map. Afterward, Obama publicly reiterated that Israel must build momentum for peace by halting all settlement activity and alleviating restrictions on Palestinian travel and commerce. Abbas also met with Secy. Clinton and Obama's national security adviser (NSA) Gen. James Jones. Meanwhile, Mubarak cancelled (5/20) his scheduled to visit Washington on 5/26 after the sudden death of his 12-year-old grandson. Since Obama had already announced that he would give his major address to the Muslim world in Cairo (see below), where the two could consult on the sidelines, the cancellation was not seen as a problem.
  • Political Geography: Washington, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Geoffrey Aronson
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section covers items—reprinted articles, statistics, and maps—pertaining to Israeli settlement activities in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. Unless otherwise stated, the items have been written by Geoffrey Aronson for this section or drawn from material written by him for Report on Israeli Settlement in the Occupied Territories (hereinafter Settlement Report), a Washington-based bimonthly newsletter published by the Foundation for Middle East Peace. JPS is grateful to the foundation for permission to draw on its material.
  • Political Geography: Washington, Middle East, Israel, Gaza