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  • Author: Dr. Dietrich Genschel
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The paper concentrates on the principles and prerequisites of DCAF as followed and applied in established (western) democracies. "Commonality" does not imply adherence to all principles to the same degree and in any detail. National history and tradition do condition the ways in which armed forces are structured and organized, educated, motivated and commanded. "Best practice" does not imply that there are no deviations from the principles and violations of their content. On the other hand the principles themselves take account of dangers of misuse und deviant behavior by providing corrective mechanisms. Overall the principles are guided by a vision of how best democratic and armed forces structures and behavioral features can be harmonized to the benefit of both with clear subordination of the armed forces under democratically legitimized political supremacy, without degrading efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Owen Greene
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: This paper aims to examine existing and emerging international norms and criteria relating to the security sector and security sector reform amongst EU,OSCE and OECD countries. Security sector reform agendas are wide, and this paper focuses particularly on norms and criteria relating to democratic accountability and control of the security sector. It aims to clarify ways in which normative processes in these areas could contribute to international efforts to promote and assist appropriate security sector reform (SSR).
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Nicholas Williams
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The implications of the events of September 11 are not yet fully clear. Generally, national security policies and postures take some time to appreciate the effects of strategic shifts. Even if the lessons are quickly learnt, security structures can be slow to absorb them. European defence structures and capabilities are already subject to the transformation required by the end of east-west confrontation and the arrival in the 1990s of the new demands of crisis management. Yet, over twelve years after the end of the Cold War, the necessary transformations and re-posturing of European armed forces are still under way. This is partly due to the scale of the task; partly the result of the costs of military restructuring (while banking immediately the savings arising from force reductions, Governments have preferred to invest over time in new military capabilities); and partly because there is no great sense of urgency. By definition, crisis management is a question of political choice, rather than a matter of direct national security. Developing the necessary capabilities has been an evolutionary process, subject to the need to manage new programmes within declining defence budgets.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Defense Policy, Cold War, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Zoltan Martinusz
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a brief general analysis of the democratisation of the security sector in Hungary in the decade following the political changes of 1989-1990 and highlight elements of success and failure. It must be underlined at the very beginning that the following analysis is of an experimental nature and is intended to serve more as a basis for future debate than an ultimate framework and example for similar analyses regarding other countries.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Hungary
  • Author: Robertas Sapronas
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: During the first half of the 1990s all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, were struggling through the difficult process of transition toward a democratic system and market economy. The transformations of the post Cold War era had profound effects on practically every sector of the respective societies, which had to find their new role and place in the new world.
  • Topic: Security, Cold War, Democratization, Economics
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Malcolm Chalmers
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: When countries are accepted into NATO membership, it will become more difficult to 'test' them on a pass/fail basis since, by virtue of the fact that they will have been accepted into the 'club', they will already have passed. Increasingly, therefore, some other form of process will be needed in order to promote improvements in democratic control of the armed forces in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, NATO
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Gerhard Kümmel
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The issue of Security Sector Reform (SSR) has gained quite a lot of interest within the last decade both in politics and in academia. However there is no consensus or agreement on what is actually meant by SSR and how it is to be defined. To map the scope of the debate, Timothy Edmunds (2001: 1) distinguishes two approaches to delineate what SSR refers to: "The first is concerned with those militarised formations authorised by the state to utilise force to protect the state itself and its citizens. This definition limits SSR to organisations such as the regular military, paramilitary police forces and the intelligence services. The second approach takes a wider view of SSR, defining it as those organisations and activities concerned with the provision of security (broadly defined), and including organisations and institutions ranging from, for example, private security guards to the judiciary." The first approach may be regarded as constituting something like the minimum consensus on what SSR includes and, thus, seems to be quite undisputed. Also, the examples Edmunds cites as belonging to the second approach seem to be quite legitimate, albeit with this arguably being more the case for the judiciary than for private security guards. Nevertheless, the real problems with the second approach rest in what is being put into the brackets, namely a broad definition of security. This resonates with the debate about the term, the meaning(s) and the dimensions of security. Within this debate, one may observe an extension of the contents of the term security to include, for example, ecological, cultural, and, quite recently, human dimensions (see Buzan 1991; Daase 1991; Buzan/Waever/de Wilde 1998). As a consequence, if these extended dimensions of security were included in the usage of the term security in SSR, this would surely mean overloading the concept because the number of actors involved in SSR would become legion.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Wilhelm Germann
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The new realities and challenges governing the nature of security in the post Cold War era have brought about a variety of pressing reasons for engaging in security related reforms. The inherent needs oscillate between mere adjustments of traditional concepts and force structures to today's quite different security requirements, on the one end, and comprehensive political reorientation and transformation, including the establishment of entire new national and regional security architectures, on the other.
  • Topic: Security, Cold War, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jan Jires
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an overall account of the Czech security sector reform that followed the fall of the communist regime in 1989. Especially the period starting in 1997 will be emphasized, since only that year, in connection with the on-coming accession to NATO, a really profound reform of country's security system and security sector began.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Valeri Ratchev
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international efforts in setting up a general framework and agenda for security sector reform. The text is organized in reference to the model presented by Zoltan Martinuzs. It reflects the unique Bulgarian experience from the last decade and examines the democratic credentials of the country, particularly as a candidate-member to NATO. It concentrates on the transitional issues and identifies the obstacles to a more complete democratic transformation in the overall security sector.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bulgaria
  • Author: Liviu Muresan
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The international security environment registered a dramatic change after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks. The instrument, training, scare budgets, lake of inter agencies cooperation could be sometime not only insufficient but also inadequate.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Romania
  • Author: Yuri Federov
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The motto "Yet who could guard the guards themselves?" used as the epigraph is often quoted in academic and political literature on civil-military relations. Indeed, it consists of two questions in one; both of which related to the essence of democratic transformation of the security sector in post-totalitarian societies: firstly, whether civil institutions are able to "guard the guards", in fact to control military and law-enforcement agencies, and, secondly, whether these institutions are democratically formed or they are of authoritarian or totalitarian nature.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Ljubica Jelusic
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: Until Ten-Day War in 1991, and independence after it, Slovenia was one of the six republics of the Socialist Federal republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Therefore, its security sector was part of broader Yugoslav national security system, established on the basis of a total national defence doctrine. The police was organised within republics and was controlled by the Government of the Republic. It had responsibilities towards the Federal Ministry of Interior, for example, in forming joint special police units, in common border control, etc. but it was allowed to form its own education system and to carry some special insignia, which differentiated the policemen from different republics. Since Autumn 1968, the federal armed forces had consisted of two components, federal standing army The Yugoslav People's Army (YPA), and militia units, organised within republics, Territorial Defence (TD). The system of rescue and self-protection was a part of total national defence and was also organised within republics, which followed the reality, that the types of the most dangerous natural catastrophes were very different in each republic, so, rescue and self-protection units had to be expertised in different kinds of rescue operations.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Leonid Polyakov
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The Ukrainian people are making a conscious and sincere bid for democracy, but at the same time, Ukraine has a still weak democratic system of governance. In practice it means that transparency, accountability and other essential elements in the maintenance of a democratic society in general, and in the functioning of security structures, in particular, are officially declared in Ukraine, but not consistently enforced.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Ukraine
  • Author: Ferenc Molnar
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The argument of this paper is that the early success of building DCMR does not mean real consolidation without active non-governmental actors and a dynamic civil society. Drawing attention to the non-state side of civil-military relations is crucial to improving the quality of DCMR in Hungary, and probably in general as well. The .horizontal actors. of civil-military relations could provide independent experts, or at least relatively independent experts other than the political parties. experts, for monitoring certain areas of civil-military relations. These organizations could be potential sources for civilian experts and could help decrease the level of corruption and the nonfunctional effects of political/bureaucratic coalition building between civilians and military leaders. In other words, it would improve the effective control of civilians over the military. Additionally, its role is to prevent the further alienation of citizens on military-related issues. Thus, a stronger horizontal dimension to CMR would also improve military integration into society.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Anders C. Sjaastad
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The NATO summit in Prague in the autumn of 2002 is scheduled to address the issue of further enlargement of the Alliance. Amongst the most important criteria when assessing the suitability of candidate countries will be the degree of effective parliamentary control with the armed forces, as was the case in the last round of NATO enlargement. That is also why one of the objectives in NATO's Partnership for Peace programme is that would-be members should ensure democratic control of the military. This is a well-established principle of long standing in democratic societies – and for obvious reasons. Even the most cursory look at history demonstrates the importance of ensuring, in any society, that the armed forces are subordinate to democratically elected authorities. Equally familiar are the particular problems facing the countries of Central and Eastern Europe due to the legacy of single party rule and the positions of dominance enjoyed by their military.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Aliaj Illir
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: Like the rest of the East-European countries, Albania has been going through the communist dictatorship for quite a long time, but it should be noted its communist regime differed from that of the other countries. Undeniably, Albania was the most isolated and totalitarian regime in the East. The armed forces went through one of the darkest periods of their history.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Alice Hills
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: This paper provides a baseline of knowledge and reference materials to support future work on the role of border control services in security sector reform (SSR). It summarises the current state of research on border control services in the broader context of SSR, examines the discursive field, and identifies the relevance to border services of the concept of democratic control.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Civil Society, Politics
  • Author: Daniel Zirker, Costas Danopoulos
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The pivotal role of soldiers in warfare, empire building, and national security has been the subject of epic poets, historians, and other social scientists since time immemorial. By comparison, one finds precious little on the role military officers played in domestic politics, despite the fact the soldiers overthrew emperors and other office holders, installed new ones, and influenced government decisions in prehistoric, ancient, and modern societies. Yet, beginning with WWI, a series of major political, social, and economic developments, including the travails suffered by newly independent countries,stimulated empirically oriented social scientists to seek to understand the critically important role the armed forces played in the domestic politics of old and new societies alike. This gave birth to civil-military relations as subfield of comparative politics.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Janos Matus
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance (DCAF)
  • Abstract: The changing role of the military force is one of the most complex issues of the evolving international security system. The new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe experience enormous difficulties in coping with this situation. The sources of problems are only partially financial ones. It is fair to say that difficulties other than financial and material, are even more complex and hard to solve. The proper way of dealing with the military issues is key for the solution of a number of other important problems relating to security. The governments of the new democracies will have to address two basic problems before they justifiably can expect concrete results in this field. First, the leaders of the Central and Eastern European countries will have to realized the need for a well conceived political decision-making process as a precondition for making right decisions on defense issues. This process should be able to integrate different policy options, independent expert views and input from the public as to the preferences of the citizens concerning security and defense. Second, Central and Eastern European countries need new mechanisms and institutional framework both in the governments and in the area of education and research to deliberate basic issues of security and prepare appropriate policy options.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe