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  • Author: Vanessa Rossi
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Japan's economy has suffered exceptional damage because of its high level of exposure to the massive downturn in world trade and investment, notably impacting on demand for cars, consumer electronics and investment equipment. The depth of Japan's recession looks set to be far worse than that of the US and the EU. However, the recession has also radically reshaped the global financial environment in ways that suggest unexpected opportunities for Japanese financial institutions and markets. This report reviews the outlook for Tokyo as a financial centre and the role of Japan's financial sector in the light of domestic targets as well as international trends and competition.
  • Topic: Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, Europe, Israel, Asia, Tokyo
  • Author: Paul Cornish, Rex Hughes, David Livingstone
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Cyberspace and the National Security of the United Kingdom provides a general overview of the problem of cybersecurity. The aim of the report is to inform debate and to make the case for a more coherent, comprehensive and anticipatory policy response, both nationally and internationally. In every area, society is becoming increasingly dependent upon information and communications technology (ICT). With dependency come exposure and vulnerability to misuse, criminality and even attack. Criminals and extremists are able to take advantage of the same 'global technological commons' upon which society is becoming so dependent. Cybersecurity has become a fast-moving and complex security challenge, one which requires a coordinated, agile and mutually reinforcing response from all those who benefit from the global ICT infrastructure.
  • Topic: Security, Crime, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Paola Subacchi, Robin Niblett, Alexei Monsarrat
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: What started last year as a growing international credit crunch and, by September, a global banking crisis has now spread into the real economy. International trade, investment and economic growth are all contracting. A drastic curtailment of credit, collapsing global demand and a loss of trade finance is having a devastating economic effect on both the developed and developing worlds, especially those economies that are heavily dependent on exports.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Cooperation, International Organization, International Trade and Finance, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: Europe, London
  • Author: Brian Crowe
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Even the largest EU member states are no longer in a position on their own to shape international events or the world we all live in. Acting together in the EU they have shaped the international trade agenda. They have been much less successful in foreign policy for a combination of reasons, largely lack of will and poor arrangements. The Lisbon Treaty sets out to remedy the second of these, perhaps helping also to remedy the first in a world in which that becomes increasingly vital for European interests.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Government, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: Europe, Lisbon
  • Author: Stephen Wall
  • Publication Date: 09-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Fifty years after the founding of the European Community, an enlarged EU has moved far away from the notions of creating some form of European super-state that have dominated the British debate over its EU policy. If anything, as the results of recent referenda on the EU in France, the Netherlands and Ireland have revealed, British scepticism towards complex institutional reforms is increasingly shared across Europe. Far from taking advantage of this pivotal moment to help drive the EU's future development, much of the popular and political debate in Britain questions whether it is worth being a member of the EU at all.
  • Political Geography: Britain, Europe
  • Author: Richard Dalton(ed.)
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The dispute over Iran's nuclear programme is deadlocked. Five years of negotiations, proposals, UN resolutions and sanctions have failed to achieve a breakthrough. As diplomacy struggles and Iran continues to advance its nuclear capabilities, the issue becomes ever more grave and pressing.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Oil, Weapons of Mass Destruction, International Security
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Karine Lisbonne-de Vergeron
  • Publication Date: 11-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Undoubtedly, the Chinese currently think of Europe, and of the European Union, primarily in economic terms. Since 2004, the EU has been China's first trading partner, accounting for 15% of its overall external trade in 2006, with a bilateral increase of 25% from 2005. Overall, bilateral trade between China and the EU has increased more than sixty-fold since 1978 to reach nearly €255 billion in 2006. In return, China is the EU's second largest trading partner, after the United States, and in 2006 became the largest source of EU imports, amounting to approximately €192 billion, or 14.4% of the total, a 21% increase from 2005. Over the same period, EU exports to China increased by 23% to approximately €63 billion.
  • Topic: Civil Society, International Political Economy, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: United States, China, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Bernice Lee, Antony Froggatt
  • Publication Date: 11-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: We are on the cusp of a new industrial revolution, one driven by energy and climate security concerns. Policy-makers and business leaders are beginning to calibrate decisions on trade, financing and production planning against this new reality. Central to making this vision work is enlightened thinking around the potential economic and political benefits–rather than the costs–of the transition to a low-carbon future.
  • Topic: Security, Climate Change, Environment
  • Political Geography: China, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Richard Reeve
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: In March 2005 the report of the Commission for Africa called for a sea change in the way the business community engaged in the development process in Africa. The G8 Gleneagles summit that July made a series of commitments on boosting African development, while in London a new international network was launched to bring G8 and African business leaders together to build on the momentum of the Commission and the UK's dual G8 and EU presidencies. Business Action for Africa (BAA) declared its aims as: to present a clear African and international business voice to promote growth and poverty reduction; to promote more positive, balanced perceptions of Africa; and to develop and showcase good business practice.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, United States, Japan, United Kingdom, Europe, Asia, Germany
  • Author: Dr Paul Cornish
  • Publication Date: 02-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: In early November 2006 Dame Eliza Manningham-Buller, head of Britain's Security Service (known as MI5) warned that the danger to the United Kingdom of terrorist attack was 'serious' and 'growing', with as many as thirty terrorist plots under way. She argued that 'tomorrow's threat may–I suggest will–include the use of chemicals, bacteriological agents, radioactive materials and even nuclear technology'.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe
  • Author: Paul Cornish
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction was established at the G8 summit meeting in Kananaskis, Canada in June 2002. The Kananaskis summit produced a new prescription for international cooperation in non-proliferation. The 'ten plus ten over ten' formula was intended to provide the means for tighter control over chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons and materials, initially in Russia and then elsewhere, and particularly to prevent terrorist acquisition of such devices and technologies. In the founding document of the Global Partnership, the 'Statement by G8 Leaders', the following were listed as 'among our priority concerns': the destruction of chemical weapons; the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines; the disposal of fissile materials; and finding alternative employment for former weapons scientists. The UK government had been contributing to work in this field for several years before Kananaskis, and has been a leading participant in the G8 Global Partnership since its inception.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction, International Security
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Japan, United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, Asia
  • Author: Michael Peel
  • Publication Date: 11-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Financial crime linked to Nigeria is a large and pressing problem for the British authorities, which are short of the information and resources needed to deal with it. Nigeria-related financial crime has grown in significance partly because it is not seen as a priority area. Private-sector fraudsters and corrupt public officials and British companies have profited from the general Western focus on terrorist financing, drugs and people-trafficking. Other types of corruption and money-laundering, some of which involve British business people, have often been neglected.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Britain, Africa, Europe, Nigeria
  • Author: Dr Paul Cornish
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: There is a compelling case for closer collaboration in matters of security and defence between the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The merits and necessity of such collaboration have become an enduring theme in speeches and statements concerning transatlantic security. This paper tests the rhetoric of security co- operation against the reality of NATO-EU relations, in five area.
  • Topic: NATO, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Karine Lisbonne-de Vergeron
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: India was one of the first countries to establish a diplomatic relationship with the European Union (EU), with a visit of several European-based Indian diplomats to the then EEC in 1961. However, the first summit between India and the EU – held in Lisbon in June 2000 – marks the true start of serious bilateral relations. Until then, exchanges had been primarily defined by the accord signed in 1994, which barely took matters beyond general trade points. Lisbon saw the issuance of a Joint Declaration and the signature of the EU–India Civil Aviation Cooperation Agreement, extended until the end of 2006. This wider agenda has expanded over the past five years. Particular progress was made on mutual recognition of regulations at the Hague Summit on 8 November 2004, culminating in the approval of a plan mapping out the so-called 'strategic partnership' in the course of the summit under the British presidency, in Delhi, on 7 September 2005. This consisted of a political declaration and a joint action strategy, advocating reinforced collaboration in a number of fields, including a 'dialogue on democracy', a commitment to 'multilateralism', security issues, cultural exchanges, enhanced cooperation in education within the framework of the Erasmus Mundus programme for higher education, an 'economic policy dialogue', and the encouragement of business-to-business relations. The EU further acknowledged India's role since 2004 in addressing crisis situations in its neighbourhood, especially in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
  • Topic: Security, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Europe, India, Asia, Sri Lanka
  • Publication Date: 08-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The Middle East is bedevilled by crises. The war between Hizbullah and Israel, the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians, the instability in Iraq and the dispute over Iran's nuclear programme create a climate of deep unease. Iran is involved in all these crises, to a greater or lesser degree, and its regional role is significant and growing.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Asia
  • Author: Rifat A Atun, Susan Fitzpatrick
  • Publication Date: 02-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The traditional view of the relationship between economic growth and health had emphasized the impact of economic growth on improved health. However, from the beginning of the 'human capital' revolution in economics, there was a conceptual base that health is a core contributor to an individual's human capital, while health care is clearly a desired consumption good. Now, there is strong empirical evidence from both developing and developed countries which demonstrates the two-way relationship: that economic growth improves health but improved health also significantly enhances economic productivity and growth. In fact, it is not an exaggeration to say that no society has seen sustained economic progress when it has neglected investment in its people's education and health.
  • Topic: Economics, Health
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Kirsty Hughes
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Security of natural gas supplies has resurfaced on the European energy agenda because of concerns about an anticipated rapid increase in dependence on imports from non-European suppliers–from one-third to two-thirds of demand–over the next 20 years. On a national basis, European import dependence is already an established fact: nine out of 33 European countries are more than 95% dependent on imports; only five are self-sufficient or net exporters.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Julie Smith
  • Publication Date: 05-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Europe's voters go to the polls in mid-June to elect 732 Members of the European Parliament. In the past European Parliament (EP) elections have been characterized by low turnout, with an emphasis on national rather than European issues. The evidence suggests that this year's elections will be little different despite the enlargement of the Union on 1 May.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Government, Political Economy, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jacqueline Karas, Fiona Mullins
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Emissions trading is central to the European Union's (EU) strategy to meet its climate change commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, implementing the EU Directive on emissions trading ('the Directive') is proving extremely challenging for the governments involved. In particular, governments have to prepare National Allocation Plans (NAPs) for distributing emissions allowances to industry within a very tight timeframe. More than 12,000 industrial installations across the EU and accession countries will participate in the trading system.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Markets, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Angola is no longer at war except in its Cabinda province. This report summarizes the British-Angola Forum 2003 conference which focused on whether there was a peace dividend and what the post-conflict priorities for reconstruction and development should be. The opportunities and challenges are many, but many speakers emphasized how slow post-conflict democratic change is. Key issues examined in the British-Angola Forum's 2002 conference were as pertinent as ever. The confrontation between transparency and sovereignty continues to resonate especially.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Development
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The first speaker considered the questions, 'What was expected from the internal market/ “1992” Programme?' and 'What is the single market?' The single market is the cornerstone of the EU, enshrined in Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union. It had not yet been completed but the Commission had argued, nevertheless, that EU GDP is 1.8% higher than it would have been without the single European market (SEM).
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Giacomo Luciani, Felix Neugart
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The Iraq crisis has been a disaster for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union (EU). Member countries are very visibly split in their position towards the war against the regime in Baghdad. EU institutions have been unable to agree on more than the unconditional implementation of the relevant United Nations resolutions leaving the door open for widely diverging interpretations. The challenge of the Iraq crisis does not bode well for the future of a cohesive European Foreign Policy, and the CFSP requires a fresh approach.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe, Middle East, Arabia, United Nations
  • Author: Jonathan Stern
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Security of natural gas supplies has resurfaced on the European energy agenda because of concerns about an anticipated rapid increase in dependence on imports from non-European suppliers – from one-third to two-thirds of demand – over the next 20 years. On a national basis, European import dependence is already an established fact: nine out of 33 European countries are more than 95% dependent on imports; only five are self-sufficient or net exporters.
  • Topic: Energy Policy, Industrial Policy, Markets
  • Political Geography: Europe