Search

You searched for: Content Type Working Paper Remove constraint Content Type: Working Paper Publishing Institution Oxfam Publishing Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Oxfam Publishing Topic Economics Remove constraint Topic: Economics
Number of results to display per page

Search Results

  • Author: Marília Leão, Renato S. Maluf
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Brazil has achieved promising results in the fight against hunger and poverty. This paper describes the path toward building a new governance framework for the provision of public policies that initiated a virtuous cycle for the progressive elimination of hunger and poverty. However, it is important to emphasize that the country continues to be characterized by dynamics that generate inequalities and threaten social and environmental justice.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Poverty, Food, Governance
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Latin America
  • Author: Jennifer Leavy, Naomi Hossain
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Who wants to farm? In an era of land grabs and environmental uncertainty, improving smallholder productivity has become a higher priority on the poverty and food security agenda in development, focusing attention on the next generation of farmers. Yet emerging evidence about the material realities and social norms and desires of young people in developing countries indicates a reasonably widespread withdrawal from work on the land as an emerging norm. While de-agrarianisation is not new, policymakers are correct to be concerned about a withdrawal from the sector: smallholder productivity growth, and agricultural transformation more broadly, depend in part on the extent to which capable, skilled young people can be retained or attracted to farming, and on policies that support that retention. So who wants to farm, and under what conditions? Where are economic, environmental and social conditions favourable to active recruitment by educated young people into farming? What policy and programmatic conditions are creating attractive opportunities in farming or agro-food industry livelihoods?
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa, Latin America
  • Author: Katherine Trebeck, Malcolm Sayers
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: We live on a fragile planet which is under increased human stress, to the extent that we are transgressing several of the planetary boundaries as mapped out by the Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC). We share this planet with over seven billion fellow human beings, too many of whom face extraordinary challenges in building a life free of poverty, indignity, powerlessness and fear. While a small number of people are using the most resources, simultaneously too many are unable to lead lives in which they can flourish and live with dignity.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Alexandra Wanjiku Kelbert
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: How are rapid recent food price changes linked to climate and environmental change? How do people who are vulnerable to these changes view these links? This note explores the views of people living on low and precarious incomes on these connections, based on research designed to explore experiences of food price volatility in 2012, through qualitative research in 23 research sites in 10 countries. The research was not specifically designed to study perceptions of climate and environmental change; these views are collected here because they offer interesting, relatively unmediated insights into how people perceive the causal connections between their food security and environment across varied social and ecological settings.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Climate Change, Economics, Food
  • Author: Bowman Kimberly
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report summarizes an internal review of Women‟s Economic Leadership (WEL) programming in Asia. Conducted by an internal MEL advisor in 2013–2014, the review draws upon project documentation, evaluation reports, site visits and staff and partner interviews to try and reflect how WEL programming is being implemented by Oxfam and partners in Asia. Part of a formative evaluation activity, the report aims to help gather and consolidate good practice, based on what Oxfam project teams and partners have learned through recent experience and evaluation. There are at least four distinct topics covered in this report that may be of specific interest to readers.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Sociology
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Emma Seery, Ana Arendar
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Nthabiseng was born to a poor black family in Limpopo, a rural area in South Africa. On the same day, Pieter was born nearby in a rich suburb of Cape Town. Nthabiseng's mother had no formal schooling and her father is unemployed, whereas Pieter's parents both completed university education at Stellenbosch University and have well-paid jobs.
  • Topic: Corruption, Economics, Gender Issues, Social Stratification
  • Political Geography: South Africa
  • Author: Adam S. Posen, David G. Blanchflower
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of rises in inactivity on wages in the US economy and find evidence of a statistically significant negative effect. These nonparticipants exert additional downward pressure on wages over and above the impact of the unemployment rate itself. This pattern holds across recent decades in the US data, and the relationship strengthens in recent years when variation in participation increases. We also examine the impact of long-term unemployment on wages and find it has no different effect from that of short-term unemployment. Our analysis provides strong empirical support, we argue, for the assessment that continuing labor market slack is a key reason for the persistent shortfall in inflation relative to the Federal Open Market Committee's (FOMC) 2 percent inflation goal. Further, we suggest our results point towards using wage inflation as an additional intermediate target for monetary policy by the FOMC.
  • Topic: Economics, Markets, Labor Issues
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 09-2013
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Land distribution in Colombia is extremely unequal, with concentration of land ownership among the highest in the world, and second highest in Latin America after Paraguay. Inequality in access to land is closely linked to rural poverty, and is both a cause and a consequence of the internal armed conflict that has ravaged the country for more than half a century. During this period, violence and forced displacement have caused dispossession involving up to 8 million hectares – more than the area currently devoted to agriculture throughout the country.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Democratization, Economics, Reform
  • Political Geography: Colombia, Latin America
  • Author: Moussa Haddad
  • Publication Date: 06-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The combination in the UK of economic stagnation and public spending cuts is causing substantial hardship to people living in poverty. This amounts to a 'Perfect Storm' of falling incomes, rising prices, public service cuts, benefit cuts, a housing crisis, and weak labour rights. By making different political choices, the government can both protect people in poverty and help to stimulate economic recovery in the short term, and set the UK on the way towards economic, social and environmental sustainability in the long term.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment, Poverty, Labor Issues, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Publication Date: 09-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Climate change is making extreme weather – like droughts, floods and heat waves – much more likely. As the 2012 drought in the US shows, extreme weather means extreme food prices. Our failure to slash greenhouse gas emissions presents a future of greater food price volatility, with severe consequences for the precarious lives and livelihoods of people in poverty.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Climate Change, Economics, Food
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Jennifer Clapp, Sophia Murphy, David Burch
  • Publication Date: 08-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report is composed of two parts. The first introduces the four big commodity traders – Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), Bunge, Cargill, and Louis Dreyfus – which are the focus of this study. Collectively, these trading companies are often referred to as 'the ABCD companies' because of the coincidence of their initials. Part 2 then looks at these traders in relation to a number of the global issues pressing on agriculture: the 'financialization' of both commodity trade and agricultural production; the emergence of global competitors to the ABCDs, in particular from Asia; and some of the implications of large-scale industrial biofuels, a sector in which the ABCDs are closely involved. It includes a discussion of how smallholders in developing countries are affected by some of these changes, and highlights some development policy implications, given the importance of the ABCDs in shaping the world of food and agriculture.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Jodie Thorpe, Shelly Fennell
  • Publication Date: 06-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: What role can companies play in strengthening the capacity of small-scale producers in developing countries to adapt to climate change, and in doing so, make their global value chains more resilient? While some leading companies have made progress in taking greater responsibility for what happens throughout their supply chains, there has been little discussion about the threat that climate change poses to the livelihoods of small-scale producers. Through interviews with three companies: Starbucks, Marks Spencer, and The Body Shop, the paper examines how smallholders involved in coffee production in Colombia, sesame in Nicaragua, and cotton in Pakistan have been affected by climate change and what it means for the companies' businesses . From this research, Oxfam identifies key actions for companies to begin to address the challenges to small-scale producers, and raises questions for further discussion.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Economics, Environment, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Colombia
  • Author: Chris Warburton Brown
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report has grown out of Oxfam's commitment to tackling the poverty of black and minority ethnic (BME) women in the UK. It aims to improve our understanding of BME mothers' experiences of poverty, to address the way in which the poverty of BME mothers is hidden from conventional data collection, to raise awareness amongst policy-makers and practitioners of the material circumstances of low-income BME mothers, and to improve the ways in which poor BME women are supported to secure greater assets and resources.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Katherine Trebeck
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In the UK, persistent poverty exists alongside high economic prosperity, leading to significant inequalities in income and wealth, and in life chances and lifestyles, between individuals and communities. Scottish society is also deeply divided: 'wealthy and secure neighbourhoods are situated next to the most deprived and vulnerable communities [where]… inequality is tangible'.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Elizabeth Stuart
  • Publication Date: 04-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Economic growth in developing countries is desirable and necessary, but it is the distribution of that growth that matters for poverty reduction, rather than the pursuit of growth for its own sake.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Dirk Willenbockel
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report is a contribution to the Oxfam report: 'Growing a Better Future'. It explores a range of scenarios for food price increases to 2030 through the GLOBE model. Over and above providing a global perspective, the research provides disaggregated results for a range of countries and country groups identified by Oxfam.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Economics, Poverty, Food
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Kate Kilpatrick
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In contrast to intensive agricultural practices that require widespread forest clearing, agroforestry systems combine tree growing with the production of other crops or animals. By promoting tree planting, biodiversity, and long-term resource husbandry, agroforestry can be an economically and environmentally sustainable option for small-scale farmers who are struggling to combat the impacts of climate change. For hungry and food-insecure communities, agroforestry creates more resilient agricultural systems where the risk of crop failure is spread between diverse crops.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Economics, Environment, Food
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Bolivia
  • Author: Carol Brady
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Concern Worldwide (Concern) and Oxfam GB (Oxfam) jointly commissioned this report to look at the impacts of cash transfers (CTs) on gender dynamics both within households and communities. This report was commissioned because of the agencies' concerns that while CTs, now being used in many different emergency contexts, are expected to benefit women and contribute towards their empowerment, there was little evidence being collected to see whether this was in fact happening. The learning from this report will inform future gender sensitive CT programmes.
  • Topic: Security, Economics, Gender Issues, Food
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Indonesia, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Jeanne Frances Illo, Dante Dalabajan
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At the height of the food price crisis in 2008, the Philippines was among the countries with "severe localized food insecurity" requiring external assistance in food.3 A series of severe weatherrelated events occurred in 2009 with the total damage to the economy exceeding 100 bn pesos-more than twice the amount allocated for agriculture that year. Rice imports reached an all-time high of 2.45 million metric tons in 2010, making the Philippines the biggest rice importing country in the world that year.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Economics, Humanitarian Aid, Food
  • Political Geography: Israel, Philippines
  • Author: Deborah Itriago
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report focuses on tax policy in developing countries: who pays tax, what taxes are paid, and how. Tax policy can have a huge impact on inequality and poverty reduction, either positively or negatively, depending on what tax policies a country decides to implement. Taxation is also often at the heart of the social contract between citizens and their government, and progressive taxation is central to creating strong, democratic, and effective states.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Education, Poverty, Social Stratification, Health Care Policy
  • Author: Yada Praparpun
  • Publication Date: 02-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report analyses the impact of the current global economic crisis on women in five Southeast Asian countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. This research aims to provide up-to-date information and recommendations to policy makers in both the public and private sectors on how the economic crisis is affecting women workers in the aforementioned countries. The results of the research will be shared with civil society organizations, government agencies, regional and global institutions, academic institutions, trade unions, donor agencies, NGOs, and the media.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Simon Feeny
  • Publication Date: 02-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At a macroeconomic level, the Global Economic Crisis (GEC) has had less impact on many Pacific countries than on most other developing countries across the world. However, this does not imply that Pacific country economies are performing well. Economic growth rates for most countries in the Pacific region are expected to be low for 2009 and 2010 and the majority of economies are likely to contract on a per capita basis in these years.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Economics, Poverty, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Australia/Pacific
  • Publication Date: 03-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In October 2009, Oxfam and the European Women's Lobby (EWL) commissioned research to explore and analyse the hidden impact of the current economic recession on women's poverty in EU countries. The research was conducted with EWL member organisations, and supplemented with other research and information available at the end of 2009.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Poverty, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Elizabeth Stuart
  • Publication Date: 07-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It is a stable democracy, with an efficient and increasingly transparent government. The entire budget is published online. Strong education and health plans are in place, and the government promotes the use of generic medicines. In recent years growth has been consistently robust, at around 6 percent. The country hosts a world-renowned film festival. It has consistently sought to reform and modernize, just as the IMF and World Bank have prescribed. And, in turn, donors love to fund it. It was, for instance, one of the first countries to qualify for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) programme. So confident is the international community that its money will be in safe hands that it readily gives budget support – which is very positive, as this form of aid allows the government to fund recurrent expenditures such as teachers' and doctors' salaries, though from a donor's perspective it is more difficult to trace, in large amounts.
  • Topic: Economics, Markets, Poverty, Third World, Global Recession, Financial Crisis
  • Author: Abd Al-Karim Ismael Al-Arhabi
  • Publication Date: 08-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Central Statistics Organization is glad to present its third Women and Men Report to those who are interested in gender statistics, as a continuation in the organization's endeavor to meet the need of all the different user categories.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues
  • Political Geography: Yemen
  • Author: Rory Sullivan, Helena Viñes Fiestas, Rachel Crossley
  • Publication Date: 11-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: “We can't afford not to invest in the developing world. We all know that's where the greatest need is; but that is also where some of the greatest dynamism is.” Ban Ki Moon, UN Secretary-General speaking at the UN Global Compact Leaders Summit, June 2010.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: An overview of the region up to 30 January 2009 by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (cepal) argues that the larger economies have been more directly affected by the global economic crisis (because in general they are more integrated with the global markets, especially finance), but are also better equipped to respond to it. In particular, Cepal sees South America as diverging from Central America and the Caribbean, which seem to be both less resilient in terms of their economies, and more exposed to the slump in the USA. They are being driven back to aid as the last/only resort. Mexico is in a category of its own, the most exposed to the US downturn, but as a large economy and an oil exporter, better placed to withstand the downturn than its Caribbean basin neighbours.
  • Topic: Economics, Globalization, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, Caribbean
  • Author: Duncan Green
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At the time of independence in 1964 Zambia was a middle-income country and appeared set to develop into a prosperous nation. However, the combination of a tumultuous world economy and fiscal mismanagement led to rapid economic decline, which continued unabated into the 1980s and 1990s. Average economic growth from 1990-1999 was the lowest in the region and unemployment and inflation soared, resulting in per capita incomes 50 per cent less in 1999 than they had been 25 years earlier.
  • Topic: Economics, Post Colonialism, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Bethan Emmett
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: New research by Oxfam International uncovers a hidden aspect of the global economic crisis – its impact on women workers in developing countries. Preliminary findings from Oxfam's research with women in global supply chains shows that the crisis is having a devastating impact on their livelihoods, their rights, and their families. Women are often first to be laid off, with employers leaving pay outstanding and evading legal obligations to give notice and pay compensation, and governments turning a blind eye, with devastating knock-on effects. Last year, women's wages were putting food on the table and children through school in millions of families. Now, the lives of women who were already suffering from poor labour conditions have become even more precarious.
  • Topic: Economics, Gender Issues, Globalization, Political Economy, Labor Issues
  • Author: Robert Bailey
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Driven by upward trends in the number of climate - related disasters and human vulnerability to them, by 2015 the average number of people affected each year by climate-related disasters could increase by over 50 percent to 375 million. This figure will continue to rise as climate change gathers pace – increasing the frequency and/or severity of such events – and poverty and inequality force ever more people to live in high -risk places, such as flood plains, steep hillsides and urban slums, while depriving them of the means to cope with disaster.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Economics, Environment, Globalization, Poverty
  • Author: Duncan Green
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: At the time of independence in 1964 Zambia was a middle-income country and appeared set to develop into a prosperous nation. However, the combination of a tumultuous world economy and fiscal mismanagement led to rapid economic decline, which continued unabated into the 1980s and 1990s. Average economic growth from 1990–1999 was the lowest in the region, and unemployment and inflation soared resulting in per capita incomes 50% less in 1999 than they had been 25 years earlier.
  • Topic: Economics, Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa