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  • Author: Thomas A. Gresik
  • Publication Date: 06-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Kellogg Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Financial and real investment flexibility, tax competition, and superior economic information by transnationals both creates a rationale for corporate income taxation and limits the effectiveness of such taxation. While these factors have led to a variety of transnational tax policies, such as deferral, double taxation, apportionment, and trade rules, very few of these institutional features have been integrated into tax competition and agency models. This paper shows how the integration of investment flexibility, tax competition, and agency issues is crucial to our understanding of corporate tax policies.
  • Topic: Economics, Government, International Trade and Finance
  • Author: Marcela Szymanski
  • Publication Date: 03-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The Carter Center has a long history of engagement with Mexico with the shared goal of improving the electoral system in that country. In the early 1990s, the Center helped national observer groups to form and sent international observers to assist in domestic election monitoring. It also invited Mexicans to observe the U.S. elections in 1992. In 1994, the Center was among the first international observers to monitor elections in Mexico, and its observations helped shape electoral reforms that framed those and the 1997 elections, which the Center also observed.
  • Topic: Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Mexico
  • Author: Laura Neuman, Jennifer McCoy
  • Publication Date: 02-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Venezuela under President Hugo Chávez undertook a bold experiment to revamp its political system and address economic inequities and poverty. The country held seven votes in two years as voters chose Hugo Chávez to lead them in December 1998 and then supported his radical reform program, beginning with a new constitution. A Constitutional Assembly was elected in July 1999 to draft a new constitution, which voters approved in December 1999. Every elected position in the country was then presented to the voters again in a two-stage election in July and December 2000. While we do not believe that the election irregularities would have changed the 2000 presidential results, the significant politicization of the elections and organizational deficiencies contributed to a lack of confidence in the process and the nonpresidential results, thus leading us to characterize the July 2000 elections as flawed.
  • Topic: Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, Venezuela
  • Publication Date: 09-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: The Belgian Presidency aims to continue the work on EU conflict prevention undertaken during the Swedish Presidency by focusing on how the EU can effectively address conflicts in Africa. This conference sought to identify some of the challenges facing the Belgian Presidency and suggest concrete steps that the EU could take to ensure coherence in its development co - operation, trade, and common foreign and security policies. The conference specifically aimed to explore how the conflict prevention potential of the new EU - ACP 'Cotonou' Agreement could be realised by developing its provisions for political dialogue and the modalities for engaging civil society in conflict prevention and peacebuilding.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, Middle East
  • Author: Hugh Beach
  • Publication Date: 05-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: Cluster Weapons consist of a large number of sub-munitions (“bomblets”) which are dispensed from a metal canister in mid-air and then disperse over a distance of several hundred metres. They are inherently indiscriminate since, once dispensed, the bomblets are un-guided and a threat to military and civilians alike. Bomblets are designed to knock out armoured vehicles but can also kill people to a radius of 30-40 metres.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Herbert Wulf, Michael Brzoska
  • Publication Date: 05-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: Institutionalised or negotiated arms control at the multilateral level within the United Nations system and the bilateral level between the US and Russia fell into a state of crisis in the mid 1990s. Several factors contributed to this crisis. Firstly, with the slow but continuous disintegration of Russia's military apparatus the US emerged as the dominant power in international security relations. It has increasingly come to believe that it can control smaller states by military means and its interest in arms control has waned accordingly. Secondly, traditional arms control has proven too rigid in light of emerging post-Cold War security concerns. Regional and internal conflicts have resulted in more emphasis on UN peacekeeping operations and controlling or eliminating the weapons most commonly used in these wars (such as landmines, small arms and light weapons). When it became clear that it would not be possible to negotiate the landmines ban within traditional arms control institutions, so-called 'friendly states' began to develop new parallel fora. The Ottawa Process, which consisted of fast-track diplomatic negotiations culminating in the signing of the Landmines Convention, is an example of this new type of arms control initiative. Thirdly, the main aim of arms control is no longer stability, whereby states aim to maintain parity and build trust. Instead, the focus has turned to limiting the costs of armaments acquisition and disarmament
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Justin Sommers, Rapporteur
  • Publication Date: 11-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia Society
  • Abstract: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Asia Society are pleased to present the report of our conference entitled “The India-China Relationship: What the United States Needs to Know,” which took place in Washington, D.C., on November 30, 2001. The conference, engaging experts and policymakers both in and out of government, was one phase in a larger joint project of the two organizations that will result in a scholarly volume.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, China, South Asia, Washington, India, Asia
  • Author: Amy Korzick Garmer
  • Publication Date: 01-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: American journalism is in the midst of a transition unlike any other it has experienced in the 225-year history of the republic. Like other societal institutions, news organizations must contend with a variety of forces that are upsetting the status quo and shaping new business and cultural environments. These forces include advances in technology, demographic shifts and the changing interests of consumers, changing government regulations, market consolidation, and globalization, to name a few. The convergence of these market and cultural phenomena and the relentless advance of the information revolution have rocked the comfortably familiar culture of journalism.
  • Topic: Globalization, Industrial Policy, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Author: Craig L. LaMay
  • Publication Date: 03-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: In 1974 a global "third wave" of democratization began when a military coup in Portugal ended the dictatorship of Antonio Salazar, who himself had come to power in a military coup in 1926. Over the course of the succeeding 15 years, about 30 countries changed from various forms of nondemocratic regimes to nominally democratic ones, most dramatically in South America and Central and Eastern Europe. During this period, notable transitions from nondemocratic rule also occurred in Africa and Asia.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia, South America, Portugal
  • Author: América Rodriguez
  • Publication Date: 01-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: For the fourth year, the Aspen Institute gathered together policy analysts, industry leaders, and academics to discuss the present state—and the future—of U.S. media that is produced purposefully and strategically for U.S. minority communities. These media, which range from small weekly newspapers in Filipino communities in Northern California to transnational corporations such as Univision (Univisión) which serves the Hispanic community, were the centerpiece of a lively exchange at the Aspen Institute in Aspen, Colorado, July 13-15, 2000.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United States, California, Colorado