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  • Author: Coghlan Christopher, Muzammil Maliha, Ingram John, Vervoort Joost, Otto Friederike, James Rachel
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: From 2010 to 2013 the world experienced a number of extreme weather events, several of which were notable for their intensity, duration, and impacts on livelihoods and food security. This report focuses on four case studies – a heat wave in Russia, flooding in Pakistan, drought in East Africa, and a typhoon in the Philippines – that represent a range of extreme weather. It analyses the impact of these extreme weather events on food security, by considering when and why threats emerge. This involves characterization of the weather events, examination of the vulnerable groups affected, and analysis of livelihoods and the role of governance and capital.
  • Topic: Security, Climate Change, Environment, Food
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Africa, Russia, Philippines
  • Author: Nick Chisholm
  • Publication Date: 08-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: On food prices: The case studies on food prices and how people are eating in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Pakistan confirm that price changes, and the impacts of such changes on households, are far more varied in space and time than national average data reveal. In turn, national price movements can clearly diverge from global prices due to a variety of country - specific factors. The case studies also demonstrate that politics and policies have a significant impact on prices: governments can directly (for good or ill) influence the wellbeing of the poor thro ugh decisions on policy instruments such as taxation and levels of subsidies. Finally, there is some evidence that prices in rural agricultural areas are more influenced by seasonal supply and demand factors than are prices in urban areas. In principle, rural producers may benefit from higher prices, but that is not usually the case for small producers, who are still net consumers of basic food commodities.
  • Topic: Food
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Kenya, Vietnam
  • Author: Coghlan Christopher, Muzammil Maliha, Ingram John, Vervoort Joost, Otto Friederike, James Rachel
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This report analyses impacts of four extreme weather events (a heat wave in Russia, flooding in Pakistan, drought in East Africa, and a typhoon in the Philippines) on food security. For each case, the nature of the extreme weather is characterized, and its impact on vulnerable people is assessed by considering when and why threats emerge, and the role of governance in the state and non - state responses to the emergency. Scenarios of the plausible impacts of increased extreme weather severity on food security and other socioeconomic parameters are presented for each case.
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Russia, Philippines, East Africa
  • Publication Date: 02-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Tens of millions of people suffer in today's humanitarian crises. In East Africa alone, over 13 million have faced a devastating food crisis. But millions of people also help their neighbours, families and communities. For example, in Pakistan, neighbours, communities and local NGOs were once again first with relief when floods struck in 2011, just as they had been in 2010, when aid agencies struggled to reach the 14 million in need of assistance.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Non-Governmental Organization, United Nations, Natural Disasters, Reconstruction
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, East Africa
  • Author: Jodie Thorpe, Shelly Fennell
  • Publication Date: 06-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: What role can companies play in strengthening the capacity of small-scale producers in developing countries to adapt to climate change, and in doing so, make their global value chains more resilient? While some leading companies have made progress in taking greater responsibility for what happens throughout their supply chains, there has been little discussion about the threat that climate change poses to the livelihoods of small-scale producers. Through interviews with three companies: Starbucks, Marks Spencer, and The Body Shop, the paper examines how smallholders involved in coffee production in Colombia, sesame in Nicaragua, and cotton in Pakistan have been affected by climate change and what it means for the companies' businesses . From this research, Oxfam identifies key actions for companies to begin to address the challenges to small-scale producers, and raises questions for further discussion.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Economics, Environment, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Colombia
  • Author: Azmat Budhani, Haris Gazdar
  • Publication Date: 06-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Indus floods of 2010-2011 were the direct cause of over 1,700 deaths and the displacement of an estimated 18 million people across Pakistan. Official estimates of the economic costs of the damage caused by the floods range from $8.74bn to $10.85bn, which include the estimated costs, early recovery for the provision of relief, rebuilding destroyed infrastructure, and other economic losses to individuals, communities, firms, and the government.
  • Topic: Political Economy, Poverty, Natural Disasters
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia
  • Author: Lucy Davies
  • Publication Date: 07-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A year has passed since the first news reports alerted the world to unnaturally heavy monsoon rains in Pakistan's north-western province of Kyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), a region already ravaged by conflict and only just recovering from the devastating earthquake of 2005. The floods that followed were of a size and scale that are difficult to conceive. Floodwaters inundated up to one-fifth of the country and affected 20 million people, destroying 1.6 million homes and leaving over 14 million people acutely vulnerable (www.pakresponse.org). Oxfam launched a fundraising appeal on 3 August 2010, asking supporters to give generously to save lives. Over $75m (PKR 6,400m, €57m, £48m) was raised by Oxfam for the relief effort in Pakistan through a range of donors: the public, donor governments, and other institutions and organisations. Together all Oxfam affiliates raised $21m (PKR 1,805m, €14m, £13m), much of this was from public sources. This was a good result given difficult economic times, and the money entrusted to Oxfam directly helped to improve the lives of over 2.4 million people. This report is intended as a tool to account to the individuals, governments, and other institutions who have given generously to Oxfam's humanitarian fund, and to partners, allies, staff and volunteers. A finance section at the end of the report provides an overview of how funds were raised and spent. And the final section focuses on 'The Future' and identifies Oxfam's plans for helping during the reconstruction phase of this emergency.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Natural Disasters, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia