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  • Author: Aspen Institute
  • Publication Date: 07-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: The Aspen Institute Homeland Security Group’s statement on the Democratic National Committee Hack.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Democracy
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Juan Zarate
  • Publication Date: 04-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: Juan Zarate gives testimony to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs in the wake of the Brussels attacks
  • Topic: Terrorism, International Security
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Juan Zarate
  • Publication Date: 07-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: Juan Zarate, with a foreword from Stewart Baker, looks forward to the future as cyberattacks and intrusions become increasingly common weapons in the ever-expanding toolkit of state and non-state actors.
  • Topic: International Security, Cybersecurity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Virgílio Gibbon
  • Publication Date: 10-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: Situational crises tend to concentrate economic activity in centers where such activity already is historically more significant. As a result, financial markets — especially the organized markets — tend to coalesce around these same centers because they benefit from the higher level of liquidity that concentrated economic activity offers. This undoubtedly was one of the major causes of the waning of the financial market in Rio de Janeiro, and the hegemony conquered by São Paulo as of the 1980s.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis, Financial Markets
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Author: Kevin Rudd
  • Publication Date: 04-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Asia Society
  • Abstract: The future relationship between China and the United States represents one of the great mega-changes and mega-challenges of our age. Unlike other such changes, the consequences of China’s rise are unfolding gradually, sometimes purposefully, but most of the time imperceptibly while the world’s attention is drawn to more dramatic events elsewhere. With the rise of China, we are observing the geopolitical equivalent of the melting of the polar ice caps. Slowly the ice thins, cracks appear and one day a large sheet of ice spectac- ularly peels away. If captured on camera, the world momentarily sits up and pays attention before CNN returns our gaze to the drama of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant’s most recent atrocity.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Cooperation, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: China, America
  • Author: Denis Hadžović
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Centre For Security Studies
  • Abstract: BiH’s contributions to peacekeeping operations take place in the context of ongoing reforms to its security sector, particularly within the defense sector, which has had a great influence on the operational capacities of the Armed Forces. As per the Defence white paper of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005), the primary objective of the defense reform process was the establishment and strengthening of the state-level institutions which could function as the supreme authority on defense-related issues. Consequently, activities have focused on increasing the authority of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the supreme commander of the BiH Armed Forces, expanding the role the Parliamentary Assembly in order to exercise effective democratic control over the Armed Forces, and establishing state- level defence institutions capable of supporting the Presidency in exercising command and control over the Armed Forces. To illustrate the complexity of defence reform in BiH and its subsequent effects on the functionality of the defense sector as a whole, it is worth mentioning that the current BiH Armed Forces have been formed of ex-warning factions – the Army of the Republic of Srpska and the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina – two entities within BiH which had full control over their forces until the last defence reform in 2005.
  • Topic: Peace Studies, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Author: Armin Kržalić
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Centre For Security Studies
  • Abstract: Corruption risk assessment in the security sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the original work of authorship by a research team of the Centre for Security Studies which consisted of Denis Hadžović, project manager, Alma Kovačević, project coordinator, Aida Kržalić, project assistant, and surveyors Mirela Hodović, Emsad Dizdarević, Sabrina Berberović–Tadić and Sanjin Hamidičević. The assessment is one of the results of the „Mapping Corruption Risks in the Security Sector“ project which the CSS implemented during the period between December 2013 and August 2015. The Project was funded by the European Union.
  • Topic: National Security
  • Political Geography: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Author: Rachel Silverman, Mead Over, Sebastian Bauhoff
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Founded in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) is one of the world’s largest multilateral health funders, disbursing $3–$4 billion a year across 100-plus countries. Many of these countries rely on Global Fund monies to finance their respective disease responses—and for their citizens, the efficient and effective use of Global Fund monies can be the difference between life and death. Many researchers and policymakers have hypothesized that models tying grant payments to achieved and verified results—referred to in this report as next generation financing models—offer an opportunity for the Global Fund to push forward its strategic interests and accelerate the impact of its investments. Free from year-to-year disbursement pressure (like government agencies) and rigid allocation policies (like the World Bank’s International Development Association), the Global Fund is also uniquely equipped to push forward innovative financing models. But despite interest, the how of new grant designs remains a challenge. Realizing their potential requires technical know-how and careful, strategic decisionmaking that responds to specific country and epidemiological contexts—all with little evidence or experience to guide the way. This report thus addresses the how of next generation financing models—that is, the concrete steps needed to change the basis of payment from expenses to something else: outputs, outcomes, or impact. For example, when and why is changing the basis of payment a good idea? What are the right indicators and results to purchase from grantees? How much and how should grantees be remunerated for their achievements? How can the Global Fund verify that the basis of payment is sound—that the reported results are accurate and reliable and represent real progress against disease control goals? And what is needed to protect communities against coercion or other human rights abuses, ensuring that these new incentives do not drive unintended consequences?
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Most money and responsibility for health in large federal countries like India rests with subnational governments — states, provinces, districts, and municipalities. The policies and spending at the subnational level affect the pace, scale, and equity of health improvements in countries that account for much of the world’s disease burden: India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Fiscal transfers between levels of government can — but do not always — play an important role in turning money into outcomes at the subnational level. Well designed, transfers can help put states on a level financial playing field by equalizing spending across states and adjusting allocations for the health risks of each state’s population. Transfers can increase accountability and create incentives for greater spending or effectiveness in service delivery. But transfers are rarely designed with attention to their desired outcomes. To get to better outcomes, international experience suggests that transfers need to be reexamined and reformed along three dimensions. First, central government’s allocation of national revenues to subnational governments should respond to needs and population size. Second, transfers should generate incentives to improve subnational governments’ spending quality and performance on outcomes. Third, independent systems to monitor, evaluate, and provide feedback data on subnational performance can generate greater accountability to the central government, parliaments, and legislatures as well as to citizens. These insights are seemingly simple and suggestive, but each country starts from its own unique history that requires careful technical analysis and political savvy to define reforms with genuine potential to improve health.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Trade and Finance, Financial Markets
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 11-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Hospitals are central to building and maintaining healthy populations around the world. They serve as the first point of care for many, offer access to specialized care, act as loci for medical education and research, and influence standards for national health systems at large. Yet despite their centrality within health systems, hospitals have been sidelined to the periphery of the global health agenda as scarce financial resources, technical expertise, and political will instead focus on the expansion of accessible primary care. As a result, many hospitals in low- and middle-income countries have failed to evolve and modernize, both in operations and infrastructure, while the knowledge base on hospital effectiveness and efficiency remains small and inadequate. In turn, the standard of care and efficiency achieved by these hospitals has stagnated. The gap in treatment capacity and quality between wealthier and poorer countries—and between hospitals serving wealthier and poorer populations—is widening, just as emerging economies are poised to expand the range and depth of healthcare through universal health coverage.
  • Topic: World Health Organization, Health Care Policy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus