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  • Author: Matthew Schwartz
  • Publication Date: 09-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: This policy brief explores the oft-under examined question of state-perpetrated violence and its treatment within the global preventing and countering violence extremism (PCVE) agenda. While there has been a gradual recognition that human rights, good governance and human security are critical factors in violence prevention, PCVE policy and programming continues to focus on addressing only violence associated with specific radical ideas and is overwhelming centered on individuals and communities of particular identity groups. This agenda often obscures and disregards substantial levels of violence perpetrated by states and other actors. Against the backdrop of growing body of work highlighting the biases, inconsistencies and assumptions of mainstream radicalization theory over the past decade, a paradigm shift is long overdue. To that end, this policy brief highlights the intersections of political violence, violent extremism, and human insecurity through a series of thematic vignettes on corruption, human rights abuses, and war-making. illustrating ways in which state conduct plays a central role in manifesting or escalating political violence from which violent extremism and terrorism emerge. Recognizing the scale and magnitude of state-perpetrated violence and its role in manifesting further violence is essential for charting a new course toward a more holistic response to violent extremism that adequately accounts for and responds to a wider spectrum of political violence, including the violence perpetrated by states.
  • Topic: Corruption, Human Rights, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Rule of Law, Criminal Justice, State Violence, Impunity
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Middle East, Asia, Libya, Yemen, United Nations, Syria, Global Focus, United States of America
  • Author: Sebastien Feve, Mohammed Elshimi
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: This policy brief establishes a framework to develop and evaluate National Action Plans (NAPs) on preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE). Based on the key good practice components identified in international literature on NAPs across policy fields ranging from sustainable development to tuberculosis control, this framework aims to improve approaches to P/CVE strategic planning by national authorities. It may enable a range of stakeholders to better assess the strengths and weaknesses of new or existing P/CVE NAPs, as well as provide basic guidelines to support and further improve their development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, National Security, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: United Nations, Global Focus
  • Author: Alistair Millar
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: The UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) was established in 2004 with the core mission of supporting the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) in monitoring the implementation of counterterrorism obligations required by Security Council Resolution 1373 and facilitating technical assistance to member states to aid their implementation activities. Since 2004, however, CTED’s mandate has expanded considerably in response to the evolution of the threat and the increased number of stakeholders benefiting from CTED assessments and analyses, a group that includes not only the council itself, but also UN member states in general, regional and functional organizations, and other counterterrorism-relevant entities inside and outside the UN system. CTED’s current mandate, which authorizes it to continue operating as a Special Political Mission, expires at the end of 2017. CTED’s new Executive Director, Michèle Coninsx, was appointed in August 2017 and is expected to take up her duties in November. The mandate renewal and new Executive Director’s appointment offer opportunities to consider CTED’s future activities and focus at a time when the organizational, policy, and threat landscapes differ greatly from those that existed when it was established in 2004 and its last mandate was extended at the end of 2013. This policy brief looks at CTED’s role in light of the need to maintain and strengthen its comparative advantage in assessing member states’ counterterrorism efforts while addressing existing and emerging threats of terrorism and aligning its working methodologies with these developments. It also assesses what CTED and the CTC can do to enhance coordination with partners within and outside the UN system. It then examines the benefits and limitations of CTED’s outputs in relation to its mandate, comparative advantage, capacity, and impact, and concludes by offering some ideas and recommendations for the Security Council, the CTC, and CTED to consider for the next four years and beyond.
  • Topic: United Nations, International Security, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Multilateralism
  • Political Geography: United Nations, Global Focus
  • Author: Melissa Lefas, Junko Nozawa
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: Within the context of the Managing Juveniles in Detention Initiative established by the Global Counterterrorism Forum’s Detention and Reintegration Working Group, this policy brief puts forth guiding principles, recommendations, and considerations for the detention, rehabilitation, and reintegration of juveniles convicted of terrorism and violent extremism-related crimes in a manner that upholds the principles and safeguards of juvenile justice. Funded by the government of Australia, adopted by the Global Counterterrorism Forum, and prepared by the Global Center and the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT), it expands on the Neuchâtel Memorandum on Good Practices for Juvenile Justice in a Counterterrorism Context. The recommendations presented in the brief derive from a larger research report to be published in early 2017, prepared in collaboration with the University of Leiden. Together, the reports advance a juvenile justice approach for authorities responsible for the care of detained juvenile violent extremist offenders, drawing from good practices in international juvenile justice, the emerging body of principles and practices in the detention of adult violent extremist offenders, and the national experiences in demobilizing and reintegrating child combatants. This policy brief was adapted for the EuroVista: Probation and Community Justice Journal, available at http://euro-vista.org/.
  • Topic: Prisons/Penal Systems, Children, Counter-terrorism, Radicalization, Youth, Rule of Law, Criminal Justice
  • Political Geography: Global Focus, The Hague
  • Author: Christopher Dean
  • Publication Date: 09-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: There is considerable international interest in programs that seek to rehabilitate and reintegrate violent extremist offenders (VEOs) and prevent prisoners from becoming radicalized. There are a number of reasons for this interest, including the high social and political impact of terrorism, ongoing concerns about prisons and prisoners being especially vulnerable to radicalization to violent extremism, accounts of VEOs who initially became interested in extremism while in prison, and the increasing numbers of incarcerated VEOs in certain states, many of whom will at some point be released into wider society. Identifying and designing so-called deradicalization or disengagement programs—or perhaps more appropriately risk reduction programs—that are proven to be impactful and understanding why remains a considerable challenge. So-called what-works principles underlying programs to prevent other forms of offending behavior have been established in the criminological and forensic psychological literature over recent decades. The key what-works principles are risk, need, and responsivity. In summary, programs should (1) target those who are deemed of higher risk of reoffending and of committing serious harm (risk principle), (2) target factors that directly contribute to offending (need principle), and (3) be delivered in a way and style that maximizes learning for individuals (responsivity principle). Programs that are in accord with all three principles have been found to be more effective than those that do not. This policy brief provides a unique practitioners’ perspective on the application of so-called what-works principles, which underlie programs to prevent a variety of forms of offending behavior, to programs and interventions that aim to address violent extremism in prisons and probation. It presents a set of transparent working principles to improve the design and delivery of these programs that can hopefully be examined and tested over time to help refine our knowledge and understanding to prevent violent extremists from reoffending.
  • Topic: Prisons/Penal Systems, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Radicalization, Psychology
  • Political Geography: England, Global Focus, United States of America
  • Author: Rafia Bhulai, Allison Peters, Christina Nemr
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: Over the past few years, there has been an increase in multilateral norms and principles recognizing the critical roles of women in preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE). However, there is less attention to the practical dimensions of implementing a gender dimension into P/CVE efforts, as well as strategic coordination with the women, peace, and security (WPS) agenda and other fields, such as development and human rights, which for a long time have advanced comprehensive approaches to gender integration. This policy brief, produced by the Global Center and Inclusive Security, explores ways of enhancing a cross-sectoral approach to integrating inclusion of gender and women as a core component of the United Nations and member state P/CVE efforts while developing a closer understanding of the potential points of convergence between the P/CVE and WPS agendas. It takes stock of multilateral efforts in this area and concludes with a set of practical recommendations for UN member states, entities, and stakeholders on ways to integrate attention to gender and enhance women’s meaningful inclusion in P/CVE.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, United Nations, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Women, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Europe, United Nations, Global Focus
  • Author: Eric Rosand
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: Local, rather than national actors, are often better positioned to prevent the spread of violent extremism within their communities, including by identifying early signs of radicalization and intervening before it leads to the kind of violence we continue to see far too often in cities around the world. Supporting and sustaining such efforts globally requires, among other things, updating the international architecture for addressing terrorism and violent extremism, which has been focused almost entirely on national governments and driven by their security concerns. This policy brief highlights how multilateral fora like the United Nations and Global Counterterrorism Forum need to enhance the involvement of community-level actors in their counterterrorism and CVE discussions. More fundamentally, however, the brief calls for developing and supporting a durable sub-national cooperation architecture to facilitate collaboration and networking among the growing numbers of local actors contributing to CVE efforts. It also argues for more space for subnational actors and non-traditional stakeholders within national counterterrorism strategies to ensure inclusive and well-informed CVE approaches are central parts of such frameworks.
  • Topic: Civil Society, International Cooperation, United Nations, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: Africa, United Nations, Global Focus