Search

You searched for: Content Type Working Paper Remove constraint Content Type: Working Paper Publishing Institution Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces Topic Democratization Remove constraint Topic: Democratization
Number of results to display per page

Search Results

  • Author: Dirk Peters, Wolfgang Wagner, Cosima Glahn
  • Publication Date: 12-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: War powers have been contested between governments and parliaments throughout the history of democratic politics and political theory. On the one hand, the authorisation of standing armies, of conscription and of taxes for the purpose of waging war has been the raison d'être of early modern parliamentarianism ever since the English nobility reached a constitutional settlement in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Moreover, as few decisions potentially have a more severe impact on the lives of citizens than decisions regarding military missions, one can argue that no meaningful notion of democracy could possibly exempt them from parliamentary control (see Lord, 2008). On the other hand, theorists of democratic politics have been concerned that parliamentary influence over military deployments would threaten to undermine executive flexibility and thus hamper the effectiveness of military operations. Machiavelli, Locke, Montesquieu and de Tocqueville all argued that the executive should be able to decide autonomously over the deployment of armed forces (see Damrosch, 2002: 43; Owens and Pelizzo, 2009). Both arguments have survived significant changes in the nature of armed conflict, with self-defence and peace-support missions replacing war as legal and legitimate forms of military force (Neff, 2005).
  • Topic: Democratization, Political Theory, History, Governance
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Sandra Dieterich, Hartwig Hummel, Stefan Marschall
  • Publication Date: 12-2010
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper presents a survey of parliamentary 'war powers' based on a comprehensive and detailed review of the degrees and institutional forms of parliamentary involvement in military security policy-making. As our original research project focused on the involvement of European Union (EU) states in the recent Iraq war, we present data for the then 25 member and accession states of the EU as of early 2003. This survey of parliamentary war powers covers the legislative, budgetary, control, communicationrelated and dismissal powers of the respective parliaments relating to the use of military force. Referring to this data, we distinguish five classes of democratic nation-states, ranging from those with 'very strong' to those with only 'very weak' war powers of the respective national parliament.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Democratization, Governance, Law
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe
  • Author: Otwin Marenin
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The goal of reconstructing policing systems which embody and embrace democratic norms has achieved an honoured place on the global security agenda. The need to secure minimal levels of security in transitional, developing, war-torn and post-conflict societies, and to keep local violence and conflicts from spilling over into regional arenas, has led to numerous efforts by international actors and donors to help local states and societies construct effective and fair public security systems. The paper examines efforts by the UN but also be regional organizations, NGOs, bilateral donors and domestic political and police actors to promote and structure reforms. Sufficient examples now exist to extract and suggest lessons on the process required to establish functioning and democratic policing systems. The paper will draw on existing academic literatures, reports by governments, international organizations and NGOs, and personal interactions with actors in this field to summarize what we know, and what we still lack information on, about how to plan for and implement the restoration of policing systems.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Felipe Agüero
  • Publication Date: 04-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Military or security forces today are more likely to endanger democracy by lessening its quality and depth than by threatening its outright and swift overthrow. While the stability of new democracies is certainly not assured, the strongest concern lies with their ability to advance the rule of law and guarantee the basic liberties and needs of their citizens. In regard to the armed forces, the police, and intelligence agencies, new democracies are often poorly prepared to face up to a double challenge: developing firm institutions for the democratic control of those services, and turning them into effective tools for the protection and security of their citizens. The source of these difficulties is to be found not only in those services but also, and often primarily, in the inaction, complicit stance or active encouragement of non-democratic behavior by civilian actors in government or political society.
  • Topic: Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Democratization, Government, Intelligence
  • Author: Mindia Vashakmadze
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Periodic and genuine elections based on universal and equal suffrage are a fundamental component of democratic society. It is recognised by the international community that all human beings should have the right to vote and to stand for election. Moreover, everyone has the right of equal access to public service. The inequality or discrimination based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status should be prohibited.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Leonid Polyakov
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Since independence, the Ukraine has made progress in establishing a system of democratic civilian control over the Armed Forces. The regulatory-legal basis which governs the activity of security structures and which defines the different aspects of civil-military relations has basically been established. These regulatory-legal structures co-ordinate and oversee the activity of these security structures. Co-operation between different authorities in matter pertaining to the formation of the defence budget and the development of state programmes in the military sector is gradually improving. Ideological indoctrination has loosened its hold on Ukraine's security structures and democratic values are formally now the foundation of their activity.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Politics, Governance
  • Political Geography: Ukraine, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Herbert Wulf
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, numerous developments have significantly changed the position of the armed forces. Firstly among these developments is the fact that the vast majority of wars are no longer fought between states. Rather, today's wars and violent conflicts tend to have mostly inner societal causes (Kaldor 2001). Additionally, the observation of present day realities, especially in big urban centres of the world, shows that more people die from the day-to-day exertion of criminal violence than from warrelated causes. Inner-societal insecurity and violent conflict sometimes leads to the international community turning to military means to control and pacify the areas concerned.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Ian Leigh
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper first discusses the meaning of civil society and, in particular, its strengths and limitations. The second section considers what civil society can add to the representative democratic process. In the remaining sections, I discuss how civil society interacts with the law in a democratic state. There are two distinct aspects to this. Firstly, there are the legal and constitutional pre-conditions that allow civil society to flourish. These include issues about group autonomy, freedom of the press and of protest, including the place of civil disobedience. Secondly, there are the specific ways in which civil society can use the legal process to further its ends.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Dušan Reljic
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Media are often acclaimed as the "fourth power" in a democracy. They are hailed as the "watch-dogs" of democracy. As an integral force of civil society, the mass media is expected to play a prominent role in controlling the parliament, the government and the judiciary, in investigating whether private industrial and financial interests respect the law, sounding the alarm if the environment is polluted, and engaging in conflict prevention and resolution. Mass media are omnipresent in modern times. Perhaps, therefore, people expect omnipotence from the media.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Communism, Democratization
  • Author: Marina Caparini
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Civil society has become a popular term in academic, policy and foreign assistance circles. A significant body of literature and research has developed around the concept, and its key role in consolidating and sustaining democracy is now widely recognised by academics and policy-makers alike. Successive waves of democratisation in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe have led experts to view civil society as a crucial agent for limiting authoritarian government, strengthening the empowerment of the people, and enforcing political accountability. It is considered a crucial factor in improving the quality and inclusiveness of governance.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Latin America
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Democracy is founded on every citizen's right to take part in the management of public affairs. This requires the existence of representative institutions at all levels and, as a cornerstone, a parliament in which all components of society are represented and which has the requisite powers and means to express the will of the people by legislating and overseeing government action.
  • Topic: Democratization, Economics, Government, Politics
  • Author: Jack Petri
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: I have been asked to present brief comments on the subject of officer career management in a peacetime democracy. As I have spent much of my 30-year military career involved either directly or indirectly in the management of officers in a democracy (mostly in peace, but also in war), I am very happy to be able to share my thoughts and experience with you today.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Government, Peace Studies
  • Author: Peter Gill
  • Publication Date: 01-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: In the past thirty years throughout Europe, the Americas and more sporadically elsewhere the issue of how to institute some democratic control over security intelligence agencies has steadily permeated the political agenda. There have been two main reasons for this change. In what might be described as the 'old' democracies (North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand) the main impetus for change was scandal involving abuses of power and rights by the agencies. Typically, these gave rise to legislative or judicial enquiries that resulted in new legal and oversight structures for the agencies, some of these achieved by statutes, others by executive orders. The best known examples of these are the U.S. congressional enquiries during 1975-76 (chaired by Senator Church and Representative Pike), Justice McDonald's enquiry into the RCMP Security Service in Canada (1977-81) and Justice Hope's into the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Australia, North America, New Zealand, Western Europe
  • Author: Velizar Shalamanov
  • Publication Date: 01-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Security Sector Reform (SSR) is an essential part of transformation of the totalitarian states to democratic ones. Security was motive, tool and excuse for the Communist Parties to control totally the state, economy and society at all. As a result security sector - named Armed Forces was extremely large, powerful, secret (un-transparent), under communist party control and separated from society even using all the resources of the society, including young men for 2-3 years.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bulgaria
