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  • Author: Randy Capps, Genevieve M. Kenney, Michael E. Fix
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Public health insurance coverage increased—and rates of uninsurance decreased—between 1999 and 2002 among two groups of low-income, U.S. citizen children: those with parents who are native or naturalized U.S. citizens and those with at least one immigrant parent who is not a U.S. citizen (referred to as mixed-status families). The improvements followed efforts on the part of the states and the federal government to expand coverage of children under Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) and the introduction of policies directed at improving Medicaid and SCHIP access for immigrant and non-English-speaking families. Nonetheless, more than one in five citizen children in low-income mixed-status families remained uninsured in 2002—a rate 74 percent higher than that of children with citizen parents.
  • Topic: Health, Human Welfare, Migration, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Michael E. Fix, Randy Capps, Jane Reardon-Anderson
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The share of U.S. children under age 18 with an immigrant parent or parents increased between 1999 and 2002. Poverty among these children fell slightly during the same period, and the shares with health insurance and access to a usual source of health care rose. However, most other measures of economic well-being did not change significantly between 1999 and 2002, and children of immigrants continued to face greater hardship than children of native parents.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Katherine Lotspeich, Michael Fix, Dan Perez-Lopez, Jason Ost
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The Building the New American Community demonstration project is an experiment in refugee and immigrant integration in which the cities of Lowell, Massachusetts; Nashville, Tennessee; and Portland, Oregon formed coalitions to identify integration challenges in their com m unities and address them collaboratively. These cities were assisted by a national team of policy analysts, advocates, and researchers from the Nation al Conference of State Legislatures, the National Immigration Forum, the Southeast Asia Resource Action Center, The Urban Institute, and the Migration Policy Institute.
  • Topic: Demographics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Karen C. Tumlin, Wendy Zimmermann
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The federal welfare reform act of 1996 (the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, or PRWORA) dramatically revamped the welfare system, turning it into a block grant program run by the states, imposing new, stricter work requirements and setting a five-year lifetime limit on benefit receipt. For immigrants the law did all that and much more. In a major departure from previous policy, the law sharply curtailed noncitizens' eligibility for welfare and other major federal benefits.
  • Topic: Government, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Katherine Lotspeich, Michael Fix, Dan Perez-Lopez, Jason Ost
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The Building the New American Community demonstration project is an experiment in refugee and immigrant integration in which the cities of Lowell, Massachusetts; Nashville, Tennessee; and Portland, Oregon, formed coalitions to identify integration challenges in their communities and address them collaboratively. These cities were assisted by a national team of policy analysts, advocates, and researchers from the National Conference of State Legislatures, the National Immigration Forum, the Southeast Asia Resource Action Center, The Urban Institute, and the Migration Policy Institute.
  • Topic: Demographics, Economics, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Michael E. Fix, Jeffrey S. Passel, Kenneth Sucher
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The Policy Imperative Naturalization is the gateway to citizenship for immigrants and to full membership and political participation in U.S. society. The importance of naturalization—and citizenship—has risen since the mid-1990s, when welfare and illegal immigration reform based access to public benefits and selected rights increasingly on citizenship.
  • Topic: Demographics, Government, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael E. Fix, Dan Perez-Lopez, Jeffrey S. Passel
  • Publication Date: 08-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Immigrant integration is now a key issue for communities across the nation. States and communities that had seen few immigrants as recently as 1990 are now welcoming new arrivals in unprecedented numbers. Although new immigrants continue to settle in the traditional U.S. centers of immigration—including California, Florida, New York, and Texas—the states with the currently fastest growing immigrant populations have not seen similar inflows for almost a century, if ever. According to the 2000 Census, these new destination states include North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee (at the top of the list) and other states in the Southeast, as well as states across the Midwest and up into the Pacific Northwest.
  • Topic: Demographics, Government, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, New York, California, Georgia, Texas, Florida
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael Fix, Dan Perez-Lopez, Jeffrey Passel, Leighton Ku, Chris Furgiuele, Rajeev Ramchand, Scott McNiven
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: In 1996, debates about welfare reform and immigration converged and reshaped federal policies about the eligibility of legally admitted immigrants for means-tested public benefits programs, including the Food Stamp Program (FSP), Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Before the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was enacted in 1996, legal immigrants were eligible for benefits on terms similar to those of native-born citizens. The new law significantly limited the eligibility of legally-admitted immigrants for means-tested federal benefit programs, particularly immigrants entering the United States after the welfare reform law was passed in August 1996.
  • Topic: Government, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael E. Fix
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Despite their strong attachment to the labor force, large numbers of immigrants and their families in New York and Los Angeles have low incomes, lack health insurance, and are food insecure. The most powerful predictor of poverty and hardship is their limited English skills. Legal immigrants arriving after welfare reform's enactment in 1996—who have the most restricted access to public benefits—are poorer than immigrants arriving before the law's enactment.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, New York
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael Fix, Jame Reardon-Anderson
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Children of immigrants are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18 (Van Hook and Fix 2000). One in five children in the United States is the child of an immigrant, evidence of the demographic impact of recent rapid immigration. In addition, one in four low income children is an immigrant's child (Fix, Zimmermann, and Passel 2001). But despite their demographic and policy significance, children of immigrants and their well-being are rarely studied on a national scale. In this brief, we present a number of key indicators—both positive and negative—of child well-being. The measures fall within three areas: (1) family environment, (2) physical and emotional health, and (3) access to needed services.
  • Topic: Human Welfare, Migration, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States