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  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The plight of women in Iraq today has gone largely ignored, both within Iraqi society and by the international community. For more than five years, headlines have been dominated by political and social turmoil, the chaos of conflict and widespread violence. This has overshadowed the abysmal state of the civilian population's day-to-day lives, a result of that very turmoil and violence.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Human Rights, War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East, Arabia
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: An overview of the region up to 30 January 2009 by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (cepal) argues that the larger economies have been more directly affected by the global economic crisis (because in general they are more integrated with the global markets, especially finance), but are also better equipped to respond to it. In particular, Cepal sees South America as diverging from Central America and the Caribbean, which seem to be both less resilient in terms of their economies, and more exposed to the slump in the USA. They are being driven back to aid as the last/only resort. Mexico is in a category of its own, the most exposed to the US downturn, but as a large economy and an oil exporter, better placed to withstand the downturn than its Caribbean basin neighbours.
  • Topic: Economics, Globalization, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, Caribbean
  • Author: Duncan Green
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At the time of independence in 1964 Zambia was a middle-income country and appeared set to develop into a prosperous nation. However, the combination of a tumultuous world economy and fiscal mismanagement led to rapid economic decline, which continued unabated into the 1980s and 1990s. Average economic growth from 1990-1999 was the lowest in the region and unemployment and inflation soared, resulting in per capita incomes 50 per cent less in 1999 than they had been 25 years earlier.
  • Topic: Economics, Post Colonialism, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Bethan Emmett
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: New research by Oxfam International uncovers a hidden aspect of the global economic crisis – its impact on women workers in developing countries. Preliminary findings from Oxfam's research with women in global supply chains shows that the crisis is having a devastating impact on their livelihoods, their rights, and their families. Women are often first to be laid off, with employers leaving pay outstanding and evading legal obligations to give notice and pay compensation, and governments turning a blind eye, with devastating knock-on effects. Last year, women's wages were putting food on the table and children through school in millions of families. Now, the lives of women who were already suffering from poor labour conditions have become even more precarious.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Globalization, Political Economy, Labor Issues
  • Author: Robert Bailey
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Driven by upward trends in the number of climate - related disasters and human vulnerability to them, by 2015 the average number of people affected each year by climate-related disasters could increase by over 50 percent to 375 million. This figure will continue to rise as climate change gathers pace – increasing the frequency and/or severity of such events – and poverty and inequality force ever more people to live in high -risk places, such as flood plains, steep hillsides and urban slums, while depriving them of the means to cope with disaster.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Economics, Environment, Globalization, Poverty
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Each year, on average, almost 250 million people are affected by 'natural' disasters. In a typical year between 1998 and 2007, 98 per cent of them suffered from climate-related disasters such as droughts and floods rather than, for example, devastating but relatively rare events such as earthquakes. According to new research for this report, by 2015 this could grow by more than 50 per cent to an average of over 375 million affected by climate-related disasters each year.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The devastating impact of conflict, armed crime, and all forms of armed violence around the world is apparent for all to see. Armed violence closes schools, paralyses communities, burdens health-care systems, discourages investment and economic activity, and makes lives and livelihoods less secure. Spending on arms or arms races can divert vital funds from public services such as education and health care, and when such spending takes place without accountability and transparency, it can aggravate corruption. Individually and cumulatively, these impacts undermine sustainable development and the achievement of internationally-agreed targets such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Arms Control and Proliferation, Peace Studies, War
  • Author: Jean-Denis Crola
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Between June 2008 and July 2009, over 40 billion dollars were pledged by the main donor countries to provide emergency response to the food crisis and to sustainably invest in agriculture in developing countries. In addition, the donor and beneficiary countries, the United Nations, the World Bank and other actors called for better coordination of interventions on the ground, as well as increased investment in national strategies and policies. These two elements were identified as essential points for action in the joint statement on food security made at L'Aquila, during the last G8 summit.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A year after Israel launched its Operation Cast Lead military offensive on Gaza, on 27 December 2008, little of the extensive damage it caused to homes, civilian infrastructure, public services, farms and businesses has been repaired. As thousands of families still come to terms with loss or injury of their loved ones, they are being prevented from rebuilding their shattered society.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Political Violence, War, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Duncan Green
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At the time of independence in 1964 Zambia was a middle-income country and appeared set to develop into a prosperous nation. However, the combination of a tumultuous world economy and fiscal mismanagement led to rapid economic decline, which continued unabated into the 1980s and 1990s. Average economic growth from 1990–1999 was the lowest in the region, and unemployment and inflation soared resulting in per capita incomes 50% less in 1999 than they had been 25 years earlier.
  • Topic: Economics, Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa