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  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: As available resources for official development assistance have come under strain in the past ten years, blended finance has been hailed as a means to finance development in low- and middle-income countries. Governments and international organisations are increasingly advocating the use of blended finance to fill the “financing gap” between current commitments and target levels of investment needed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Little consideration has been given to potential corruption risks in blended finance mechanisms. As a result, integrity issues in blended finance projects are understudied and poorly appreciated by many development practitioners, investors and regulators. As blended finance becomes an increasingly common instrument in development assistance, a richer understanding of the cause and impact of corrupt practices in this form of development finance is essential.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: One of the oldest weapons in Transparency International’s anti-corruption arsenal is the Integrity Pact, designed specifically to tackle corruption in public procurement – one of the biggest areas of corruption risk for governments.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Social audit is a powerful social accountability tool. It has led to the conviction of public officials for violating the right to information law in Guatemala, a 50 per cent reduction in the costs of public construction works in Peru, and cancelling an illegal education fee in Ghana. Social audit scrutinises public officials’ decisions and/or actions, looking for administrative or financial irregularities. It seeks to uncover discrepancies by comparing public documents, processes or services with how they should be. It can take many names and forms, ranging from social audits in Guatemala and anti-corruption brigades in Peru, to social auditing clubs in Ghana. This report extracts lessons from the social audits implemented by Acción Ciudadana in Guatemala, Proética in Peru and Ghana Integrity Initiative in Ghana. The report examines the social audit outcome reports and other records shared by the three Transparency International chapters, and includes an extensive review of the wider literature on social audits. Based on these experiences, the report outlines 20 key steps to implement an effective social audit.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Susan Côté-Freeman
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: While corporate responsibility initiatives have multiplied dramatically over the past 20 years there still is no universal understanding or unified approach when it comes to their concept or practice. At their worst, corporate responsibility programmes may be mere window-dressing exercises. At their best, these initiatives represent genuine attempts by companies working with stakeholders to address the great environmental, social and ethical challenges of our times.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance
  • Author: Roslyn Hees, Marie-Luise Ahlendorf, Stephanie Debere
  • Publication Date: 02-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: The idea for this handbook came from the massive humanitarian response to the Asian tsunami, when the huge levels of resources committed by the international community created concern about new opportunities for corruption. Many international development agencies have put in place corruption prevention polices tailored to development programmes, but there was a noticeable gap in policies for preventing corruption in emergencies. Based on extensive research within and beyond the humanitarian sector, as well as detailed input from the humanitarian community itself, this handbook aims to fill that gap. It offers a menu of good practice tools for preventing and detecting corruption in humanitarian operations.
  • Topic: Corruption, Humanitarian Aid, Non-Governmental Organization, International Affairs, Governance
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Strong political parties that can compete for power in fair elections are essential to modern democracies. Political parties need resources for building solid organisations and canvassing public support, yet large donations have the potential to compromise the independence of elected officials, undermining democratic values and good governance. Laws and regulations cannot always prevent the undue influence of money and private interests in politics. Transparency is essential.
  • Topic: Corruption, Non-Governmental Organization, International Affairs, Governance
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Bribery and corruption remain endemic problems in many countries, weakening governance and posing a major impediment to development. At the same time, bribery and corruption are a significant risk for companies around the world: not only must companies comply with anti-bribery legislation, but corrupt company practices are increasingly scrutinised and punished by both investors and society at large who demand that companies behave as responsible corporate citizens. To ensure compliance with laws and to manage the broader risk of corruption, firms must adopt coherent policies and systems to prevent and redress bribery and corruption.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance, Peacekeeping
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: The Business Principles for Countering Bribery were originally developed through an extensive multi-stakeholder process involving companies, non-governmental organisations and trade unions as a tool to assist enterprises to develop effective approaches to countering bribery in all of their activities.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance
  • Author: Juanita Riaño
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Transparency International's (TI) 2009 Global Corruption Barometer (the Barometer) presents the main findings of a public opinion survey that explores the general public's views of corruption, as well as experiences of bribery around the world. It assesses the extent to which key institutions and public services are perceived to be corrupt, measures citizens' views on government efforts to fight corruption, and this year, for the first time, includes questions about the level of state capture and people's willingness to pay a premium for clean corporate behaviour.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance, Law
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Anti-corruption hotlines provide a key channel for governments to receive complaints from individuals who have come into contact with or been victims of corruption. Increasingly, hotlines are being valued as a channel for citizen redress and as a barometer of the success of government anti-corruption efforts. They provide for broad feedback to governments from civil society on how well policies and institutions are working, where breakdowns occur and where responses are needed. As a service, hotlines are similar to community audits and legal advice centres in offering a means to cross-check whether campaign pledges and government promises are producing results. Yet their success in combating corruption is dependent on a number of operational, administrative, institutional and political factors — each of which this paper will attempt to address by drawing on examples from Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Kenya and Moldova.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Corruption, International Affairs, Governance
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Moldova, Azerbaijan
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: The Integrity Pact (IP) is a tool developed during the 1990s by Transparency International (TI) to help governments, businesses and civil society intent on fighting corruption in the field of public contracting. It consists of a process that includes an agreement between a government or government department (hereafter referred to as the Authority) and all bidders for a public sector contract.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Corruption, International Affairs, Governance
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corruption and its effects are a global dilemma. From small bribes paid to police officers in Bangladesh to the holding of stolen assets by banks, the impacts from these abuses on states and citizens are the same: the undermining of the rule of law, the violation of rights, opaque institutions, lost public resources and weakened national integrity.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Corruption, International Affairs, Governance
  • Author: Fritz Heimann, Gillian Dell
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: In 1997, the member states of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (the OECD Convention). The adoption of the Convention was a landmark event in the fight against international corruption representing a collective commitment to ban foreign bribery by the governments of the leading industrialised states - countries accounting for the majority of global exports and foreign investment. Because most major multinational companies are based in OECD Convention countries, the Convention was hailed as the key to overcoming the damaging effects of foreign bribery on democratic institutions, development programmes and business competition. The Convention now has 38 parties. It requires parties to make it an offence to “intentionally offer, promise or give any undue pecuniary or other advantage, whether directly or through intermediaries, to a foreign public official, for that official or for a third party, in order that the official act or refrain from acting in relation to the performance of official duties, in order to obtain or retain business or other improper advantage in the conduct of international business.”
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance
  • Author: Juanita Riaño, Robin Hodess
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corruption and bribery are complex transactions that involve both someone who offers a benefit, often a bribe, and someone who accepts, as well as a variety of specialists or intermediaries to facilitate the transaction. By perpetuating the 'abuse of entrusted power for private gain' – Transparency International's (TI) definition of corruption – both the bribe payer and bribe taker cause damage in a number of ways. Ultimately, their corrupt dealings create extreme inequity – both in markets and in societies.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Governance
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: In this report, Transparency International (TI) evaluates 42 leading oil and gas companies on their current policies, management systems and performance in areas relevant to revenue transparency in their upstream operations. Revenue transparency in this report includes three areas of corporate action where disclosure can contribute to improved accountability in the management of extractive revenues: payments to host governments, operations and corporate anti-corruption programmes. The companies are evaluated in a total of 21 countries of operation. This report is a featured product of TI's Promoting Revenue Transparency Project and attempts to characterise current levels of company revenue transparency, to point to best practices, and to suggest areas for improvement.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs, Natural Resources, Governance