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: During situations of national emergencies, natural disasters, conflict and war, state institutions have to act quickly and decisively in order to divert dangers. Every state and its society need to have a competent political leadership and government agencies that are able to act efficiently. From a democratic governance point of view, however, it is equally important that the decision-making process and the resulting outcome is both accepted and valued by the people. In other words, it is essential that the processes and outcomes of the state institutions are legitimate within a democracy.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Wim F. van Eekelen
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Democracy takes many forms. The basic notion that governments derive their legitimacy from the freely expressed votes of their citizens is translated in many different parliamentary practices. Even the conceptual distinction of the three main functions of government – legislative, executive and judicial – as defined in Montesquieu's Trias Politica, seldom resulted in a complete separation of powers. In many countries the members of the executive also sit in parliament. In the US the separation between legislature and executive is the most complete. The President has wide-ranging authority; his ministers are not responsible to Congress. Nevertheless it works, because of a complicated system of checks and balances affecting both legislationand budget appropriations. In France the President of the Republic regards foreign affairs and defence as his special domain in which the cabinet, let alone parliament, has little influence. A common characteristic of Western democracy, however, is its pluralistic character in which the people elect their representatives and have a choice between different political parties. In some cases the decisions reached in parliamentary assemblies are subject to a referendum as a form of direct democracy.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, France
  • Author: Theodor H. Winkler
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: When the Berlin Wall came crashing down and the Cold War reluctantly proved, to everybody's surprise, to be truly over, there was an apparent, almost embarrassing inability to define the key parameters that would mark the new era that had obviously dawned. Even to give it a name proved difficult. The best attempt still remains “Post Cold War World”, i.e. a negative description (the absence of the Cold War) and not a positive analysis of what truly marks the emerging new international system.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Civil Society, Cold War, Democratization, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Sander Huisman
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There is no such thing as the model for democratic control of the armed forces. Perhaps more influential than constitutional arrangements; historical legacies and political cultures are setting conditions. However, a few essentials or principles of democratic oversight can be discerned. This paper aims to provide an overview of the efforts of different post-communist states in establishing democratic oversight over their armed forces. The comparative analysis is based on a study that the staff of the Centre for European Security Studies has conducted last year (Organising National Defences for NATO Membership - The Unexamined Dimension of Aspirants' Readiness for Entry) and the experiences gained from a three-year multi-national programme that CESS has started in 2001 (Democratic Control South East Europe: Parliaments and Parliamentary Staff Education Programme - DEMCON-SEE). This programme is running in seven countries: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia-Montenegro.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro
  • Author: Wilhelm Germann
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper intends to contribute to a systematic consideration of what constitutes success (or failure) in the conduct of Security Sector Reform (SSR). It deliberately refrains from commenting on the substance of the latter. Starting from the premise that realizing the principle of democratic control of armed forces in democratizing and developing countries represents the Archimedean Point and driving element within the overall reform of their respective security sectors the purpose of this paper is to review the need for a normative and methodological framework for evaluation of progress and assessment of success or failure. consider the problems involved in determining, assessing, evaluating and verifying criteria, conditions and factors that are supposed to be instrumental for the achievement of related results.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Development
  • Author: Timothy Edmunds
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Security Sector Reform (SSR) has emerged as a key concept in policy and academic circles in recent years. Its origins stem from two main areas. First, from the development community, who have increasingly acknowledged the important role that the 'security sector' plays in issues of economic development and democratisation. Second from the field of civil-military relations (CMR), particularly in relation to developments in central and eastern Europe, where post communist circumstances have led many analysts to think more holistically about key aspects of the CMR debate. SSR takes a holistic approach to the security sector that manifests itself in two ways. First, by recognising the importance of militarised formations other than the regular armed forces in (civil-military) reform efforts. Second by recognising that the role of security and security sector actors in political and economic reform is important and complex, and not simply limited to questions of military praetorianism and civilian control over the armed forces.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Dr. Dietrich Genschel
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The paper concentrates on the principles and prerequisites of DCAF as followed and applied in established (western) democracies. "Commonality" does not imply adherence to all principles to the same degree and in any detail. National history and tradition do condition the ways in which armed forces are structured and organized, educated, motivated and commanded. "Best practice" does not imply that there are no deviations from the principles and violations of their content. On the other hand the principles themselves take account of dangers of misuse und deviant behavior by providing corrective mechanisms. Overall the principles are guided by a vision of how best democratic and armed forces structures and behavioral features can be harmonized to the benefit of both with clear subordination of the armed forces under democratically legitimized political supremacy, without degrading efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Owen Greene
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper aims to examine existing and emerging international norms and criteria relating to the security sector and security sector reform amongst EU,OSCE and OECD countries. Security sector reform agendas are wide, and this paper focuses particularly on norms and criteria relating to democratic accountability and control of the security sector. It aims to clarify ways in which normative processes in these areas could contribute to international efforts to promote and assist appropriate security sector reform (SSR).
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Nicholas Williams
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The implications of the events of September 11 are not yet fully clear. Generally, national security policies and postures take some time to appreciate the effects of strategic shifts. Even if the lessons are quickly learnt, security structures can be slow to absorb them. European defence structures and capabilities are already subject to the transformation required by the end of east-west confrontation and the arrival in the 1990s of the new demands of crisis management. Yet, over twelve years after the end of the Cold War, the necessary transformations and re-posturing of European armed forces are still under way. This is partly due to the scale of the task; partly the result of the costs of military restructuring (while banking immediately the savings arising from force reductions, Governments have preferred to invest over time in new military capabilities); and partly because there is no great sense of urgency. By definition, crisis management is a question of political choice, rather than a matter of direct national security. Developing the necessary capabilities has been an evolutionary process, subject to the need to manage new programmes within declining defence budgets.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Defense Policy, Cold War, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Zoltan Martinusz
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a brief general analysis of the democratisation of the security sector in Hungary in the decade following the political changes of 1989-1990 and highlight elements of success and failure. It must be underlined at the very beginning that the following analysis is of an experimental nature and is intended to serve more as a basis for future debate than an ultimate framework and example for similar analyses regarding other countries.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Hungary
  • Author: Robertas Sapronas
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: During the first half of the 1990s all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, were struggling through the difficult process of transition toward a democratic system and market economy. The transformations of the post Cold War era had profound effects on practically every sector of the respective societies, which had to find their new role and place in the new world.
  • Topic: Security, Cold War, Democratization, Economics
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Gerhard Kümmel
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The issue of Security Sector Reform (SSR) has gained quite a lot of interest within the last decade both in politics and in academia. However there is no consensus or agreement on what is actually meant by SSR and how it is to be defined. To map the scope of the debate, Timothy Edmunds (2001: 1) distinguishes two approaches to delineate what SSR refers to: "The first is concerned with those militarised formations authorised by the state to utilise force to protect the state itself and its citizens. This definition limits SSR to organisations such as the regular military, paramilitary police forces and the intelligence services. The second approach takes a wider view of SSR, defining it as those organisations and activities concerned with the provision of security (broadly defined), and including organisations and institutions ranging from, for example, private security guards to the judiciary." The first approach may be regarded as constituting something like the minimum consensus on what SSR includes and, thus, seems to be quite undisputed. Also, the examples Edmunds cites as belonging to the second approach seem to be quite legitimate, albeit with this arguably being more the case for the judiciary than for private security guards. Nevertheless, the real problems with the second approach rest in what is being put into the brackets, namely a broad definition of security. This resonates with the debate about the term, the meaning(s) and the dimensions of security. Within this debate, one may observe an extension of the contents of the term security to include, for example, ecological, cultural, and, quite recently, human dimensions (see Buzan 1991; Daase 1991; Buzan/Waever/de Wilde 1998). As a consequence, if these extended dimensions of security were included in the usage of the term security in SSR, this would surely mean overloading the concept because the number of actors involved in SSR would become legion.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jan Jires
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an overall account of the Czech security sector reform that followed the fall of the communist regime in 1989. Especially the period starting in 1997 will be emphasized, since only that year, in connection with the on-coming accession to NATO, a really profound reform of country's security system and security sector began.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Valeri Ratchev
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international efforts in setting up a general framework and agenda for security sector reform. The text is organized in reference to the model presented by Zoltan Martinuzs. It reflects the unique Bulgarian experience from the last decade and examines the democratic credentials of the country, particularly as a candidate-member to NATO. It concentrates on the transitional issues and identifies the obstacles to a more complete democratic transformation in the overall security sector.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bulgaria
  • Author: Yuri Federov
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The motto "Yet who could guard the guards themselves?" used as the epigraph is often quoted in academic and political literature on civil-military relations. Indeed, it consists of two questions in one; both of which related to the essence of democratic transformation of the security sector in post-totalitarian societies: firstly, whether civil institutions are able to "guard the guards", in fact to control military and law-enforcement agencies, and, secondly, whether these institutions are democratically formed or they are of authoritarian or totalitarian nature.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Daniel Zirker, Costas Danopoulos
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The pivotal role of soldiers in warfare, empire building, and national security has been the subject of epic poets, historians, and other social scientists since time immemorial. By comparison, one finds precious little on the role military officers played in domestic politics, despite the fact the soldiers overthrew emperors and other office holders, installed new ones, and influenced government decisions in prehistoric, ancient, and modern societies. Yet, beginning with WWI, a series of major political, social, and economic developments, including the travails suffered by newly independent countries,stimulated empirically oriented social scientists to seek to understand the critically important role the armed forces played in the domestic politics of old and new societies alike. This gave birth to civil-military relations as subfield of comparative politics.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Janos Matus
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The changing role of the military force is one of the most complex issues of the evolving international security system. The new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe experience enormous difficulties in coping with this situation. The sources of problems are only partially financial ones. It is fair to say that difficulties other than financial and material, are even more complex and hard to solve. The proper way of dealing with the military issues is key for the solution of a number of other important problems relating to security. The governments of the new democracies will have to address two basic problems before they justifiably can expect concrete results in this field. First, the leaders of the Central and Eastern European countries will have to realized the need for a well conceived political decision-making process as a precondition for making right decisions on defense issues. This process should be able to integrate different policy options, independent expert views and input from the public as to the preferences of the citizens concerning security and defense. Second, Central and Eastern European countries need new mechanisms and institutional framework both in the governments and in the area of education and research to deliberate basic issues of security and prepare appropriate policy options.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: David Betz
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Ten years into the post-communist era the transformation of civil-military relations to democratic norms is still a major political issue with the potential to delay, complicate or even thwart the transition to democracy of many post-communist countries. This is the main lesson to be drawn regarding the promotion of the democratic control of the armed forces: the problem is exceptionally persistent. Nowhere in the Central and East European region can we point to a country that has established a totally satisfactory mechanism of civilian and democratic control of its military establishment. Even in new NATO states that have made great strides in this respect considerable problems still remain. To a large degree, the specific problems of civil-military relations differ from one post-communist country to another. The deficiencies of the current system in the Czech Republic, for example, differ qualitatively and quantitatively from those of Russia or Ukraine. Nonetheless, there are some readily identifiable causes of the persistence of the problem of civil-military relations that are consistent across all the post-communist states.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jack Petri
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper offers a survey of several key areas of defence reform, in the broader context of Security Sector Reform (SSR). It does so by presenting a number of issues that demonstrate competing challenges for MOD and military leaders in the reform process. The first section explores the concept of "pre-conditions" for defence reform, and questions the viability of what is implied as an essentially chronological ordering of reform steps or actions. The second section discusses the transition environment in terms of external assistance and what I refer to as the "art of the possible," and this in the context of pre-conditions for defence reform. The third section is a brief comment on The Search for a Security Concept for South East Europe (SEE). The final section deals with defence reform in Croatia.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Marina Caparini, Philipp Fluri
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: When the Fourth International Security Forum was held in November 2000, the idea of security sector reform (SSR) was just beginning to spread through those policy and academic communities that deal with democratisation, development, defence and foreign assistance. The emergence of the concept suggested the growing acceptance of a broader definition of security than the traditional definition focused on military security of the state. According to this broader definition, security has nonmilitary elements as well, and the object of security is not only the state, but importantly includes individuals and society more broadly. Security sector reform expands the scope of security to include "public security", or the safety of the individual from threats of crime, disorder and violence. Because security sector reform is focused on the use of public resources to provide security for citizens, there is a necessary focus in security sector reform on state (often executive) institutions and public policy. Such institutions include military forces, policing structures, paramilitary forces, intelligence agencies, border management services, the judicial system and penal institutions, as well as the state bureaucratic structures that exist to formulate policy and manage these institutions. SSR accordingly recommends a holistic approach to reforming state structures responsible for providing security. Although the policy and academic communities promoting the security sector reform concept favour a holistic approach, serious practical obstacles exist in achieving a comprehensive and integrated understanding of the enormously complex public policy domains relevant to security, and the multi-sectoral reform requirements that would inhere in a democratising state.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Marian Zulean
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: After the end of the East-West-conflict the Eastern European countries have been struggling to build market economies and democratic institutions. An important issue of democratization is the reform of the armed forces and changing civil-military relations. No one can assess the level of democratization without taking into consideration civil-military relations. Thus, the civilian control of the military has been seen as an important indicator of democratization. Internal and international actors have required the transformation of this relationship as well. In the case of Romania, public opinion as well as NATO has been asking for such a radical change. Now, after 10 years, it is very challenging to see how Eastern European countries, and Romania in particular, have succeeded in changing civil-military relations.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Alice Hills
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There now exists a broad agreement regarding appropriate standards of democratic border security within Europe. The relevance of professionalism to this convergence process is, however, problematic. Professionalism's meaning is contested and consensual trends cannot represent a 'principle of professionalism'. Yet the notion is valuable because it provides insight into what is distinctive about border services. There are, however, too many variables involved to allow for an easy linkage between professionalism, appropriate service standards, and fundamental democratic principles. The factors affecting transferability are equally complex.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Johanna Mendelson Forman
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Perhaps it is no coincidence that this workshop on civil society and civil-military relations is taking place in Prague. In the modern history of Europe Prague has become a symbol of how democracy and human rights drive a revolution. From the famous Prague Spring of 1968, where dissidents challenged the repression of the Soviet state, to the Velvet Revolution and Charter 77 that launched the breakdown of Communist rule, civil society has played a central role in challenging the state's arbitrary use of force against its own citizens. And Czech President Vaclev Havel has become a symbol of democratic dissent, not only in his own nation, but to all those who aspire to freedom and justice around the world.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: David Whittlesey
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There is broad consensus in the international development assistance community that two of the critical, interlocking building blocks in the foundation of sound democratic society are "good governance" and an engaged civil society. Though there may be quibbles as to the meaning of the concepts, there is common understanding that to arrive at the reality is damn difficult. This is especially true with societies emerging from the social, political and economic impacts of conflict, or attempting to transform from years of dictatorial and rigid governmental structures, be they communist or autocratic. It is particularly difficult in either case when addressing the issue of security sector reform. To address the transformation of military forces, policing structure, intelligence services and the judiciary in societies already struggling to overcome conflict is therefore doubly difficult.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Philipp Fluri
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: As early as in 1996, Southeast European intellectuals like Professor Tilcho Ivanov underscored the importance of defence budget transparency and prudent management for regional confidence-building in the Balkans (see ISIS Research Report No. 6/1996 "Confidence and Security in the Balkans: The Role of Transparency in Defence Budgeting") and warned simultaneously of the adverse effects of unrealistically limited defence budgets.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, National Security
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Liviu Muresan
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: From the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Romania had one of the most complex heritages of security structure becoming famous under the name of SECURITATE.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Wilhelm Germann
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper intends to contribute to a systematic consideration of what constitutes success and failure in the conduct of Security Sector Reform (SSR)1. Its purpose is of an introductory and methodological nature: to assist in preparing the grounds for an initial analysis of the potential of lessons learnt in this regard from the experience made by Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries in establishing the principle of democratic control of armed forces within the overall reform of their respective security sectors. The paper deliberately refrains from commenting in detail on the substance of SSR in CEE countries and on the results achieved so far. This aspect remains the central subject of the presentations by participants/ witnesses from the respective countries.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Intelligence is the collection, processing and dissemination of information according to the needs of a national government. Informed policymaking and decision making require adequate information and reliable analysis. Only if policymakers and decision makers are sufficiently informed about the state of the world and the likely developments, can they be expected to make sound judgments in the areas of internal and external security, national defense and foreign relations.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Istvan Szikinger
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper argues that instead of developments toward civilian control over armed forces, there is rather a tendency resulting in a growing role of armed organs in overseeing the life and all kinds of activities of the people and organisations of the civil society in Hungary. Although the country is far from being a military dictatorship, the role of the agencies empowered to use coercive means has been substantially increased.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Hungary
  • Author: Robertas Sapronas
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: During the first half of the 1990s all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, were struggling through the difficult process of transition toward a democratic system and market economy. The transformations of the post Cold War era had profound effects on practically every sector of the respective societies, which had to find their new role and place in the new world.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Cold War, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia
  • Author: Janis Arved Trapans
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Since 1991 Latvia no longer has been in the Soviet world and is intent on returning to the Western community of nations--politically, economically, and socially. Politically, Latvia has restored a democratic, parliamentary system of government. Economically, it is bringing back a free market system. Socially, it wants to have what is generally called a “civil society”. All this influences defence reform. When Latvia regained independence and the Soviet Army withdrew, according to a NATO Parliamentary Assembly Report “(All) that was left behind consisted of 26 sunken submarines and ships leaking acid, oil, and phosphorous. On this foundation Latvia began building its armed forces.” The military infrastructure was in ruins and equipment and logistical support were almost non-existent. Latvia had to build everything ab initio and that demanded resources and time. However it did not inherit a large bloc of former Warsaw Pact as the national forces of a newly sovereign state. It did not have to reduce a massive military force structure or restructure redundant defence industries, deprived of domestic markets, as many other transition states have had to do. Latvia's reform problems have been different from those in other Central European countries. In some ways, Latvia was in a less advantageous situation than other transition states, in other ways, in a better one.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, NATO, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Soviet Union, Latvia
  • Author: James Sheptycki
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper argues that democratic control of policing, transnational and otherwise, is problematic in the contemporary period because of the nature of the postmodern power system. It describes the parameters of the policing field and notes that its separate sectors have different ways of being accountable to different sets of interests. Further is describes the transnational policing regime as a global polycentric power system and argues that there is no point from which the policing field could be governed. The paper then describes policing at the 'hard edge of postmodernity' showing what is at stake. The paper advances a normative conception termed the 'constabulary ethic' and argues that this might provide a moral compass for the nascent transnational subculture of policing. The minimum social conditions necessary for the emergence of the constabulary ethic are described and the principles that provides its 'normative glue' are elucidated. The paper ends by citing some practical examples where something like the constabulary ethic has been achieved.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Globalization, International Law
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Winston Churchill once labelled the parliament as the workshop of democracy, and it goes without saying that the parliament does play a central role in any democracy, though this role may greatly vary across political systems. While parliaments may range from ornamental to significant governing partners, they have some common characteristics, which include three basic functions that they perform: representing the people, making (or: shaping) laws, and exercising oversight. Parliaments articulate the wishes of the people by drafting new laws and overseeing the proper execution of those policies by the government. In short: the parliament is the mediator between government and the people.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Democracy always implicitly presumes unlimited civilian supremacy over the command of the armed forces – anything short of that defines an incomplete democracy. But what exactly is democratic oversight, and how can we conceptualise it? Generally speaking, we see a state's system of democratic oversight as being a product of its system of government, politics, history and culture. Aditionally, as there are many different cultures and political systems, many different norms and practices of democratic oversight also exist. Consequently, and for better or worse, there is no single, definitive normative model for democratic oversight. At least several models are present, some of which appear to contradict others. Keeping this in mind, the main question of this chapter is 'how can democratic oversight be conceptualised?' The following questions relating to the issue will be addressed:
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe